Michał Zimecki

Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (76)120.34 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cyclolinopeptide A, naturally occurring immunomodulatory nonapeptide, was modified with S or R-γ(3)-bis(homophenylalanine) in positions 3 or 4, or both 3 and 4. The replacement of one or both Phe residues by γ(3)-hhPhe led to decrease of their conformational flexibility in the analogues in comparison to CLA. All cyclic peptides, except 11, exist as isomers with the cis Pro-Pro peptide bond. Cyclic peptide 11 with single modification S-γ(3)-hhPhe(4) exists as a mixture of two isomers and the major isomer (89%) contains all peptide bonds of the trans geometry. The peptides were subjected to several immunological tests in vitro and in vivo. Linear peptides 1-8, precursors of CLA analogues 9-16, were not toxic against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but cyclic analogues showed dose-dependent toxicity with exception of peptide 11. Linear peptides did not inhibit mitogen-induced PBMC proliferation whereas cyclic ones inhibited the proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The actions of linear and cyclic peptides with regard to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF α) production in whole human blood cultures were differential but particularly suppressive in the case of linear compound 6. Therefore, for in vivo tests compounds 6 and 11 were selected. The compounds showed comparable, suppressive actions in induction and effector phases of delayed type hypersensitivity as well as in the carrageenan-induced foot pad edema in mouse models. In summary, linear peptide 6 and cyclic peptide 11 are attractive as potential immune suppressor drugs.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry. 09/2014; 86C:515-527.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoregulatory effects of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) in two in vitro models: (1) the secondary humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC); and (2) the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). We compared the non-sialylated glycoform of rhLF as expressed by glycoengineered Pichia pastoris with one that was further chemically sialylated. In an earlier study, we showed that sialylated rhLF could reverse methotrexate-induced suppression of the secondary immune response of mouse splenocytes to SRBC, and that the phenomenon is dependent on the interaction of lactoferrin (LF) with sialoadhesin (CD169). We found that the immunorestorative activity of sialylated rhLF is also dependent on its interaction with the CD22 antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed by B lymphocytes. We also demonstrated that only sialylated rhLF was able to inhibit the MLR reaction. MLR was inhibited by bovine lactoferrin (bLF), a glycoform that has a more complex glycan structure. Desialylated bLF and lactoferricin, a bLF-derived peptide devoid of carbohydrates, did not express such inhibitory activity. We showed that the interaction of LF with sialic acid receptors is essential for at least some of the immunoregulatory activity of this glycoprotein.
    Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 05/2014; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new type of tricyclic azaphenothiazines— 1,8-diazaphenothiazines—was obtained in the reaction of 2,3-and 3,4-disubstituted pyridines. The reaction ran as the Smiles rearrangement. The 1,8-diazaphenothiazine system was determined using NOE experiment and 2D NMR spectra (COSY, HSQC, HMBC). 10H-1,8-diazaphenothi-azine was transformed into 10-derivatives with alkyl, aminoalkyl, amidoalkyl, sulfonamidoalkyl, and nitrogen half-mustard groups. The compounds were tested for their effects on phytohemagglutinin A-induced proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human whole blood cultures. The compounds exhibited differential, dose-dependent inhibitory activities in these tests. All the compounds were low toxic against PBMC. The compounds showing the highest antiproliferative activity strongly inhibited the growth of leukemia L-1210 and colon cancer SW-948 cell lines, similarly as cisplatin, a reference drug.
    Medicinal Chemistry Research 01/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammalian exocrine secretions, is an important component of the host defense system. It is also a major protein of the secondary granules of neutrophils from which is released upon activation. Due to its potential clinical utility, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been produced in various eukaryotic expression systems; however none of these are fully compatible with humans. Most of the biopharmaceuticals approved by the FDA for use in humans are produced in mammalian expression systems. The Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have become the system of choice for proteins that require post-translational modifications, such as glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to scale-up expression and purification of rhLF in a CHO expression system, verify its glycan primary structure, and assess its biological properties in cell culture models. A stable CHO cell line producing >200mg/L of rhLF was developed and established. rhLF was purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography procedure. The highly homogenous rhLF has a molecular weight of approximately 80kD. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis revealed N-linked, partially sialylated glycans at two glycosylation sites, typical for human milk LF. This novel rhLF showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in a similar manner to its natural counterpart. In addition, rhLF revealed a modulatory effect on cellular redox via upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. These data imply that the CHO-derived rhLF is fully compatible with the native molecule, thus it has promise for human therapeutic applications.
    Journal of Biotechnology 09/2013; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new type of azaphenothiazines - tetracyclic quino[3,2-b]benzo[1,4]thiazines, possessing common substituents (H, CH3, Cl, Br, F, CF3, SCH3) in positions 8-10 and pharmacophoric aminoalkyl substituents in position 6, were obtained from diquinodithiin and 2,2'-dichloro-3,3'-diquinolinyl disulfide in several-step syntheses. Sixty one compounds, grouped as the 6H, 6-dialkylaminoalkyl, 6-acylaminoalkyl and sulfonylaminoalkyl derivatives, were tested for cytotoxicity, their effects on phytohemagglutin A (PHA)-induced proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production by these cells. The compounds exhibited differential inhibitory activities in these tests and significantly varied in terms of cytotoxicity. The most promising compounds were tested for growth inhibition of leukemia L-1210 cells, colon cancer SV-948 cells and epidermal carcinoma A-341 cells. The most active compounds exhibited anticancer activity against these cell lines comparable to that of cisplatin. The structure-activity relationship of the compounds were discussed.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry 03/2013; 63C:444-456. · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Jolanta Artym, Michał Zimecki
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) - a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are used in health-promoting infant and adult formulae as well as in a modified form (HAMLET) to treat cancer. Lactoperoxidase (LCP) is used as an additive to mouth hygiene products and as a salivary substitute. Casein derivatives are applied, in addition, in the dry mouth syndrome. On the other hand, casein hydrolysates, containing active tripeptides, found application in hypertension and in type 2 diabetes. Lysozyme is routinely used for food conservation and in pharmaceutical products. It was successfully used in premature infants with concomitant diseases to improve health parameters. When used as prophylaxis in patients with scheduled surgery, it significantly reduced the incidence of hepatitis resulting from blood transfusion. Lysozyme was also used in infected children as an antimicrobial agent showing synergistic effects in combination with different antibiotics. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) was introduced to therapy of Alzheimer's disease patients. The therapeutic value of PRP was proved in several clinical trials and supported by studies on its mechanism of action. Concentrated immunoglobulin preparations from colostrum and milk of hyperimmunized cows showed efficacy in prevention of infections by bacteria, viruses and protozoa. A nutrition formula with milk-derived TGF-β2 (Modulen IBD®) found application in treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the preparations containing milk-derived products are safe and effective measures in prevention and treatment of infections as well as autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.
    Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 01/2013; 67:800-16.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of lactoferrin (LF), a natural immunomodulator, to restrain allergen-induced pleurisy in mice. BALB/c female mice, 8- to 10-week old, weighing 24 g on average, were used. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with 50 μg of ovalbumin (OVA) and the pleurisy was elicited 14 days later by intrapleural injection of 12.5 μg of OVA. LF was given 24 and 3 h before elicitation of the allergic reaction. The cytokine levels in the pleural exudates were measured by immunoassays. The blood and pleural exudates smears were stained with Giemsa and May-Grünwald reagents and reviewed histologically. Lung sections were stained with eosin and hematoxylin for histological evaluation. Lactoferrin significantly decreased manifestation of pleurisy induced by OVA in a sensitized mouse model. In particular, the percentages of eosinophils in blood and pleural exudates were strongly diminished. The histological analysis of lungs revealed that LF diminished the development of pathological lesions, such as pulmonary edema, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and hemosiderosis, which were found in the lungs after injection of the eliciting dose of OVA. LF also decreased the level of IL-5 secreted into the pleural fluid. This is a first demonstration that LF significantly decreases antigen-specific pleurisy in a sensitized mouse model.
    Agents and Actions 07/2012; 61(11):1247-55. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies revealed that ubiquitin and its decapeptide fragment with the LEDGRTLSDY sequence, located on the exposed molecule loop, strongly suppressed the immune response. This suggested that the loop may serve as a functional epitope of ubiquitin molecule and that a possible mechanism of biological action of the synthesized peptides is associated with interfering in interactions of ubiquitin with other molecules. Ubiquitin is known to exist in oligomeric forms, which can interact with various oligomeric receptors. We designed and synthesized new dimeric analogs of the ubiquitin fragment, to probe whether dimeric peptides may have higher affinity towards the ubiquitin receptors responsible for immunosuppression, which are believed to form oligomeric structures. Three dimerization strategies, N-terminus to N-terminus, C-terminus to C-terminus, and N-terminus to C-terminus (head-to-tail) via PEG derivatives were used to synthesize the dimeric peptides on solid support. In the course of our research, we developed a new and straightforward procedure of dimerization where α-amino groups of the C-terminal lysine residues of two peptide fragments were linked by PEG spacer directly on solid support. The effect of dimeric analogs on the immunological response was tested in the AFC in vitro experiment. The immunological tests showed that the head-to-tail dimerization caused a more profound increase in the biological activity than other tested dimerization methods. Our results suggest that such orientation of peptide components may correspond to orientation of the hypothetic ubiquitin receptors responsible for the immunomodulatory activity.
    Journal of Peptide Science 05/2012; 18(7):456-65. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new linear amidrazone derivative, 6-acetyl-cyclohex-3-enecarboxylic acid [1-pyridin-2-yl-1-(pyridyn-2-yloamin)meth-(Z)-ylidene] hydrazide, H(2)L (2) and its Cu(II) complex, [Cu(2)L(2)]·4H(2)O (3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Compound 2 was synthesized in the equimolar reaction of N(3)-substituted amidrazone with cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. The Cu complex of 2 was obtained in the reaction with copper(II) acetate. The molecular structures of 2 and 3 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The parent ligand exists in its amide-hydrazone form in the solid state. The central amidrazone moiety has a Z configuration with respect to the double C=N bond. Coordination to the metal center promotes Z/E isomerization of the hydrazone group of the ligand. Compound 3 is a dinuclear four-coordinated Cu(II) complex with the amidrazone ligand behaving as a tetradentate double deprotonated chelating one. Several biological activities of 2 and 3 were examined in vitro; they were: antimicrobial properties against selected bacterial and fungal strains, suppression of phytohemagglutinin A (PHA)-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production. The cytotoxic activity of Cu(II) complex was determined with respect to the four carcinoma cell lines (SW 984, CX-1, L-1210, A-431). The studied complex exhibited significant cytotoxic effects (particularly against CX-1 colon carcinoma), comparable to those reported for cisplatin. Both compounds have shown a relatively low antibacterial activity and were devoid of antifungal properties.
    Journal of inorganic biochemistry 05/2012; 114:55-64. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restoration of impaired immune response in immunocompromised patients is a crucial problem. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of isoxazole R-11 in reconstitution of the immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Mice were given a sublethal dose (250 mg/kg b.w.) of cyclophosphamide (CP). The cellular immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) and the humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) were generated. R-11 was administered at repetitive, intraperitoneal doses (20 μg/mouse) until determination of the immune responses: 7 and 15 doses on alternate days for cellular and humoral immune response, respectively. For phenotypic studies R-11 was given per os, at a single dose of 20 μg/mouse. The ability of R-11 to affect interleukin- 6 (IL-6) production was determined in the whole human blood cell culture. R-11 increased the content of CD19+ cells in the spleens and lymph nodes with a concomitant decrease of CD3+ and CD4+ cells. The compound significantly accelerated restoration of both cellular and humoral immune responses, elevated the numbers of circulating leukocytes and splenocytes and normalized the blood cell picture. Supplementary experiments showed that R-11 was not toxic with regard to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that it upregulated IL-6 production in blood cell culture stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We demonstrated that R-11 is likely a B-cell tropic agent which can restore both cellular and humoral immune responses in immunocompromised mice and may have a potential to be applied in therapy of immunocompromised patients.
    Pharmacological reports: PR 03/2012; 64(2):403-11. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of novel compounds were synthesized in reactions of N(3) -substituted amidrazones with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride: linear, isoindole, and triazole derivatives. All new structures were confirmed by H(1) NMR and IR spectrometry as well as elemental analysis. Potential biological effects of new compounds were predicted with the Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS) program. Antiviral, antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities were experimentally verified.
    Archiv der Pharmazie 02/2012; 345(6):486-94. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin resulting from exposure to allergens in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the actions of lactoferrin (LF), a natural immunomodulator, on the elicitation phases of the cellular and humoral, cutaneous immune responses to oxazolone and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), respectively. LF was given i.v. in a 10 mg/mouse dose, together with the eliciting doses of the antigens. The ear edema and the number of lymphocytes in the draining lymph nodes were measured. In addition, the production of IL-2 in the cultures of lymph node cells and the content of IL-4 in lymph node cells were determined. LF had a profound inhibitory effect on the eliciting phase of the immune response to oxazolone as measured by the ear edema and lymph node cell number. The suppressive effect of LF on the effector phase of the immune response to TDI was moderate. LF had some stimulatory effect on the ex vivo content of IL-4 in lymphocytes in the immune response to TDI. On the other hand, it significantly inhibited IL-2 in vitro production in the immune response to oxazolone. The data strongly suggest that LF exerted differential actions on the activities of antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells involved in respective types of the cutaneous immune responses.
    Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 01/2012; 66:16-22.
  • Michał Zimecki
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention and treatment of pathological inflammatory processes requires application of various classes of immune suppressors, such as calcineurin inhibitors, steroids and non-steroid inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. However, each type of these immune suppressors causes less or more serious adverse side-effects. Exploration of the role played by prostanoids in the immune response and identification of functionally distinct prostaglandin E receptors (EP1-EP4) opened new perspectives in therapy of inflammation, autoimmunity and prevention of graft rejection. The EP4 receptor appeared to be an attractive target to affect manifestations of various pathological states by application of either agonists or antagonists of the receptor. This article presents a short overview of experimental approaches aimed at manipulation of signaling via EP2 and EP4 receptors that could have therapeutic utility.
    Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 01/2012; 66:287-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin is a conservative polypeptide present in every eukaryotic cell. Apart from its involvement in proteasomal degradation and other intracellular signal pathways, it was suggested to play an important role as the extracellular immunomodulator and antimicrobial agent. Moreover, ubiquitin-derived peptides were shown to express significant biological activities. Our previous studies showed a high immunosuppressive potency of the ubiquitin peptic hydrolysate in which we identified over 70 different peptides. The present work focuses on synthesizing the most abundant of these peptides and investigating their immunomodulatory potency. The peptide VKTLTGKTI possessed the highest immunosuppressory activity in AFC experiments, comparable to the previously described LEDGRTLSDY sequence (a previously discovered ubiquitin-derived peptide). Moreover, some of the investigated peptides expressed immunostimulatory effects. These findings support the idea that ubiquitin, together with products of its degradation, could represent a self-regulating immunoregulatory system. Peptide VKTLTGKTI was also tested for its activity to prolong the skin graft survival in mice. The results showed that the investigated peptide significantly extended the skin transplant rejection time, therefore it could be considered as a potential supplementary medicine in the post-transplantation therapy. Moreover, we synthesized two analogs of investigated peptides, first designed to mimic the non-linear epitope consisting of ubiquitin 16-21 and ubiquitin 52-57 fragments, and second designed to mimic the ubiquitin 5-13 hairpin. We also tested their immunosuppressory activity in in vitro experiments.
    Peptides 12/2011; 32(12):2418-27. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High doses of chemotherapeutics in clinical treatment, leading to cell toxicity, can be lowered by co-administration of other immunoregulatory drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of several derivatives of cyclolinopeptide A (CLA), derived from linen seeds, on the suppressive action of metothrexate (MTX) in a mouse model of humoral immune response in vitro. New CLA analogues 1 and 2, and their linear precursors 3 and 4, containing conformationally restricted dipeptide fragment Phe-Phe or D-Phe-D-Phe with ethylene bridge (-CH(2)-CH(2)-) between phenylalanine nitrogens were synthesized. NMR studies and theoretical calculations showed that introduction of locally constraining fragment into CLA molecule increased its overall conformational flexibility. The bioactivity of new CLA analogues was examined in the mouse model of the in vitro secondary humoral immune response, suppressed by methotrexate (MTX). The results revealed differential actions of the peptides such as 1/augmentation of the suppressive activity of MTX or 2/antagonistic effects of the peptides on MTX-induced suppression. Potential advantages for the application of CLA-derived peptides in therapy and structure-activity relationships were discussed.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry 07/2011; 46(9):4608-17. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A new 1,2,4-triazole derivative, 2-(4-phenyl-5-pyridin-2-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, C20H20N4O2 (I), and its dimethyl sulfoxide solvate 1:1 (II) have been synthesized and their crystal structure was established. Compound (I) was screened for its antiproliferative and antiinflammatory activity. Structural analysis indicated the substantial difference between two symmetry independent molecules in (I) and this in (II), it manifests in the relative orientation of pyridine/phenyl and triazole rings, as well as in the orientation of carboxyl group with respect to cyclohexane ring. The molecules A and B in the crystal (I) form two hydrogen-bonded chains through O–Hcarboxyl and Ntriazole atoms, giving separate catemers of symmetry independent molecules. The catemer of (IA) running along the 21 axis is homochiral, while the catemer (IB) is racemic—formed about the c glide plane. In the crystalline solvate (II) complexation of (I) with DMSO induced enantiomeric self-resolution. Obtained crystals are racemic twins, in which each part is built of one enantiomer of (I) having the relative configuration 11S,12R or 11R,12S. A pair of host–guest molecules is linked by the O–Hcarboxyl⋯ODMSO hydrogen bond. Graphical Abstract
    Journal of Chemical Crystallography 01/2011; 41(6):880-885. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of Lewis rats with calf thymus extract (TFX®) and its six-peptide fraction on the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Interferon- ß served as a reference drug. We found that intramuscular administration of the thymus extract fraction significantly reduced clinical, immunological, histological, and ultrastructural alterations inherent in the disease. We suggest that TFX® or TFX®-derived fractions have potential as therapeutics in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
    Folia neuropathologica / Association of Polish Neuropathologists and Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences. 01/2010; 48(4):246-57.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, phage therapy may be an alternative to treat or prevent suppurative infections in immunocompromised patients. The authors' recent studies indicated that such an approach is particularly beneficial in immunosuppressed mice. A5/L bacteriophages, specific for the Staphylococcus aureus strain L, were tested for their ability to protect CBA mice subjected to myeloablative (busulfan) and immunosuppressive (cyclophosphamide) conditioning followed by a syngeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and infected with a sublethal or lethal dose of bacteria. The application of phages to immunocompromised mice given BMT led to a significant (>90%) reduction in bacterial load in the spleen and liver. Moreover, 72% of such mice attained long-term survival versus 8.2% survival of mice not treated with phages. Analysis of leukocyte number and blood cell type composition revealed that phage application increased the leukocyte numbers and neutrophil content in the circulating blood. Moreover, phage application led to an increased content of the myelocytic cell lineage in the bone marrow. The protective effects of phages in immunosuppressed mice are both direct (bacteriolytic) and indirect (by stimulation of myelopoiesis). The results suggest a potential benefit of phage therapy in immunocompromised patients subjected to bone marrow transplant procedures.
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology 12/2009; 199(2):71-9. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing levels of antibiotic resistance constitutes one of the main challenges in medicine today, and has increased interest in the potential use of alternative antibacterial agents. One of the most interesting 'classes' of novel antibacterials used to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria is bacteriophages, which are viruses that specifically infect and kill bacterial cells. This review discusses the current status of bacteriophage therapy, including the experience of one expert center specializing in this form of treatment.
    Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England: 2000) 09/2009; 10(8):766-74. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteriophages can be successfully applied to treat infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Until now no attempts have been undertaken to treat infections in immunosuppressed patients with phages. In this work we investigated the prophylactic efficacy of specific bacteriophages in CBA mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP) and infected with Staphylococcus aureus. High numbers of bacterial colony-forming units in the organs as well as elevated tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 serum concentrations in CP-treated and S. aureus-infected mice were significantly lowered upon application of phages. The phages markedly increased the percentage of circulating neutrophils and immature cells from the myelocytic and lymphocytic lineages in CP-treated, S. aureus-infected mice as well as of myelocytes and immature neutrophils in the bone marrow. In addition, phages stimulated in such mice generation of specific agglutinins against S. aureus. Application of specific phages to immunosuppressed mice prior to infection with S. aureus proved very effective, suggesting a potential benefit of phage therapy in immunocompromised patients experiencing bacterial infections.
    BMC Microbiology 09/2009; 9:169. · 2.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

386 Citations
120.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Polish Academy of Sciences
      • Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2004–2012
    • Instytut Immunologii i Terapii Doświadczalnej im. Ludwika Hirszfelda
      Vrotslav, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
    • Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa we Wrocławiu
      Vrotslav, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2008–2011
    • Medical University of Łódź
      Łódź, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2009
    • Lodz University of Technology
      • Institute of Organic Chemistry
      Łódź, Lodz Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2005
    • University of Wroclaw
      • Department of Organic Chemistry
      Vrotslav, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
    • Wroclaw Medical University
      • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Wrocław, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2002
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology (IBP)
      Houston, TX, United States