Olli T Raitakari

Turku University Hospital, Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland

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Publications (664)4493.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We studied prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, its determinants, and whether achievement of recommended dietary vitamin D intake (10 μg/d) is associated with absence of hypovitaminosis D in adults. The study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. We collected serum samples of 25-hydroxyvitamin D as part of the 27-year follow-up (994 men and 1,210 women aged 30-45 years). Hypovitaminosis was defined as vitamin D concentration ≤ 50 nmol/L. Hypovitaminosis D was found in 38% of men and 34% of women. Dietary vitamin D intake (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.93), use of vitamin-mineral supplements (0.66, 0.51-0.85), sunny holiday (0.55, 0.41-0.75), and oral contraceptive use in women (0.45, 0.27-0.75) were independently associated with reduced odds of hypovitaminosis. Increase in body mass index (1.06, 1.03-1.09), being a smoker (1.36, 0.97-1.92), investigation month (December versus other) (1.35, 1.12-1.61), and risk alleles in genotypes rs12785878 (1.31, 1.00-1.70) and rs2282679 (2.08, 1.66-2.60) increased odds of hypovitaminosis. Hypovitaminosis D was common also when recommended dietary intake was obtained (men 29%, women 24%). Several factors were associated with hypovitaminosis D. The condition was common even when recommended vitamin D intake was reported. The results support the importance of vitamin D fortification and nutrient supplement use.
    Annals of Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/07853890.2015.1020860 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated associations of pre-clinical coronary heart disease (CHD), adolescence and adulthood CHD risk factors, and epicardial fat volume (EFV), which is thought to influence CHD pathology. EFV and coronary calcium scores were quantified using computed tomography imaging for 557 subjects from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 2007. CHD risk marker levels were assessed repeatedly from 1980 to 2007. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid distensibility, and brachial flow-mediated dilatation were measured by vascular ultrasound in 2007. Increased EFV was cross-sectionally associated with male sex, increased waist circumference, body-mass index (BMI), cIMT, metabolic syndrome prevalence, levels of apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, insulin, and fasting glucose, as well as ever smoking, alcoholic intake, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), carotid distensibility and physical activity in adulthood. In BMI-adjusted analyses, only apolipoprotein B, ever smoking, alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome prevalence were independently associated with EFV. In adolescence, skinfold thickness, BMI, and insulin levels were higher and HDL-C lower with increasing EFV. Subjects in the lowest vs. highest quarter of EFV had consistently lower BMI across the early life-course. Associations of CHD risk markers with EFV were attenuated after multivariable adjustment. We found no evidence of increased EFV being independently associated with pre-clinical atherosclerosis. EFV was most strongly associated with BMI and waist circumference. Subjects with higher EFV had consistently higher BMI from age 12 suggesting that life-long exposure to higher BMI influences the development of EFV. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    04/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jev085
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    ABSTRACT: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin (PCSK) enzymes cleave and convert their immature substrates into biologically active forms. Polymorphisms in the PCSK genes have been reported to associate with human diseases and phenotypes, including hypercholesterolemia and blood pressure (BP), and targeting PCSKs is considered a promising future form of drug therapy. PCSK processing is readily induced upon upregulation of the enzyme, but the genetic factors contributing to PCSK expression have not been thoroughly characterized. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the genetic regulation of PCSK expression, we performed, for the first time, a genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis using mRNA expression in >1400 human peripheral blood samples from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and ca. ten million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The expression data showed clear expression for FURIN, PCSK5, PCSK7 and MBTPS1 (membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 1) mRNAs in virtually all tested samples. A discovery analysis demonstrated a genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10(-8)) association with the selected PCSK probes for 1024 variants, which were located at ten independent loci. Of these loci, 5/10 could be confirmed to regulate PCSK expression in two additional and independent sample sets. Finally, a phenotypic analysis demonstrated that a novel cis-eQTL SNP rs4702 for FURIN is strongly associated with both diastolic (p = 0.012) and systolic (p = 0.035) BP levels, as well as peripheral vascular resistance (p = 0.003). These findings indicate that the expression of the PCSK enzymes is regulated by genetic factors, which have biological roles in health and disease.
    Human Genetics 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00439-015-1546-5 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -The association between passive smoking exposure in childhood and adverse cardiovascular health in adulthood is not well understood. Using a 26-year follow-up study, we examined if childhood exposure to passive smoking was associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque in young adults. -Participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (N=2,448). Information on childhood exposure to parental smoking was collected in 1980 and 1983. Carotid ultrasound data was collected in adulthood in 2001 or 2007. Childhood serum cotinine levels from 1980 were measured from frozen samples in 2014 (N=1,578). The proportion of children with non-detectable cotinine levels was highest among households where neither parent smoked (84%), decreased in households where one parent smoked (62%), and was lowest among households where both parents smoked (43%). Irrespective of adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, the relative risk (RR) of developing carotid plaque in adulthood increased among those where one or both parents smoked (RR=1.7, 95%CI=1.0-2.8, P=0.04). Although children whose parents exercised good "smoking hygiene" (smoking parents whose children had non-detectable cotinine levels) had increased risk of carotid plaque compared with non-smoking parents (RR=1.6, 95%CI=0.6-4.0, P=0.34), children of smoking parents with poor smoking hygiene (smoking parents whose children had detectable serum cotinine levels) had substantially increased risk of plaque as adults (RR=4.0, 95%CI=1.7-9.8, P=0.002). -Children of parents that smoke have increased risk of developing carotid atherosclerotic plaque in adulthood. However, parents who exercise good smoking hygiene can lessen their child's risk of developing plaque.
    Circulation 03/2015; 131(14). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013485 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Heart Association recently defined 7 ideal health behaviors and factors that can be used to monitor ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) over time. These relate to smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood glucose and total cholesterol. Associations between repeated measures of ICH across the life-course with outcomes of subclinical atherosclerosis in adult life have not been reported. The sample comprised 1465 children and young adults aged 12 to 24years (mean age 17.5years) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort. Participants were followed-up for 21years since baseline (1986) and had complete ICH data available at baseline and follow-up. Average lifetime ICH index was associated with reduced risk of coronary artery calcification (CAC) (P=0.0004), high-risk carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (P=0.0005) and high-risk carotid distensibility (<0.0001) in middle age. Participants with persistently low ICH status (lower than the median), as compared with persons with persistently high ICH status (higher than the median), had an increased risk of CAC (P=0.02), high-risk IMT (P=0.02), and high-risk distensibility (P<0.0001). Participants who improved their ICH status from low to high did not have a different risk of CAC (P=0.90), high-risk IMT (P=0.25), or high-risk distensibility (P=0.80) than participants who always had high ICH status. The results show that ICH can be lost and regained, and importantly that regaining of ICH has a beneficial effect on cardiometabolic health. Health care providers should work to improve health behaviors especially in those who have lost ICH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International journal of cardiology 03/2015; 185:186-191. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.03.051 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesised that preterm birth and being born small for gestational age would be associated with changes in retinal microvascular architecture and that these changes would be more marked among those born preterm. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study included randomly selected children from 5 Finnish University cities. Retinal microvascular architecture of participants born preterm, born at term and small for gestational age and a control group born at term and appropriate for gestational age were compared (aged 34-49 years). In participants born preterm, simple arteriolar tortuosity (×10(2) ) was higher (means (standard error), 0.06 (0.01) versus 0.04 (0.01), p=0.001), arteriolar length (pixels) increased (644.9 (35.9) versus 591.7 (33.5), p=0.007) and arteriolar diameters (pixels) narrowed (19.9 (0.4) versus 20.3 (0.3), p=0.034) compared to participants born appropriate for gestational age, after adjustment. In participants born small for gestational age, only simple arteriolar tortuosity was higher (0.05 (0.01) versus 0.04 (0.01), p=0.074) compared to participants born appropriate for gestational age. This study demonstrated that being born small for gestational age and in particular preterm birth are associated with changes in retinal microvascular architecture. The pre-natal and immediate postnatal environment may contribute to the mechanisms of early vascular changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 03/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1111/micc.12197 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that preterm birth and being born small for gestational age would be associated with changes in retinal microvascular architecture and that these changes would be more marked among those born preterm. METHODS: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study included randomly selected children from 5 Finnish University cities. Retinal microvascular architecture of participants born preterm, born at term and small for gestational age and a control group born at term and appropriate for gestational age were compared (aged 34-49 years). RESULTS: In participants born preterm, simple arteriolar tortuosity (×102 ) was higher (means (standard error), 0.06 (0.01) versus 0.04 (0.01), p=0.001), arteriolar length (pixels) increased (644.9 (35.9) versus 591.7 (33.5), p=0.007) and arteriolar diameters (pixels) narrowed (19.9 (0.4) versus 20.3 (0.3), p=0.034) compared to participants born appropriate for gestational age, after adjustment. In participants born small for gestational age, only simple arteriolar tortuosity was higher (0.05 (0.01) versus 0.04 (0.01), p=0.074) compared to participants born appropriate for gestational age. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that being born small for gestational age and in particular preterm birth are associated with changes in retinal microvascular architecture. The pre-natal and immediate postnatal environment may contribute to the mechanisms of early vascular changes.
    Microcirculation 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/micc.12197. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The FTO gene harbors variation with the strongest effect on adiposity and obesity risk. Previous data support a role for FTO variation in influencing food intake. We conducted a combined analysis of 16,094 boys and girls aged 1-18 years from 14 studies to examine: 1) the association between the FTO rs9939609 variant (or a proxy) and total energy and macronutrient intake; and 2) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. We found that the BMI-increasing allele (minor allele) of FTO variant was associated with increased total energy intake (effect per allele=14.3[5.9, 22.7] kcal/day, P=6.5×10(-4)) but not with protein, carbohydrate or fat intake. We also found that protein intake modified the association between the FTO variant and BMI (interactive effect per allele=0.08[0.03, 0.12]SDs, P for interaction=7.2×10(-4)): the association between FTO genotype and BMI was much stronger in individuals with high protein intake (effect per allele=0.10[0.07, 0.13]SDs, P=8.2×10(-10)) than in those with low intake (effect per allele=0.04[0.01, 0.07]SDs, P=0.02). Our results suggest that the FTO variant that confers a predisposition to higher BMI is associated with higher total energy intake and that lower dietary protein intake attenuates the association between FTO genotype and adiposity in children and adolescents. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 02/2015; DOI:10.2337/db14-1629 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although physical activity (PA) improves arterial distensibility, it is unclear which type of activity is most beneficial. We aimed to examine the association of different types of PA with carotid distensibility (CD) and the mechanisms involved. Data included 4503 Australians and Finns aged 26-45 years. Physical activity was measured by pedometers and was self-reported. CD was measured using ultrasound. Other measurements included resting heart rate (RHR), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, biomarkers and anthropometry. Steps/day were correlated with RHR (Australian men r=-0.10, women r=-0.14; Finnish men r=-0.15, women r=-0.11; P<0.01), CRF and biochemical markers, but not with CD. Self-reported vigorous leisure-time activity was more strongly correlated with RHR (Australian men r=-0.23, women r=-0.19; Finnish men r=-0.20, women r=-0.13; P<0.001) and CRF, and was correlated with CD (Australian men r=0.07; Finnish men r=0.07, women r=0.08; P<0.05). This relationship of vigorous leisure-time activity with CD was mediated by RHR independently of potential confounders. In summary, vigorous leisure-time PA but not total or less intensive PA was associated with arterial distensibility in young to mid-aged adults. Promotion of vigorous PA is therefore recommended among this population. RHR was a key intermediary factor explaining the relationship between vigorous PA and arterial distensibility.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 19 February 2015; doi:10.1038/hr.2015.9.
    Hypertension Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/hr.2015.9 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether dietary alpha-linolenic (omega-3) fatty acid intake is associated with lower blood pressure and aortic intima-media thickness (IMT) in people born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants were recruited at age 6 months and followed up every 6-12 months until age 19 years. Blood pressure and food records were assessed at each visit. A total of 1009 participants had at least one blood pressure measure and complete birth weight and gestational age data, including 115 (11%) born SGA (birth weight ≤10th percentile). Aortic IMT was assessed by ultrasound at 19 years (n = 413). Analysis was by linear mixed models and multivariable linear regression. Children born SGA had greater systolic and pulse pressure from age 14 years onwards. In those born SGA, systolic blood pressure was 2.1 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.8-3.3]; P = .001) and pulse pressure 1.4 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.3-2.4]; P = .01), per exponential increase in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake; weakened by adjustment for anthropometric measures. Long-term ALA intake was inversely associated with aortic IMT at 19 years in those born SGA (-0.30 mm [95% CI -0.52, -0.08] per exponential greater ALA intake; P = .008), independent of other dietary and anthropometric factors. Long-term dietary ALA intake during childhood is associated with improved vascular health in people born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pediatrics 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.01.020 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype is known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures were assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, p≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, p≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low energy fractures during the follow-up. In conclusion, frequent habitual physical activity in adolescence seems to confer benefits on tibial bone size and geometry in adulthood. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 02/2015; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.02.012 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most infections occur in pre-school children but the severity of the inflammatory response to common pathogens varies considerably. We examined the relationship between early childhood infections of sufficient severity to warrant hospitalisation, and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. We investigated whether infection-related hospitalisation (IRH) in early childhood (0-5 years) was associated with adverse non-invasive phenotypes of atherosclerosis (carotid artery distensibility and intima-media thickness (IMT), and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)) in adulthood in participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood. 1043 participants had lifetime IRH data with a mean age at adult follow-up of 33 years. Brachial FMD levels were significantly lower among individuals with early child IRH (mean ± SEM 8.15 ± 0.37 vs. 9.10 ± 0.16%, p = 0.03). These individuals had a 1.84% (95% CI 0.64-3.04, p = 0.002) greater decrease in FMD over a 6-year interval between two adult follow-ups at mean ages 27 and 33 years. Childhood IRH was associated with increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) in adulthood (0.62 ± 0.01 vs. 0.59 ± 0.01 μmol/l, p = 0.04), adjusted for age, sex, adult body mass index, and serum creatinine. Early childhood IRH was associated with lower carotid distensibility levels (1.95 ± 0.06 vs. 2.09 ± 0.02%/10 mmHg, p = 0.02), but not with carotid intima-media thickness (0.601 ± 0.006 vs. 0.596 ± 0.003 mm). All findings remained unchanged after adjustments for age, sex and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood or adulthood. Infection-related hospitalisation in the pre-school period was associated with adverse adult atherosclerotic phenotypes and increased ADMA. Infection may contribute to causal pathways leading to the development of endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 02/2015; 239(2):496-502. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.02.024 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis
    Nature 02/2015; 518(7538). DOI:10.1038/nature14177 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 x 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
    Nature 02/2015; 518(7538-7538):187-96. DOI:10.1038/nature14132 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Low vitamin D levels in adulthood have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Objective: To investigate if low vitamin D levels in childhood are related with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: The analyses included 2148 subjects from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, aged 3-18 years at baseline (in 1980). Subjects were re-examined at age 30-45 years (in 2007). Childhood levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D were measured from stored serum in 2010. Main Outcome Measure: The carotid artery IMT from 2007 was used. Results: When adjusted for age, sex, and childhood risk factors, continuous data of childhood 25-OH vitamin was inversely associated with adulthood carotid IMT levels among females (β ± SE -0.006 ± 0.003, P = 0.03), but not among males (0.001 ± 0.004, P = 0.88). Children with 25-OH vitamin D levels in the lowest quartile (<40 nmol/L) had significantly increased odds of having high-risk IMT (highest decile of common carotid or carotid bulb IMT or carotid plaque) as adults, in analyses adjusted for age, sex and either childhood risk factors (odds ratio 1.70 [95 % CI 1.15-2.31], P = 0.0007) or adult risk factors, including adult vitamin D levels (odds ratio 1.80 [1.30-2.48], P = 0.0004). In sex-specific analyses, these associations were significant both in females and males (P always <0.05). In sensitivity analyses, those with childhood vitamin D levels in the lowest quintile (<37 nmol/L), gave similar results to those using a quartile cut-point. Conclusions: Low 25-OH vitamin D levels in childhood were associated with increased carotid IMT in adulthood.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 02/2015; DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-3944 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prediction of adult dyslipidemia has been suggested to improve with multiple measurements in childhood or young adulthood, but there is paucity of specific data from longitudinal studies.
    Atherosclerosis 02/2015; 239(2). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.02.004 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between familial high lipoprotein(a), or Lp(a), concentrations and endothelial function in children participating in the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project study. Seven-month-old children (n = 1062) with their families were randomized to a risk intervention group or to a control group. The intervention group received individualized dietary counseling to reduce the total cholesterol concentration. Children's Lp(a) and lipid values were measured repeatedly. At age 11 years, children were recruited to an ultrasound study of the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. The association between relative peak FMD and Lp(a) concentration was examined in 198 control and 193 intervention group children by linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, total cholesterol concentration, and basal artery diameter. The analyses were made in both the control and intervention groups and in the familial risk children who had a parent with Lp(a) concentration greater than 250 mg/l. Lp(a) concentrations were similar at age 11 years in the intervention and control groups. In all control children, FMD (%) associated inversely with Lp(a) concentration: (β [%/1000 mg/L] = -3.74, 95% CI [-6.43, -1.45]; P = .007) and in 68 familial risk children (β = -4.92, 95% CI [-8.18, -1.66]; P = .0037). In the intervention group the associations were lacking (P > .5), and FMD in the children with high Lp(a) concentrations (>500 mg/L, n = 12) had no attenuation (P = .027). Familial high Lp(a) concentration is associated with attenuated endothelial function. This association may be mitigated by an early lifestyle intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00223600. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pediatrics 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.12.051 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An external or internal “predictive adaptive response” (PAR) can be defined as an adaptive change in long-term behavior or development due to an environmental exposure that triggers it. A PAR can lead to differential development among initially similar individuals, and increase evolutionary fitness. Despite many theories and empirical observations of PAR-like changes in depressive tendencies, clear empirical findings on human personality changes following depressive symptoms are lacking, possibly because these changes take a long time to develop and most follow up studies have been short. Here we show that in sufficiently long (5- and 15-year) clinical and general-population follow ups, increases can be observed in the Temperament and Character Inventory’s personality trait Harm avoidance as a function of temporally accumulating Major Depressive Episodes (132 Depression patients from Vantaa Depression Study) and depressive symptoms (3105 participants from Young Finns general-population sample). Personality changes did not occur in the other six personality traits of the inventory, but did in a highly similar Neuroticism trait from another inventory. Even when controlling for concurrent changes in depressive symptoms from the baseline to the endpoint, depressive symptoms that occurred during the follow-up period associated with Harm-avoidance changes, rendering individuals more fearful and anticipating harm. This study provides consistent, specific, and plausible dose–response and temporal gradients between accumulated depressive episodes and personality change. Effect sizes were between small to moderate, though. Altogether, the findings support the feasibility of using existing systems of personality assessment (i.e., self-report questionnaires) to study PARs, despite the multiplicity of the systems.
    Evolution and Human Behavior 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.01.005 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine factors associated with weight change and obesity risk in young and middle-aged adults. Subjects/methods. The Young Finns Study with its 923 women and 792 men aged 24-39 years at baseline were followed for six years. Variables associated with the weight change were investigated with regression models. Results. The average weight change was 0.45 kg/year in women and 0.58 kg/year in men. In women, weight change was steady across all ages. In men, weight changes were more pronounced in younger age groups. In women (weight gain > 2 kg, n = 490), medication for anxiety, low occupational status, high baseline BMI (body mass index), high intake of sweet beverages, high childhood BMI, high salt (NaCl and/or KCl) use, low number of children, low childhood family income, high stature and low level of dependence (a temperament subscale) were associated with increased weight gain (in the order of importance). In men (weight gain > 2 kg, n = 455), high stature, high intake of french fries, low intake of sweet cookies, young age, recent divorce, low intake of cereals, high intake of milk, depressive symptoms, rural childhood origin, high baseline BMI and unemployment were associated with more pronounced weight gain. Sedentarity (screen-time) was associated with weight gain only in young men. Physical activity and genetic risk for high BMI (score of 31 known variants) were not consistently associated with weight change. Conclusions. Socio-economic factors, temperamental and physical characteristics, and some dietary factors are related with weight change in young/middle-aged adults. The weight change occurring in adulthood is also determined by childhood factors, such as high BMI and low family income.
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    ABSTRACT: -Adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type 2 diabetes and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. Our aim was to establish the relation of an infancy-onset dietary intervention on the risk of having MetS between ages 15 and 20 years. -The STRIP study (Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Children) is a longitudinal, randomized atherosclerosis prevention trial, where repeated dietary counseling aiming at reducing intake of saturated fat took place from infancy to early adulthood. Participants who had complete data on the MetS components (waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose, HDL-cholesterol) at the age of 15 (n=512), 16 (n=485), 17 (n=475), 18 (n=459), 19 (n=439) and 20 (n=407) years were included in the study. Modified International Diabetes Foundation criteria with 80(th)/20(th) percentile cut-off points for the components was primarily applied in statistical analyses, and the results were replicated using other pediatric MetS definitions. Between ages 15 and 20, the prevalence of Mets varied between 6.0-7.5% in participants in the intervention group and between 10-14% in the control group. The long-term relative risk (RR) of Mets was significantly lower in the intervention group (RR=0.59, 95%CI=0.40-0.88, p=0.009). Of the individual MetS components, the intervention decreased risk of high blood pressure in both sexes (RR=0.83, 95%CI=0.70-0.99) and high triglycerides in males (RR=0.71, 95%CI=0.52-0.98). A statistically non-significant reduction was seen in the risk of high waist circumference in the intervention individuals (RR=0.78, 95%CI=0.59-1.03). -Repeated infancy-onset dietary intervention is effective in the prevention of MetS in adolescence. Clinical Trial Registration Information-ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00223600.
    Circulation 01/2015; 131(7). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010532 · 14.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19k Citations
4,493.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2015
    • Turku University Hospital
      • • Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine
      • • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
  • 1994–2015
    • University of Turku
      • • Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine
      • • Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
      • • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2012–2014
    • Tampere University Hospital (TAUH)
      Tammerfors, Pirkanmaa, Finland
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Internal Medicine I
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Tasmania
      • Menzies Research Institute
      Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  • 2007–2012
    • University of Tampere
      • • Medical School
      • • Department of Clinical Physiology
      • • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland
  • 2002–2012
    • University of Oulu
      • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Oulu, Oulu, Finland
  • 1994–2012
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM)
      • • Institute of Behavioural Sciences
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Oral Medicine
      • • Department of Nutrition
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2008
    • Turku centre for biotechnology, finland
      Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
    • Kuopio University Hospital
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2008
    • University College London
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2002–2005
    • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1999–2003
    • Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2001
    • University of Jyväskylä
      Jyväskylä, Province of Western Finland, Finland