[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro antibacterial activity of topical and systemic antihistaminic preparations containing different active substrates against the standard strains of two bacteria was evaluated.
Four topical and 3 systemic preparations containing pheniramine maleate, chlorophenoxamine hydrochloride, and diphenhydramine hydrochloride were studied. The antibacterial activities of these preparations against strains of S. aureus (American Type Culture Collection, ATCC 29213) and S. epidermidis (ATCC 25212) were tested using the disc diffusion method. In addition, the Minimal Innhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of parenteral preparations for these two bacteria were determined.
Pheniramine maleate-topical and pheniramine maleate-systemic had no activity against bacteria, but the others showed various rates of activity. Chlorophenoxamine hydrochloride-topical and chlorophenoxamine hydrochloride-systemic were the most effective (P < 0.05). Despite the same active substrate content, diphenhydramine hydrochloride-topical-1 and diphenhydramine hydrochloride-topical-2 yielded different results when they were compared with each other or with the other preparations. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride-topical-2 had a relatively higher rate of activity than diphenhydramine hydrochloride-topical-1. Inhibition zone diameters were 16.9+/-1.5 mm 12.3+/-0.5 mm for S .aureus, 17.4+/-1.0 mm 0 mm for S .epidermidis respectively (P < 0.05). MIC values of parenteral preparations were equal to or above 125 ?g/ml.
MIC values of parenteral preparations were higher than their blood levels in clinical use. Thus, effects of parenteral preparations may not have been reflected in routine clinical practice. However, topical forms have antibacterial activity due to additive substrates and the use of high concentration levels at the site of application. Therefore, in selection of topical forms for appropriate cases, these effects should also be taken into consideration. The antibacterial activity of topical antihistaminic preparations may be useful in certain dermatological pathology.
Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale 12/2009; 32(6):E232. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The line from the midpoint of the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the midpoint of the clavicle was considered the surface projection of the brachial plexus in the supraclavicular region in a previous report using radiological and anatomic techniques. The needle insertion site was the point between the clavicular one-third and cervical two-thirds of this line. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical efficacy of these suggested landmarks. Materials and methods: Brachial plexus block was performed in 60 healthy adult patients undergoing elective Surgery on an upper extremity using the above-mentioned new surface landmarks. Results: The characteristics of the block resemble those in the interscalene technique. Brachial plexus block was performed with a high success rate (98.5%) and minor complications including phrenic nerve palsy (45%), Horner syndrome (15%), and recurrent nerve block (1.6%). No major complication such as pneumothorax or accidental intravascular insertion was observed. Conclusion: The new landmarks were not dependent on patients' physical features or deeper anatomic structures. The surface landmarks based on bony prominences were defined easily. Brachial plexus block was performed with a high success rate and is considered a safe alternative to the classically described techniques.
Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 10/2009; 39(5):655-660. DOI:10.3906/sag-0805-55 · 0.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of inhalation anesthetics (sevoflurane and isoflurane) on hearing function by using an audiometric test battery.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.
Fifty-three adult patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II) scheduled for sinonasal surgery with intratracheal general anesthesia were enrolled in the study. The patients were premedicated with diazepam intramuscularly. Propofol 2 mg/kg (Diprivan, AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE) was given intravenously (i.v.) for induction of general anesthesia. After endotracheal intubation with vecuronium i.v. (1 mg/kg), in group 1 (n = 27) sevoflurane 2% and in group 2 (n = 26) isoflurane 1.2% were used to maintain general anesthesia. All patients received nitrous oxide during maintenance.
The patients' hearing function was measured before anesthesia and 24 hours after surgery by means of pure-tone audiometry, high-frequency pure-tone audiometry, and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) by the same clinician.
There were no statistically significant differences between the demographic data and the hemodynamic and respiratory parameters of the groups. No significant differences were found between groups in hearing thresholds of conventional pure-tone audiometry and extended high frequency (p > .05). For TEOAE responses, no statistically significant differences were determined between pre- and postoperative measurements (p > .05).
It was audiometrically demonstrated that general anesthesia did not affect the hearing function in any of the patients undergoing sinonasal surgery. These findings encourage the use of sevoflurane or isoflurane as a safe agent without any ototoxic effects in otorhinolaryngologic surgery with general anesthesia.
Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale 08/2009; 38(4):495-500. DOI:10.2310/7070.2009.080181 · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the hemodynamic, cardiovascular, and recovery effects of dexmedetomidine used as a single preanesthetic dose.
Randomized, prospective, double-blind study.
University Hospital of Kirikkale, Kirikkale, Turkey.
40 ASA physical status I and II patients, aged 20 to 60 years, who were scheduled for elective cholecystectomy.
Patients were randomly divided into two groups to receive 0.5 microg kg(-1) dexmedetomidine (group D, n = 20) or saline solution (group C, n = 20). Anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium and vecuronium, and anesthesia was maintained with 4% to 6% desflurane.
Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic index (EDI), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume index (SVI) were recorded at 10-minute intervals. The times for patients to "open eyes on verbal command" and postoperative Aldrete recovery scores were also recorded.
In group C, an increase in HR and MAP occurred after endotracheal intubation. In group D, HR significantly decreased after dexmedetomidine was given. The EDI, CI, SVI, and EF values were similar in groups D and C. The modified Aldrete recovery scores of patients in the recovery room were similar in groups C and D at the 15th minute.
A single dose of dexmedetomidine given before induction of anesthesia decreased thiopental requirements without serious hemodynamic effects or any effect on recovery time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibacterial activities of local anesthetics are recognized.
To investigate in vitro the activity of topical local anesthetic ointments at clinical doses.
The activity of two different local anesthetic ointments including lidocaine 5% and lidocaine/prilocaine 2.5% was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis by the disc-diffusion method. Sterile discs containing topical local anesthetic drugs were prepared taking into account the doses of ointments used in clinical practice. The validity of the methodology was confirmed using topical antibacterial mupirocin. The inhibition zones of the discs were measured.
Mupirocin inhibited all the bacteria. Both local anesthetic ointments were found to be most effective on E. coli, whereas they had no effects on P. aeruginosa. Lidocaine 5% revealed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, S. pyogenes and E. faecalis, but lidocaine/prilocaine 2.5% showed no activity on E. faecalis and inhibited S. pyogenes only at double doses. It was also observed that the antibacterial activity was in a dose-dependent manner.
In the light of these findings, it might be concluded that topical local anesthetic ointments in routine settings may have a preventive role against some bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibacterial activity of local anesthetics especially lidocaine has been shown previously. In this study, the antibacterial effect of ketamine, a general anesthetic agent was investigated.
The antibacterial effect of ketamine was studied using six different strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Entecoccus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) with disc diffusion method. Ciprofloxacine discs (CIP, oxoid) were used as a control to verify the methodology. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ketamine for these bacteria were also determined.
No inhibition was evident in discs containing 62.5 microg of ketamine. Ketamine 125 microg showed activity on all the bacteria tested with the exception of E. coli. The inhibition rates of Ketamine were more prominent at the doses of 250 microg and 500 microg similar to the inhibition rate of CIP. Whereas MIC and MBC values of ketamine for S. aureus and S. pyogenes were 500 microg mL(-1), MIC and MBC values for P. aeruginosa were above 2000 microg mL(-1). For other bacteria, these values ranged between these levels.
Ketamine with higher doses showed antibacterial activity. We thought that it will be proper to use ketamine hesitantly in experimental animal studies like sepsis and translocation.
Upsala journal of medical sciences 01/2008; 113(1):39-46. DOI:10.3109/2000-1967-211 · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a case of a 5-year-old child who underwent four operations (three for syndactyly of the hands and one for craniofacial corrections). At the third hour of his craniofacial operation, his EtCO2 started to increase and airway resistance was encountered during manual ventilation. The position of the head and neck was checked. An increase in secretion with oral and endotracheal aspiration and a decrease in saturation were observed. When breath sounds disappeared, the patient was reintubated orally. The nasal tube was obstructed with a mucolytic plug. There was no problem during the other operations. This case is presented since anaesthesiologists should be aware of the high incidence of respiratory complications in Apert syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reduction of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) induced by general anaesthesia was demonstrated in our previous study. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the type of induction agent (propofol or thiopental) used for general anaesthesia had any effects on ESR.
Sixty-four patients (ASA Physical Status Classification, I-II) scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned into two groups. In Group I, propofol and in Group II, thiopental were used as induction agents. Two blood samples were obtained before induction and 10 minutes after endotracheal intubation for ESR measurements.
The ESR values of the second samples from both groups were significantly lower than the values of the first samples, but there were no statistically significant differences in ESR values between the values of the two groups.
The results showed that general anaesthesia decreased ESR values regardless of the type of agents being used for induction of anaesthesia. The reason might be related to other drugs used in both groups, or to a common effector mechanism of the two induction agents. The underlying mechanism needs to be investigated.
Upsala journal of medical sciences 02/2007; 112(3):335-7. DOI:10.3109/2000-1967-205 · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of intratracheal general anesthesia (ITGA) and regional (saddle block) anesthesia on leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and cortisol blood concentrations during anorectal surgery.
Fifty-eight patients suffering from hemorrhoidal disease, pilonidal sinus, anal fissure, or anal fistula were included the study. Patients were randomly assigned into one of the two groups (n=29). Patients in one group received ITGA. After thiopental and fentanyl induction, vecuronium was used as a muscle relaxant. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane. In the other group we applied saddle block, injecting hyperbaric bupivacaine into the subarachnoid space, through the L3-L4 intervertebral space, in the sitting position. Blood samples were collected for leptin, CRP, and cortisol analysis before the induction of anesthesia at 3 and 24 hours postoperatively.
Preoperative leptin, CRP, and cortisol concentrations were comparable between the groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative levels of leptin and CRP in both groups. Although not significant, leptin and CRP concentrations were lower in the saddle block group at three hours postoperatively (mean-/+SD, 6.95-/+8.59 and 6.02-/+12.25, respectively) than in the ITGA group (mean-/+SD, 9.04-/+9.89 and 8.40-/+15.75, respectively). During early postoperative period, cortisol increased slightly in the ITGA group and remained at similar level in the saddle block group, but later decreased in both groups. Cortisol levels in the saddle block group were significantly lower than in the ITGA group at 3 hours postoperatively (343.7-/+329.6 vs 611.4-/+569.8; P=0.034).
Saddle block, a regional anesthetic technique, may attenuate stress response in patients undergoing anorectal surgery, by blocking afferent neural input during early postoperative period.
Croatian Medical Journal 01/2007; 47(6):862-8. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgery induces release of neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol), cytokines (interleukin-6: IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha: TNF-alpha), acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein: CRP, leptin). We studied the effects of general and spinal anaesthesia on stress response to haemorrhoidectomy. Patients were assigned to general and spinal anaesthesia groups (n = 7). Blood samples were drawn before induction and 24 hours after surgery. Perioperative levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, CRP, cortisol, and leptin were comparable among the groups. Twenty four hours after surgery, TNF-alpha and cortisol did not change; IL-6 and CRP increased significantly in all patients. Significant increase in leptin levels was found in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia. Except for the increase in leptin levels, there was no significant difference related to the effects of general and spinal anaesthesia.
Mediators of Inflammation 02/2006; 2006(1):97257. DOI:10.1155/MI/2006/97257 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether general anesthetic agents change erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) affecting erythrocytes' shape and membrane structure in routine clinical dose manner. Forty patients (23 female and 17 male) undergoing elective surgery were included to the study. Blood samples were obtained just before induction of the anesthesia and 10 minutes after endotracheal intubation. The ESR was measured using Test-1 ESR analyzer. ESR values of the second blood samples were significantly lower than the first values (p<0.001). At the beginning, the ESR was 18.1+/-11.5 mm/h, and then it decreased to 13.1+/-9.3 at 10th minutes. Our results indicated that anesthetic agents affected the ESR. No increase was observed in the second ESR values which were equal to, or less than the first values. General anesthesia may lead to this decrease changing electrolyte balance of erythrocyte, affecting ligands of agglomerins in membrane directly and indirectly, or changing discoid shape of erythrocyte.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2006; 35(4):459-62. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations of acute phase proteins (CRP: C-reactive protein, albumin) change during surgery. We investigated the acute phase response to circumcision and the effects of anaesthesia on this response. The children were divided into four groups; group 1 (intratracheal general anaesthesia, n=40), group 2 (general anaesthesia with mask, n=20), group 3 (ketamine, n=20), group 4 (local anaesthesia, n=35). Blood samples were obtained, 24 hours before circumcision, after premedication, and 24 hours after circumcision. CRP and albumin before circumcision were comparable for all groups. There was no increase in CRP, and albumin remained steady throughout the study. No difference was observed among the groups, and related to anaesthesia. No responsiveness may be explained with the size of injured tissue or anatomical and histological type of preputium.
Mediators of Inflammation 11/2005; 2005(5):312-5. DOI:10.1155/MI.2005.312 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnesium sulphate infusion during general anaesthesia reduces anaesthetic consumption and analgesic requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of postoperative magnesium infusion on duration of block, sedation and analgesic consumption after spinal anaesthesia.
Fifty ASA I-II patients were included in the randomized double blind study. Spinal anaesthesia was performed at L3-4 or L4-5 interspace with 12.5 mg 0.5% heavy bupivacaine, using a 25 G Quincke needle. Patients received a 5 mg kg(-1) bolus of magnesium sulphate followed by a 500 mg h(-1) infusion or saline in the same volumes for 24 h. Time to first pain, analgesic request, return of motor function, visual analogue pain and sedation scores were evaluated every 4 h during the 24 h postoperative period. The t- and U-tests were used for statistical analyses. Data were expressed as mean +/- SD, with P < 0.05 being considered significant.
Vital signs were stable during spinal anaesthesia and postoperative period. When compared to the control group, time to analgesic need was increased and total analgesic consumption was reduced in the magnesium group (meperidine consumption 60.0 +/- 73.1 mg control group, 31.8 +/- 30.7 mg magnesium group, P = 0.02).
Magnesium sulphate infusion may be used as an adjunct for reducing analgesic consumption after spinal anaesthesia.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 11/2004; 21(10):766-9. DOI:10.1097/00003643-200410000-00002 · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine analogues have been used by subarachnoid injection for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. There is no data on the use of adenosine in peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of the present study was to determine the analgesic efficacy of adenosine in combination with a local anaesthetic solution for brachial plexus (BP) block. With local ethics committee approval, 50 consenting adult patients undergoing upper limb surgery were enrolled in this double-blind, prospective, randomized study. Patients with a history of bronchospastic disease were excluded. Patients were instructed not to take theophylline-containing drugs and beverages for at least one day before surgery or on the first postoperative day. A supraclavicular BP block was performed by injecting a mixture totalling 35 ml made up of prilocaine 1% 10 ml and lignocaine 2% 20 ml with adrenaline 1:200,000, and adenosine 10 mg in 5 ml saline (Group 1) or 5 ml saline (Group 2) as a placebo control group. Postoperative analgesia was assessed by time to first rescue analgesia, analgesic consumption in the first 24 hours, and VAS at rest at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours. Side-effects were also noted. Vital signs were stable in both groups throughout the operation. There were no significant differences between the groups in onset of motor and sensory block. Time to first pain sensation from block was not significantly longer in the adenosine group (379 +/- 336 min) compared with controls (304 +/- 249 min, mean +/- SD, P = 0.14). Time to first analgesic requirements and analgesic consumption in the first 24 hours were also similar in both study groups. In the present study, the addition of adenosine to local anaesthetic in brachial plexus block did not significantly extend the duration of analgesia.
Anaesthesia and intensive care 01/2004; 31(6):648-52. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine infusions have been shown to reduce requirements of anaesthetics, to decrease the need for postoperative analgesics and to attenuate hyperaesthesia related to neuropathic pain. We decided to investigate the effects, beneficial or otherwise, of an adenosine infusion administered during surgery. A brachial plexus block was used to produce anaesthesia for the surgery.
Sixty adults undergoing upper extremity surgery were included in the study. Brachial plexus block was performed via an axillary approach with lidocaine 1.25% and epinephrine 1/200 000 (40 mL). Patients were randomly assigned to two groups. During surgery, saline (control) or adenosine 80 microg kg min was infused intravenously in a double-blind fashion for 1 h. Visual analogue scores every 4 h, analgesic consumption, time to first spontaneous pain sensation, time to first rescue analgesic and adverse effects were noted during the first 24 h.
Vital signs were stable in both groups throughout surgery. During the adenosine infusion, one patient fainted while another complained of palpitations and tightness of the chest; both patients were excluded from further analyses. The time to first sensation of pain was significantly longer in the adenosine group compared to the control group (438 +/- 387 vs. 290 +/- 227 min, P = 0.02). The time to first rescue analgesic, the visual analogue scale scores and analgesic consumption in the postoperative period were similar.
In patients undergoing surgery with an axillary plexus block, a perioperative adenosine infusion prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia to some extent. However, the time to first rescue analgesic, total analgesic requirements and pain scores were unchanged; the risk of potentially serious adverse effects is high. This therapy cannot be recommended.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 12/2003; 20(11):916-9. DOI:10.1097/00003643-200311000-00010 · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bispectral index, a parameter derived from the electroencephalograph, has been shown to correlate with the loss of consciousness and sedation. This study was designed to assess the effects of bispectral index monitoring on sevoflurane and its recovery profiles.
Sixty ASA I and II patients undergoing open abdominal surgery were randomized into two groups: one monitored using the bispectral index (Group BIS) and the other without its use (controls). After a standardized induction, anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in both groups. In Group BIS, sevoflurane was titrated to maintain the bispectral index in the range 40-60. In the control group, the administered sevoflurane concentration was adjusted according to the signs of anaesthesia. The end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, bispectral index and routine haemodynamic variables were noted every 5 min during surgery. The consumption of sevoflurane was computed. At the conclusion of surgery operations, the time to 'open eyes on verbal command', 'motor response to verbal command' and Aldrete's score were recorded by a blinded anaesthesiologist.
The difference in the consumption of sevoflurane was not significant between the groups. Bispectral index monitoring was associated with a reduction of 4.73% in sevoflurane usage and 2.19 mL h(-1) was saved.
Bispectral index monitoring during anaesthesia provides only a small advantage related to the need to monitor the depth of anaesthesia.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 06/2003; 20(5):396-400. DOI:10.1097/00003643-200305000-00008 · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the quality of different intravenous sedation techniques, and the correlation between the Bispectral Index (BIS) values and the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scores. Eighty patients undergoing sinonasal surgery were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group MF received midazolam and fentanyl, group PF received propofol and fentanyl, group MR received midazolam and remifentanil, and group PR received propofol and remifentanil. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure values were not different among the groups. SpO2 decreased only after intravenous medication in groups MF and MR (P < 0.017). Emesis was less common with propofol. A positive relationship existed between the BIS values and OAA/S scores during the operation in all groups and the strongest correlation was observed in group PR (r = 0.565 and P < 0.001). In conclusion, these four intravenous sedation techniques did not change mean arterial pressure, heart rate or SpO2 clinically and produced a similar level of light sedation. The BIS was useful for monitoring of sedation during sinonasal surgery under local anaesthesia with intravenous sedation.
Anaesthesia and intensive care 04/2003; 31(2):164-71. · 1.30 Impact Factor