[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The functional importance of threonine 5 (T5) in modulating the activity of sarcolipin (SLN), a key regulator of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump was studied using a transgenic mouse model with cardiac specific expression of threonine 5 to alanine mutant SLN (SLNT5A). In these transgenic mice, the SLNT5A protein replaces the endogenous SLN in atria, while maintaining the total SLN content. The cardiac specific expression of SLNT5A results in severe cardiac structural remodeling accompanied by bi-atrial enlargement. Biochemical analyses reveal a selective downregulation of SR Ca2+ handling proteins and a reduced SR Ca2+ uptake both in atria and in the ventricles. Optical mapping analysis shows slower action potential propagation in the transgenic mice atria. Doppler echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements demonstrate a reduced atrial contractility and an impaired diastolic function. Together, these findings suggest that threonine 5 plays an important role in modulating SLN function in the heart. Furthermore, our studies suggest that alteration in SLN function can cause abnormal Ca2+ handling and subsequent cardiac remodeling and dysfunction.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0115822. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115822 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
For reasons that remain unclear, whether type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5), 1 of 2 major AC isoforms in heart, is protective or deleterious in response to cardiac stress is controversial. To reconcile this controversy we examined the cardiomyopathy induced by chronic isoproterenol in AC5 transgenic (Tg) mice and the signaling mechanisms involved.
Methods and results:
Chronic isoproterenol increased oxidative stress and induced more severe cardiomyopathy in AC5 Tg, as left ventricular ejection fraction fell 1.9-fold more than wild type, along with greater left ventricular dilation and increased fibrosis, apoptosis, and hypertrophy. Oxidative stress induced by chronic isoproterenol, detected by 8-OhDG was 15% greater, P=0.007, in AC5 Tg hearts, whereas protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was reduced by 38%, indicating that the susceptibility of AC5 Tg to cardiomyopathy may be attributable to decreased MnSOD expression. Consistent with this, susceptibility of the AC5 Tg to cardiomyopathy was suppressed by overexpression of MnSOD, whereas protection afforded by the AC5 knockout (KO) was lost in AC5 KO×MnSOD heterozyous KO mice. Elevation of MnSOD was eliminated by both sirtuin and MEK inhibitors, suggesting both the SIRT1/FoxO3a and MEK/ERK pathway are involved in MnSOD regulation by AC5.
Overexpression of AC5 exacerbates the cardiomyopathy induced by chronic catecholamine stress by altering regulation of SIRT1/FoxO3a, MEK/ERK, and MnSOD, resulting in oxidative stress intolerance, thereby shedding light on new approaches for treatment of heart failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calorie restriction (CR) is the most widely studied intervention protecting from the adverse effects of aging. Almost all prior studies have examined the effects of CR initiated in young animals. Studies examining the effects of CR on development of aging cardiomyopathy found only partial prevention. The major goal of this study was to determine whether CR initiated after aging cardiomyopathy developed could reverse the cardiomyopathy. Aging cardiomyopathy in 2-year-old mice was characterized by reduced left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac hypertrophy, and increased cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis. When short-term (2 months) CR was initiated after aging cardiomyopathy developed in 20-month-old mice, the decrease in cardiac function, and increases in LV weight, myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis were reversed, such that the aging hearts in these mice were indistinguishable from those of young mice or mice where CR was initiated in young mice. If apoptosis was the mechanism for protecting against aging cardiomyopathy, then total myocyte numbers should have reverted to normal with CR, but did not. However, the alterations in cytoskeletal proteins, which contribute to aging cardiomyopathy, were no longer observed with CR. This is the first study to demonstrate complete prevention of aging cardiomyopathy by CR and, more importantly, that instituting this intervention even later in life can rapidly correct aging cardiomyopathy, which could have important therapeutic implications.
Age 01/2013; 35(6). DOI:10.1007/s11357-012-9508-5 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a bulk degradation mechanism for cytosolic proteins and organelles. The heart undergoes hypertrophy in response to mechanical load but hypertrophy can regress upon unloading. We hypothesize that autophagy plays an important role in mediating regression of cardiac hypertrophy during unloading. Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 1 week, after which the constriction was removed (DeTAC). Regression of cardiac hypertrophy was observed after DeTAC, as indicated by reduction of LVW/BW and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. Indicators of autophagy, including LC3-II expression, p62 degradation and GFP-LC3 dots/cell, were significantly increased after DeTAC, suggesting that autophagy is induced. Stimulation of autophagy during DeTAC was accompanied by upregulation of FoxO1. Upregulation of FoxO1 and autophagy was also observed in vitro when cultured cardiomyocytes were subjected to mechanical stretch followed by incubation without stretch (de-stretch). Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of FoxO1 exhibited smaller hearts and upregulation of autophagy. Overexpression of FoxO1 in cultured cardiomyocytes significantly reduced cell size, an effect which was attenuated when autophagy was inhibited. To further examine the role of autophagy and FoxO1 in mediating the regression of cardiac hypertrophy, beclin1+/- mice and cultured cardiomyocytes transduced with adenoviruses harboring shRNA-beclin1 or shRNA-FoxO1 were subjected to TAC/stretch followed by DeTAC/de-stretch. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy achieved after DeTAC/de-stretch was significantly attenuated when autophagy was suppressed through downregulation of beclin1 or FoxO1. These results suggest that autophagy and FoxO1 play an essential role in mediating regression of cardiac hypertrophy during mechanical unloading.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e51632. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051632 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocyte apoptosis is considered a major mechanism in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Accordingly, manipulations that inhibit apoptosis are assumed to preserve cardiac function by maintaining myocyte numbers. We tested this assumption by examining the effects of caspase inhibition (CI) on cardiac structure and function in C57BL/6 mouse with pressure overload model induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). CI preserved left ventricular (LV) function following TAC compared with the vehicle. TAC increased apoptosis in non-myocytes more than in myocytes and these increases were blunted more in non-myocytes by CI. Total myocyte number, however, did not differ significantly among control and TAC groups and there was no correlation between myocyte number and apoptosis, but there was a strong correlation between myocyte number and an index of myocyte proliferation, Ki67-positive myocytes. Despite comparable pressure gradients, LV hypertrophy was less in the CI group, likely attributable to decreased wall stress. Since changes in myocyte numbers did not account for protection from TAC, several other CI-mediated mechanisms were identified including: (a) lessening of TAC-induced fibrosis, (b) augmentation of isolated myocyte contractility, and (c) increased angiogenesis and Ki67-positive myocytes, which were due almost entirely to the non-myocyte apoptosis, but not myocyte apoptosis, with CI. CI maintained LV function following TAC not by protecting against myocyte loss, but rather by augmenting myocyte contractile function, myocyte proliferation, and angiogenesis resulting in reduced LV wall stress, hypertrophy, and fibrosis.
Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 01/2013; 108(1):324. DOI:10.1007/s00395-012-0324-y · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite numerous discoveries from genetically engineered mice, relatively few have been translated to the bedside, mainly because it is difficult to translate from genes to drugs. This investigation examines an antiviral drug, which also has an action to selectively inhibit type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5), a pharmaceutical correlate of the AC5 knockout (KO) model, which exhibits longevity and stress resistance. Our objective was to examine the extent to which pretreatment with this drug, adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-A), favorably ameliorates the development of heart failure (HF). Ara-A exhibited selective inhibition for AC5 compared with the other major cardiac AC isoform, AC6, i.e., it reduced AC activity significantly in AC5 transgenic (Tg) mice, but not in AC5KO mice and had little effect in either wild-type or AC6Tg mice. Permanent coronary artery occlusion for 3 wk in C57Bl/6 mice increased mortality and induced HF in survivors, as reflected by reduced cardiac function, while increasing cardiac fibrosis. The AC5 inhibitor Ara-A significantly improved all of these end points and also ameliorated chronic isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy. As with the AC5KO mice, Ara-A increased mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. A MEK inhibitor abolished the beneficial effects of the AC5 inhibitor in the HF model, indicating the involvement of the downstream MEK-ERK pathway of AC5. Our data suggest that pharmacological AC5 inhibition may serve as a new therapeutic approach for HF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined α(1A)-adrenergic receptor (AR) mediation of preconditioning in a novel α(1A)-AR cardiac transgenic (TG) rat model (α(1A)-TG). Compared with nontransgenic littermates (NTLs), in conscious α(1A)-TG rats, heart rate was reduced, contractility [left ventricle (LV) +dP/dt, ejection fraction, end-systolic elastance] was significantly enhanced, and triple product (LV systolic wall stress × LV +dP/dt × heart rate) was unchanged. However, infarct size (IS)/area at risk (AAR) in response to ischemia-reperfusion (30 min coronary occlusion/3 h reperfusion) was reduced to 35 ± 4.6% in α(1A)-TGs vs. 52 ± 2.2% in NTLs (P < 0.05). Second window preconditioning reduced IS/AAR in NTLs to 29 ± 2.7% but did not afford further protection in α(1A)-TGs. In contrast, with first window preconditioning, IS/AAR was reduced to similar levels in both α(1A)-TGs (12 ± 1.4%) and NTLs (10 ± 1.1%). In untreated α(1A)-TGs, cardioprotection was associated with enhanced myocardial phosphorylated (p)-mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK), p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the protein level, along with a 1.3-fold increase in total nitric oxide synthase activity like in second window preconditioning. Affymetrix microarrays revealed that few genes (4.6% of 3,172 upregulated; 8.8% of 3,498 downregulated) showed directionally similar changes in α(1A)-TGs vs. NTLs subjected to second window preconditioning. Thus, second, but not first, window cardioprotection is evident in α(1A)-TGs in the absence of ischemic preconditioning and is mediated by iNOS activation associated with MEK/ERK phosphorylation. Transcriptionally, however, second window preconditioning is considerably more complex than α(1A)-TG preconditioning, with the alteration of thousands of additional genes affording no further protection than that already available in α(1A)-TG rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GATA4 is a transcription factor that is up-regulated during cardiac hypertrophy and plays a fundamental role in myocyte growth and survival. In this study, we investigate the transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional mechanisms that are involved in regulating GATA4 in the heart during neonatal and pressure overload-induced hypertrophic growth.
GATA4 protein is significantly higher during pressure overload-induced (2.9 ± 0.4-fold) and neonatal (6.8 ± 1-fold) hypertrophic growth vs. the normal adult mouse heart. Using RNA polymerase II immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing, we confirmed that active transcription of the Gata4 gene remained unchanged during hypertrophy, whereas it was two-fold higher in the neonatal vs. adult heart, commensurate with the mRNA levels. These results suggested a post-transcriptional mode of regulation of its expression, which prompted the identification of a conserved sequence in its 3'-untranslated region that was responsible for reduced translation via miR-26b. Overexpression of miR-26b reduced GATA4-dependent transcription, endothelin-induced hypertrophy, and sensitized the cells to apoptotic insults. Additionally, miR-26b targeted phospholipase C-β1, which, in turn, inhibited miR-26b expression, creating a double-negative feedback loop. Accordingly, overexpression of miR-26b in the heart inhibited up-regulation of its targets and the development of hypertrophy. However, knockdown of miR-26b is not sufficient for inducing hypertrophy.
Down-regulation of miR-26b in the heart is required for the up-regulation of GATA4 and the induction of pressure-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The results also underscore the functional relevance of miRNAs in regulating gene expression during cardiac hypertrophy.
Cardiovascular Research 01/2012; 93(4):645-54. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvs001 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac overload, a major cause of heart failure, induces the expression of the heat shock protein H11 kinase/Hsp22 (Hsp22).
To determine the specific function of Hsp22 in that context, a knockout mouse model of Hsp22 deletion was generated. Although comparable to wild-type mice in basal conditions, knockout mice exposed to pressure overload developed less hypertrophy and showed ventricular dilation, impaired contractile function, increased myocyte length and accumulation of interstitial collagen, faster transition into heart failure, and increased mortality. Microarrays revealed that hearts from knockout mice failed to transactivate genes regulated by the transcription factor STAT3. Accordingly, nuclear STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation was decreased in knockout mice. Silencing and overexpression experiments in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes showed that Hsp22 activates STAT3 via production of interleukin-6 by the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. In addition to its transcriptional function, STAT3 translocates to the mitochondria where it increases oxidative phosphorylation. Both mitochondrial STAT3 translocation and respiration were also significantly decreased in knockout mice.
This study found that Hsp22 represents a previously undescribed activator of both nuclear and mitochondrial functions of STAT3, and its deletion in the context of pressure overload in vivo accelerates the transition into heart failure and increases mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcolipin (SLN), a key regulator of cardiac sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) ATPase, is predominantly expressed in atria and mediates β-adrenergic responses. Studies have shown that SLN mRNA expression is decreased in human chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and in aortic banded mouse atria; however, SLN protein expression in human atrial pathology and its role in atrial SR Ca(2+) uptake are not yet elucidated. In the present study, we determined the expression of major SR Ca(2+) handling proteins in atria of human AF patients and in human and in a mouse model of heart failure (HF). We found that the expression of SR Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+) release channel proteins are significantly decreased in atria but not in the ventricles of pressure-overload induced HF in mice. In human AF and HF, the expression of SLN protein was significantly decreased; whereas the expressions of other major SR Ca(2+) handling proteins were not altered. Further, we found that the SR Ca(2+) uptake was significantly increased in human AF. The selective downregulation of SLN and enhanced SR Ca(2+) uptake in human AF suggest that SLN downregulation could play an important role in abnormal intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in atrial pathology.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2011; 410(1):97-101. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.05.113 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of mice for the evaluation and study of cardiovascular pathophysiology is growing rapidly, primarily due to the relative ease for developing genetically engineered mouse models. Arterial pressure monitoring is central to the evaluation of the phenotypic changes associated with cardiovascular pathology and interventions in these transgenic and knockout models. There are four major techniques for measuring arterial pressure in the mouse: tail cuff system, implanted fluid filled catheters, Millar catheters and implanted telemetry systems. Here we provide protocols for their use and discuss the advantages and limitations for each of these techniques .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine models have been utilized with increasing frequency mainly due to availability of genetically engineered models. With advancement in high spatial and temporal resolution, echocardiography is used extensively for the evaluation of cardiovascular function in murine models of cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the general applications and methods involved in echocardiography used to study mouse models for cardiovascular research, based on 20 years of experience in our laboratory. The goal of this article is to provide a practical guide to the use of echo techniques in mice to evaluate cardiac systolic and diastolic function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of current cardiovascular research involves studies in genetically engineered mouse models. The measurement of heart rate is central to understanding cardiovascular control under normal conditions, with altered autonomic tone, superimposed stress or disease states, both in wild type mice as well as those with altered genes. Electrocardiography (ECG) is the "gold standard" using either hard wire or telemetry transmission. In addition, heart rate is measured or monitored from the frequency of the arterial pressure pulse or cardiac contraction, or by pulse oximetry. For each of these techniques, discussions of materials and methods, as well as advantages and limitations are covered. However, only the direct ECG monitoring will determine not only the precise heart rates but also whether the cardiac rhythm is normal or not.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) function has clinical implications in treating heart failure. The present study aimed to determine the effect of constitutive activation of the SERCA pump on cardiac contractility in normal mice and during pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
The SERCA pump was constitutively activated in both atrial and ventricular chambers of the mouse heart by ablating its key regulators, phospholamban (PLN) and sarcolipin (SLN). The double-knockout (dKO) mice for PLN and SLN showed increased SERCA pump activity, Ca(2+) transients and SR Ca(2+) load, and developed cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements showed that the basal cardiac function was not affected in the young dKO mice. However, the cardiac function worsened upon ageing and when subjected to pressure overload.
Our studies suggest that the constitutive activation of the SERCA pump is detrimental to cardiac function. Our findings also emphasize the need for dynamic regulation of the SERCA pump by PLN and/or SLN to maintain cardiac contractility in normal conditions and during pathophysiological states.
Cardiovascular Research 02/2011; 89(2):353-61. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvq294 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely held that myocyte apoptosis in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) contributes to left ventricle (LV) dysfunction and heart failure. The main goal of this investigation was to determine if there is a statistical relationship among LV hypertrophy, apoptosis and LV function, and importantly whether the apoptosis occurs in myocytes or nonmyocytes in the heart. We used both rat and canine models of severe LVH induced by chronic thoracic aortic banding with resultant LV-aortic pressure gradients 145-155 mmHg and increases in LV/body weight of 58 and 70%. These models also provided the ability to examine transmural apoptosis in LVH. In both models, the overwhelming majority (88%) of apoptotic cells were nonmyocytes. The regressions for apoptosis vs. LVH were stronger for nonmyocytes than myocytes and also stronger in the subendocardium than the subepicardium. Importantly, LV systolic and diastolic wall stresses were normal, indicating that the apoptosis could not be attributed to LV stretch or heart failure. In addition, there was no relationship between the extent of apoptosis and LV ejection fraction, which actually increased (P < 0.05), in the face of elevated LV systolic pressure, indicating that greater apoptosis did not result in a decrease in LV function. Thus, in response to chronic, severe pressure overload, LVH in the absence of LV dilation, and elevated LV wall stress, apoptosis occurred predominantly in nonmyocytes in the myocardial interstitium, more in the subendocardium than the subepicardium. The extent of apoptosis was linearly related to the amount of LV hypertrophy, but not to LV function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into a wide range of cell types. We previously described that blastocyst injection of wild type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into various knockout (KO) mouse models of human disease prevents disease from occurring. In this study we ask if the blastocyst approach can also correct defects in a mouse model of transgenic (Tg) overexpression of a pro-apoptotic factor. We injected ROSA26 (LacZ-marked) WT ESCs into human mammalian sterile 20 like-kinase 1 (Mst1) Tg blastocysts. Mst1 Tg mice overexpress Mst1, a pro-apoptotic factor, in a cardiac-specific manner. As a result, Mst1 Tg mice develop adult dilated cardiomyopathy driven by apoptosis, reduction in cell density and no hypertrophic compensation. Incorporation of WT ESCs generated WT/Mst1 chimeric mice with normal hearts at histological and functional levels. Accordingly, apoptosis and cell density parameters were normalized. The experiments suggest that an adult-onset cardiac myopathy induced by overexpression of the pro-apoptotic Mst1 can be reversed by developmental incorporation of WT ESCs. The findings also suggest that since forced expression of the Mst1 transgene is not abolished in the rescued chimeras, the WT ES-derived cells normalize pathways that lie downstream of Mst1. The results expand the therapeutic capability of the ESCs to mouse models that overproduce detrimental proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Id1 and Id3 genes play major roles during cardiac development, despite their expression being confined to non-myocardial layers (endocardium-endothelium-epicardium). We previously described that Id1Id3 double knockout (dKO) mouse embryos die at mid-gestation from multiple cardiac defects, but early lethality precluded the studies of the roles of Id in the postnatal heart. To elucidate postnatal roles of Id genes, we ablated the Id3 gene and conditionally ablated the Id1 gene in the endothelium to generate conditional KO (cKO) embryos. We observed cardiac phenotypes at birth and at 6 months of age. Half of the Id cKO mice died at birth. Postnatal demise was associated with cardiac enlargement and defects in the ventricular septum, trabeculation and vasculature. Surviving Id cKO mice exhibited fibrotic vasculature, cardiac enlargement and decreased cardiac function. An abnormal vascular response was also observed in the healing of excisional skin wounds of Id cKO mice. Expression patterns of vascular, fibrotic and hypertrophic markers were altered in the Id cKO hearts, but addition of Insulin-Like Growth Factor binding protein-3 (IGFbp3) reversed gene expression profiles of vascular and fibrotic, but not hypertrophic markers. Thus, ablation of Id genes in the vasculature leads to distinct postnatal cardiac phenotypes. These findings provide important insights into the role/s of the endocardial network of the endothelial lineage in the development of cardiac disease, and highlight IGFbp3 as a potential link between Id and its vascular effectors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Hippo, the master regulator of cell death, proliferation, and organ size in flies. It is the chief component of the mammalian Hippo pathway and promotes apoptosis and inhibits compensatory cardiac hypertrophy, playing a critical role in mediating heart failure. How Mst1 is regulated, however, remains unclear. Using genetically altered mice in which expression of the tumor suppressor Ras-association domain family 1 isoform A (Rassf1A) was modulated in a cell type-specific manner, we demonstrate here that Rassf1A is an endogenous activator of Mst1 in the heart. Although the Rassf1A/Mst1 pathway promoted apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, thereby playing a detrimental role, the same pathway surprisingly inhibited fibroblast proliferation and cardiac hypertrophy through both cell-autonomous and autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, playing a protective role during pressure overload. In cardiac fibroblasts, the Rassf1A/Mst1 pathway negatively regulated TNF-α, a key mediator of hypertrophy, fibrosis, and resulting cardiac dysfunction. These results suggest that the functional consequence of activating the proapoptotic Rassf1A/Mst1 pathway during pressure overload is cell type dependent in the heart and that suppressing this mechanism in cardiac fibroblasts could be detrimental.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2010; 120(10):3555-67. DOI:10.1172/JCI43569 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenylyl cyclase (AC) type 5 (AC5) and AC type 6 (AC6) are the two major AC isoforms in the heart. Cardiac overexpression of AC6 has been shown to be protective in response to several interventions. In this investigation, we examined the effects of chronic pressure overload in AC6 transgenic (TG) mice. In the absence of any stress, AC6 TG mice exhibited enhanced contractile function compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates, i.e., increased (P < 0.05) left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (75 +/- 0.9 vs. 71 +/- 0.5%) and LV dP/dt (7,850 +/- 526 vs. 6,374 +/- 315 mmHg/s). Forskolin (25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 5 min) increased LVEF more (P < 0.05) in AC6 TG mice (14.8 +/- 1.0%) than in WT mice (7.7 +/- 1.0%). Also, isoproterenol (0.04 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 5 min) increased LVEF more (P < 0.05) in AC6 TG mice (18.0 +/- 1.2%) than in WT mice (11.6 +/- 2.1%). Pressure overload, induced by 4 wk of transverse aortic constriction (TAC), increased the LV weight-to-body weight ratio and myocyte cross-sectional area similarly in both groups, but reduced LVEF more in AC6 TG mice (22%) compared with WT mice (9%), despite the higher starting level of LVEF in AC6 TG mice. LV systolic wall stress increased more in AC6 TG mice than in WT mice, which could be responsible for the reduced LVEF in AC6 TG mice with chronic pressure overload. In addition, LV dP/dt was no longer elevated in AC6 TG mice after TAC compared with WT mice. LV end-diastolic diameter was also greater (P < 0.05) in AC6 TG mice (3.8 +/- 0.07 mm) than in WT mice (3.6 +/- 0.05 mm) after TAC. Thus, in contrast to other interventions previously reported to be salutary with cardiac AC6 overpression, the response to chronic pressure overload was not; actually, AC6 TG mice fared worse than WT mice. The mechanism may be due to the increased LV systolic wall stress in AC6 TG mice with chronic pressure overload.