L G Persson

University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Vaestra Goetaland, Sweden

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Publications (18)63.85 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To analyse the effect of surgical treatment of peri-implantitis without systemic antibiotics at different types of implants. Four implants representing four different implant systems - turned (Biomet 3i), TiOblast (Astra Tech AB), SLA (Straumann AG) and TiUnite (Nobel Biocare AB) were placed in the left side of the mandible in six dogs, 3 months after tooth extraction. Experimental peri-implantitis was initiated by placement of ligatures and plaque formation. The ligatures were removed when about 40-50% of the supporting bone was lost. Four weeks later, surgical therapy including mechanical cleaning of implant surfaces was performed. No systemic antibiotics or local chemical antimicrobial therapy were used. After 5 months, block biopsies were obtained and prepared for histological analysis. Two of the TiUnite implants were lost after surgical therapy. Radiographic bone gain occurred at implants with turned, TiOblast and SLA surfaces, while at TiUnite implants additional bone loss was found after treatment. Resolution of peri-implantitis was achieved in tissues surrounding implants with turned and TiOblast surfaces. Resolution of peri-implantitis following treatment without systemic or local antimicrobial therapy is possible but the outcome of treatment is influenced by implant surface characteristics.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2011; 38(1):58-64. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze tissue reactions to plaque formation following ligature removal in experimental peri-implantitis at commercially available implants in dogs. Mandibular premolars and the three anterior premolars in both sides of the maxilla were extracted in six Labrador dogs. After 3 months, four implants representing four different implant systems--groups A (turned), B (TiOblast), C (SLA), D (TiUnite)--were placed in a randomized order in the right side of the mandible. Three months after implant installation, experimental peri-implantitis was initiated by placement of ligatures and plaque formation. The ligatures were removed when about 40-50% of the supporting bone was lost. After the subsequent 24-week period of continued plaque accumulation, block biopsies containing implants and their surrounding tissues were obtained and prepared for histological analysis. All types of implants exhibited extensive inflammatory cell infiltrates and large associated crater-formed osseous defects. The lesions were consistently characterized by insufficient encapsulation of pus and biofilm layers and the inflammatory cell infiltrates extended apical of the pocket epithelium. The presence of numerous osteoclasts indicated active tissue destruction. The vertical dimension and the overall surface area of the infiltrated connective tissue (ICT) were larger at implants of group D than at other implant types. It is suggested that spontaneous progression of peri-implantitis is associated with severe inflammation and tissue destruction.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 05/2009; 20(4):366-71. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze tissue reactions to plaque formation following ligature removal at commercially available implants exposed to experimental peri-implantitis. Six Labrador dogs about 1 year old were used. All mandibular premolars and the three anterior premolars in both sides of the maxilla were extracted. After 3 months four implants representing four different implant systems with different surface characteristics--implant group A (turned), B (TiOblast), C (sandblasted acid-etched; SLA) and D (TiUnite)--were placed in a randomized order in the right side of the mandible. Three months after implant installation experimental peri-implantitis was initiated by placement of ligatures in a submarginal position and plaque accumulation. At week 12, when about 40-50% of the supporting bone was lost, the ligatures were removed. During the subsequent 24-week period plaque accumulation continued. Radiographic and clinical examinations were performed during the 'active breakdown' period (plaque accumulation and ligatures) and the plaque accumulation period after ligature removal. The experiment was terminated at week 36. The bone loss that took place during the 'active breakdown' period varied between 3.5 and 4.6 mm. The additional bone loss that occurred during the plaque accumulation period after ligature removal was 1.84 (A), 1.72 (B), 1.55 (C) and 2.78 mm (D). Spontaneous progression of experimentally induced peri-implantitis occurred at implants with different geometry and surface characteristics. Progression was most pronounced at implants of type D (TiUnite surface).
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 11/2008; 19(10):997-1002. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the healing of marginal defects that occurred at implants placed in a healed ridge or in fresh extraction sockets. Six dogs were used. The right side of the mandible was used in the first part of the study. The first, second premolars and first molars were extracted. After 3 months of healing the bone was prepared for implant installation in these premolar and molar sites. The marginal 5 mm of each recipient site was widened with a conical drill. Following implant installation a gap of varying dimension occurred around the titanium rod (artificial defect (A) sites). At this interval the third and fourth premolars were extracted and implants were installed in the distal socket of the two teeth (natural defect (N) sites). The flaps were sutured to allow non-submerged healing. After 2 months, the procedures were repeated in the left side. Two months later the animals were euthanized, and biopsies were obtained and prepared for histological examination. The length of the zone of de novo'bone-to-implant contact' in the defect region was longer at the A sites than at the N sites both at the 2- and the 4-month interval. Further, while after 4 months of healing the marginal bone crest at the A sites was located close to the abutment/fixture junction, at the N sites a marked reduction of the height of the bone crest was documented. Hence, most A site defects became completely resolved whereas healing of the N site defects was incomplete. The process of bone modeling and remodeling at an implant placed in a fresh extraction socket differs from the resolution of marginal defects that may occur following implant installation in a healed ridge.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 09/2006; 17(4):351-8. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marginal hard tissue defects present at implants with a rough surface can heal with a high degree of bone fill and osseointegration. The healing of similar defects adjacent to implants with a smooth surface appears to be less predictable. The aim was to compare bone healing at implants with turned or rough surface topographies placed in self-contained defects using either a submerged or non-submerged installation technique. Six dogs were used. Three months after tooth extraction four experimental sites were prepared for implant installation in both sides of the mandible. The marginal 5 mm of the canal prepared for the implant was widened. Thus, following implant placement a circumferential gap occurred between the bone tissue and the implant surface that was between 1 and 1.25 mm wide. In each side of the mandible two implants with a turned surface and two implants with a rough surface were installed. The implants in the right side were fully submerged, while a non-submerged technique was applied in the left side. The animals were sacrificed 4 months later, block biopsies of each implant site were dissected and ground as well as paraffin sections were prepared. The marginal defects around rough surface implants exhibited after 4 months of healing substantial bone fill and a high degree of osseointegration following either the submerged or the non-submerged installation technique. Healing at turned implants was characterized by incomplete bone fill and the presence of a connective tissue zone between the implant and the newly formed bone. The distance between the implant margin (M) and the most coronal level of bone-to-implant contact (B) at implants with a rough surface was 0.84+/-0.37 mm at submerged and 0.90+/-0.39 mm at non-submerged sites. The distance M-B at implants with a turned surface was 3.39+/-0.52 mm at submerged and 3.23+/-0.68 mm at non-submerged sites. The differences between the rough and turned implants regarding the length of distance M-B were statistically significant (paired t-test). Osseointegration at implants placed in sites with marginal defects is influenced by the surface characteristics of the implant.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 06/2005; 32(5):448-55. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various methods have been applied for the treatment of periimplantitis lesions. It has been reported that the procedures used have been effective in eliminating the inflammatory lesion but that re-osseointegration to the once-contaminated implant surface has been difficult or impossible to achieve. The aim of this study was to examine the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in combination with hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of experimentally induced periimplantitis lesions. Three dental implants (ITI Dental Implant System, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were placed in each side of the edentulous mandible of four beagle dogs. Implants with a turned surface and implants with a sand-blasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) surface (SLA, Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were used. Experimental periimplantitis was induced during 3 months. Five weeks later each animal received tablets of amoxicillin and metronidazole for a period of 17 days. Three days after the start of the antibiotic treatment, full-thickness flaps were elevated, and the granulation tissue in the bone craters was removed. In the two anterior implant sites in both sides of the mandible, a combination of CO2 laser therapy and application of a water solution of hydrogen peroxide was used. The implant in the posterior site of each quadrant was cleaned with cotton pellets soaked in saline. Biopsy specimens were obtained 6 months later. The amount of re-osseointegration was 21% and 82% at laser-treated turned-surface implants and SLA implants, respectively, and 22% and 84% at saline-treated turned-surface implants and SLA implants, respectively. The present study demonstrated the following: (1) a combination of systemic antibiotics and local curettage and debridement resulted in the resolution of experimentally induced periimplantitis lesions; (2) at implants with a turned surface, a small amount of re-osseointegration was observed at the base of the bone defects whereas a considerable amount of re-osseointegration occurred at implants with an SLA surface; and (3) the use of CO2 laser and hydrogen peroxide during surgical therapy had no apparent effect on bone formation and re-osseointegration.
    Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 02/2004; 6(4):230-8. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present experiment was to study the soft and hard tissure healing following treatment of experimentally induced peri-implantitis. 5 labrador dogs about 1-year old were used. The mandibular right and left 1st molars, 4th and 3rd premolars were removed, titanium fixtures (Brånemark System®) were installed, and standard abutements were connected in a 2nd stage procedure. After 3 months experimental peri-implantitis was induced by the placement of cotton floss ligatures in a submarginal position. 6 weeks later the ligatures were removed. 1 month after ligature removal, an antibiotic regimen was initiated. During a 3-week period, each dog was given tablets of amoxicillin and metronidazole. In the left side of the mandible, buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated and granilation tissure within the bone craters curetted. The abutments were removed. The exposed outer surface and the internal part of the fixtures were carefully cleaned with a detergent (delmopinol HC1). An e-PTFE membrane was placed over each fixture and adjusted to cover the bone crater. New cover screws were fitted through the membranes to the cleaned fixtures. The implants were submerged and the flaps sutured. In the right side of the mandible no local treatment was performed. The dogs were sacrificed after 4 months and biopsies prepared for histological examination. The findings indicated that treatment of a peri-implantitis lesion, including comprehensive systemic antimicrobial therapy and cleaning of submerged implants resulted in (i) the elimination of the inflammatory process in the peri-implantitis tissues and (ii) the establishment of a dense connective tissue capsule in direct contact with the previously exposed surface of the implant system. It was also observed that (iii) new bone was frequently laid down on the pristine cover screws.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 06/2002; 7(4):366 - 372. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peri-implantitis is a condition that includes soft tissue inflammation and rapid loss of bone. Treatment of peri-implantitis includes both antimicrobial and bone augmenting methods. The question of whether true re-osseointegration may occur following treatment of peri-implantitis is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the character of the implant surface was of importance for the occurrence of re-osseointegration following treatment of peri-implantitis. Four beagle dogs were used. The mandibular premolars were extracted. After 12 months, 3 ITI(R) solid screw dental implants were placed in each side of the mandible. In the left side, implants with a turned surface (Turned sites) were used, while in the right side implants with a SLA surface (SLA sites) were placed. After 3 months of healing, peri-implantitis was induced by ligature placement and plaque accumulation. When about 50% of the initial bone support was lost, the ligatures were removed. Five weeks later, treatment was initiated. Each animal received tablets of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole for a period of 17 days. Three days after the start of the antibiotic regimen, one implant site (experimental site) in each quadrant was exposed to local therapy. Following flap elevation, the exposed titanium surface was cleaned with the use of cotton pellets soaked in saline. The implants were submerged. Six months later, biopsies were obtained. Treatment resulted in a 72% bone fill of the bone defects at Turned sites and 76% at SLA sites. The amount of re-osseointegration was 22% at Turned sites and 84% at SLA sites. A treatment regimen that included (i) systemic administration of antibiotics combined with (ii) granulation tissue removal and implant surface cleaning resulted in resolution of peri-implantitis and bone fill in adjacent bone defects. Further, while substantial "re-osseointegration" occurred to an implant with a rough surface (SLA), bone growth on a previously exposed smooth surface (Turned) was minimal.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 01/2002; 12(6):595-603. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Tord Berglundh, Leif Persson, Björn Klinge
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    ABSTRACT: To systematically review the incidence of biological and technical complications in implant therapy reported in prospective longitudinal studies of at least 5 years. A MEDLINE search was conducted for prospective longitudinal studies with follow-up periods of at least 5 years. Screening and data abstraction were performed independently by multiple reviewers. The types of complications assessed were as follows: implant loss, sensory disturbance, soft tissue complications, peri-implantitis, bone loss >or=2.5 mm, implant fracture and technical complications related to implant components and suprastructures. The search provided 1310 titles and abstracts, out of which 159 were selected for full-text analysis. Finally, 51 studies were included. Meta analysis of these studies indicated that implant loss prior to functional loading is to be expected to occur in about 2.5% of all implants placed in implant therapy including more than one implant and when routine procedures are used. Implant loss during function occurs in about 2-3% of implants supporting fixed reconstructions, while in overdenture therapy >5% of the implants can be expected to be lost during a 5-year period. Few studies (41% of those included) reported data on the incidence of persisting sensory disturbance >1 year following implant surgery. Most of the studies that provided such data reported on the absence or a low incidence (1-2%) of this complication beyond this interval. A higher incidence of soft tissue complications was reported for patients treated with implants supporting overdentures. There is limited information regarding the occurrence of peri-implantitis and implants exhibiting bone loss >or=2.5 mm. Implant fracture is a rare complication and occurs in <1% of all implants during a 5-year period. The incidence of technical complications related to implant components and suprastructures was higher in overdentures than in fixed reconstructions. Implant loss was most frequently described (reported in about 100% of studies), while biological complications were considered in only 40-60% and technical complications in only 60-80% of the studies. This observation indicates that data on the incidence of biological and technical complications may be underestimated and should be interpreted with caution.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2002; 29 Suppl 3:197-212; discussion 232-3. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present experiment was to study if the quality of the titanium surface is a decisive factor for osseointegration and re-osseointegration. 2 Labrador dogs were used. The mandibular 1st molars and all premolars were removed bilaterally. 3 months later, 1 standard fixture and 3, 2-part "test fixtures" were installed in each side of the mandible. The text fixtures consisted of 1 6-mm long apical and 1 4-mm long coronal part connected with an internal screw. After 4 months, abutment connection was performed. 5 months later, a period of experimental peri-implantitis was initiated during which about 50% of the supporting bone tissue was lost. The dogs were later subjected to a treatment that included (i) systemic administration of antibiotics and (ii) surgical debridement of all implant sites. The abutments and the coronal parts of the text fixtures were removed. All parts of the exposed portion of the standard fixtures, the connecting screw and the apical part of the test fixtures were meticulously cleaned by mechanical means. A pristine, coronal fixture part was via the connecting screw attached to the apical fixture part of each text fixture. All fixtures were submerged. 2 weeks later, a fluorochrome was injected intravenously. After 4 months, biopsies of the implant sites were dissected and prepared for ground sectioning and analysis. It was demonstrated that re-osseointegration failed to occur to implant surfaces (standard) exposed to bacterial contamination, but did consistently occur at sites where a pristine implant component was placed in the bone defect following surgical debridement. The above findings seem to imply that the quality of the titanium surface is of decisive importance for both osseointegration and re-osseointegration.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 04/2001; 28(3):258-63. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the objectives of postoperative radiographic examinations of implants is to evaluate the marginal bone height and its changes over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of digital image processing on measurements of the marginal bone level around implants. Implants in beagle dogs, used to study the development of peri-implantitis and subsequent healing following treatment, were monitored with conventional radiography and a digital image plate system. Five observers measured the distance between a reference point and the bone level. Measurements in conventional radiographs were made with the use of an x-ray viewer (2x) and a magnifying lens (7x). For the digital images, the system's built-in measuring function was used together with five image processing techniques: edge enhancement (matrixes set on 5 and 25), inverted grey scale, single color highlight, and color intensity mapping together with the brightness and contrast control. From the time of maximum breakdown and the end of the experiment, histologic values were available. Differences between techniques and observers increased toward the end of the healing period. Measurements made at maximum breakdown did not differ significantly from the histologic value. Measurements made after healing all methods, except that using edge enhancement and a 25 x 25 kernel, differed significantly from the histologic value by underestimating the bone level. Measurements of bone level around implants from digital radiographs are as accurate and precise as those from film images. In particular cases, the use of specific image processing algorithms may improve both accuracy and precision. After healing, the histologic specimens showed an incomplete bone fill in the crater with a remaining thin layer of connective tissue in contact with the fixture, and in such situations, the morphology of the bone will give a more complicated diagnostic task.
    Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 02/2000; 2(1):10-7. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present experiment was i) to study the effect of anti-microbial therapy of experimentally induced peri-implantitis lesions and ii) to assess features of bone regrowth following treatment. Four beagle dogs were used. Three titanium fixtures (Brånemark System) were installed in each quadrant of the mandible (premolars previously extracted). Abutment connection was performed 5 months later and ligature induced breakdown was initiated. The ligatures were removed when approximately 50% of the initial bone support was lost. A 3-week antibiotic regimen (amoxicillin and metronidazole) was initiated 1 month later. Two days after the start of the antibiotic administration, the experimental implant sites were exposed to local therapy. The abutments were removed and the exposed fixture surfaces were treated with an abrasive (pumice) administered via a rotating brush (left side) or cleaned with cotton pellets soaked in saline (right side). Cover screws were attached to the fixtures and the implants were submerged. Fluorochromes were injected intravenously 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. The animals were killed 7 months after surgery and block biopsies of each implant site were dissected and prepared for histological analysis. The findings of the examinations disclosed that the inflammatory lesion was resolved and new bone formation had occurred in the previous defect following antimicrobial and local therapy. The amount of "re-osseointegration" that had taken place, however, was small. Indeed, at all experimental implant sites, a thin connective tissue capsule was found to separate the implant surface from the newly formed bone.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 07/1999; 10(3):195-203. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present experiment was i) to study the effect of anti-microbial therapy of experimentally induced peri-implantitis lesions and ii) to assess features of bone regrowth following treatment. Four beagle dogs were used. Three titanium fixtures (Brånemark System®) were installed in each quadrant of the mandible (premolars previously extracted). Abutment connection was performed 5 months later and ligature induced break-down was initiated. The ligatures were removed when approximately 50% of the initial bone support was lost. A 3-week antibiotic regimen (amoxi-cillin and metronidazole) was initiated 1 month later. Two days after the start of the antibiotic administration, the experimental implant sites were exposed to local therapy. The abutments were removed and the exposed fixture surfaces were treated with an abrasive (pumice) administered via a rotating brush (left side) or cleaned with cotton pellets soaked in saline (right side). Cover screws were attached to the fixtures and the implants were submerged. Fluorochromes were injected intravenously 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. The animals were killed 7-months after surgery and block biopsies of each implant site were dissected and prepared for histological analysis. The findings of the examinations disclosed that the inflammatory lesion was resolved and new bone formation had occurred in the previous defect following antimicrobial and local therapy. The amount of “re-osseointegration” that had taken place, however, was small. Indeed, at all experimental implant sites, a thin connective tissue capsule was found to separate the implant surface from the newly formed bone.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 05/1999; 10(3):195 - 203. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic antibiotics and local debridement in the treatment of experimentally induced periimplantitis lesions. 5 Labrador dogs, and about 1-year old, were included in the study. In order to establish bilateral recipient sites for implants the mandibular right and left 1st molars, 4th and 3rd premolars were removed. 6 titanium fixtures (Brånemark System Nobelpharma AB, Göteborg, Sweden) were installed and standard abutments were connected 3 months after fixture installation. Cotton floss ligatures were placed in a submarginal position around the neck of the abutments and the animals were placed on a diet which allowed plaque accumulation. After 6-8 weeks, when the tissue destruction amounted to about 20% of the fixture length, the ligatures were removed. 1 month after ligature removal, an antibiotic regimen (amoxicillin and metronidazole) was initiated and maintained for 3 weeks. In the left side of the mandible, buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated, the granulation tissue within the bone craters adjacent to the implants was curetted, and the abutments were removed. The exposed outer surface, the internal part of the fixtures, as well as the abutments were treated with a detergent, delmopinol. The cleaned abutments were autoclaved, and connected to the clean fixtures. The mucoperiosteal flaps were replaced to their original position, adapted to the abutments and sutured. A careful plaque control program was initiated for the left jaw quadrants. In the right side of the mandible no local treatment was given to the fixtures and the abutments following ligature removal. Furthermore, no plaque control was provided to the implant segments in the right jaws. After 4 months of healing block biopsies including one implant with adjacent hard and soft tissue were harvested and prepared for light microscopy. It was observed that systemic antimicrobial therapy, combined with implant cleaning, curettage of the bone defect and regular plaque control resulted in (i) resolution of the periimplantitis lesion, (ii) a significant recession of the marginal periimplant mucosa, and (iii) a minor additional apical shift of the base of the bone defect. In the untreated sites the plaque associated infiltrate remained and was in several sites examined in contact with the adjacent bone tissue.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 01/1997; 7(4):320-8. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present experiment was to study the soft and hard tissue healing following treatment of experimentally induced periimplantitis. 5 labrador dogs about 1-year old were used. The mandibular right and left 1st molars, 4th and 3rd premolars were removed, titanium fixtures (Brånemark System) were installed, and standard abutments were connected in a 2nd stage procedure. After 3 months experimental periimplantitis was induced by the placement of cotton floss ligatures in a submarginal position. 6 weeks later the ligatures were removed. 1 month after ligature removal, an antibiotic regimen was initiated. During a 3-week period, each dog was given tablets of amoxicillin and metronidazole. In the left side of the mandible, buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated and granulation tissue within the bone craters curetted. The abutments were removed. The exposed outer surfaces and the internal part of the fixtures were carefully cleaned with a detergent (delmopinol HC1). An e-PTFE membrane was placed over each fixture and adjusted to cover the bone crater. New cover screws were fitted through the membranes to the cleaned fixtures. The implants were submerged and the flaps sutured. In the right side of the mandible no local treatment was performed. The dogs were sacrificed after 4 months and biopsies prepared for histological examination. The findings indicated that treatment of a periimplantitis lesion, including comprehensive systemic antimicrobial therapy and cleaning of submerged implants resulted in (i) the elimination of the inflammatory process in the periimplant tissues and (ii) the establishment of a dense connective tissue capsule in direct contact with the previously exposed surface of the implant system. It was also observed that (iii) new bone was frequently laid down on the pristine cover screws.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 01/1997; 7(4):366-72. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic antibiotics and local debridement in the treatment of experimentally induced periimplantitis lesions. 5 Labrador dogs, about 1-year old, were included in the study. In order to establish bilateral recipient sites for implants the mandibular right and left 1st molars, 4th and 3rd premolars were removed. 6 titanium fixtures (Brånemark System® Nobelpharma AB, Göteborg, Sweden) were installed and standard abutments were connected 3 months after fixture installation. Cotton floss ligatures were placed in a submarginal position around the neck of the abutments and the animals were placed on a diet which allowed plaque accumulation. After 68 weeks, when the tissue destruction amounted to about 20% of the fixture length, the ligatures were removed. 1 month after ligature removal, an antibiotic regimen (amoxicillin and metronidazole) was initiated and maintained for 3 weeks. In the left side of the mandible, buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated, the granulation tissue within the bone craters adjacent to the implants was curetted, and the abutments were removed. The exposed outer surface, the internal part of the fixtures, as well as the abutments were treated with a detergent, delmopinol. The cleaned abutments were autoclaved, and connected to the cleaned fixtures. The mucoperiosteal flaps were replaced to their original position, adapted to the abutments and sutured. A careful plaque control program was initiated for the left jaw quadrants. In the right side of the mandible no local treatment was given to the fixtures and the abutments following ligature removal. Furthermore, no plaque control was provided to the implant segments in the right jaws. After 4 months of healing block biopsies including one implant with adjacent hard and soft tissue were harvested and prepared for light microscopy. It was observed that systemic antimicrobial therapy, combined with implant cleaning, curettage of the bone defect and regular plaque control resulted in (i) resolution of the peri-implantitis lesion, (ii) a significant recession of the marginal peri-implant mucosa: and (iii) a minor additional apical shift of the base of the bone defect. In the untreated sites the plaque associated infiltrate remained and was in several sites examined in contact with the adjacent bone tissue.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 11/1996; 7(4):320 - 328. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the microbiota on the internal surface of the components of 28 Brånemark implants in 10 partially edentulous patients who had been treated with 1 fixed partial prostheses each. The prostheses had been in function for 1 to 8 years. The fixed prostheses were checked for mobility and removed. The abutment screws were loosened and classified as stable, easily removed or loose. Then, bacterial samples were obtained from the various internal surfaces of the implant system. Estimation and identification of the most predominant species was performed on the blood agar plates. Identification was based on Gram reaction, oxygen sensitivity and biochemical tests. Internal surfaces of different components of the Brånemark implants, after varying periods of function in the oral cavity, consistently harboured a heterogeneous and primarily anaerobic microbiota. The individual samples showed a great variation. No relation could be seen between type and length of abutment, abutment stability, bone loss and type and number of microorganisms found in the samples. The flora consisted mainly of facultative and anaerobic streptococci, Gram-positive anaerobic rods such as Propionibacterium, Eubacterium and Actinomyces species and Gram-negative anaerobic rods including Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Porphyromonas species. There are reasons to suggest that this presence of bacteria is the result of (i) a contamination of the fixture and abutment components during the 1st and/or 2nd stage of implant installation and/or (ii) a transmission of microorganisms from the oral environment during function subsequent to bridge installation.
    Clinical Oral Implants Research 07/1996; 7(2):90-5. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze some features of the peri-implant mucosa at sites in the dog model which had been exposed to plaque accumulation for periods up to 9 months. The experiment was carried out in 5 labrador dogs. The mandibular right and left 2nd, 3rd and 4th premolars (2P2, 3P3, 4P4) and the 1st molars (1M1) were extracted. Following a 3-month healing period, 3 titanium fixtures (Nobelpharma AB, Göteborg, Sweden) were installed in the edentulous premolar/molar regions. Abutment connection was performed 3 months later and a meticulous plaque control period of 3 months was initiated. A clinical examination was performed at the end of this preparatory period and a main study period of 9 months continued. During this period, the plaque control regimen was maintained in the mesial and central (left: L1, 2 and right: R1, 2) implant segments, whereas plaque was allowed to accumulate on the distal implants, i.e.. L3 and R3. At the end of the main study period, i.e., 12 months after abutment connection, the clinical examination was repeated, the animals perfused and biopsies obtained. Semi-thin sections were produced for histometric and morphometric analyses. The peri-implant mucosa at implant sites exposed to daily and comprehensive plaque control at biopsy was clinically noninflamed and the connective tissue lateral to a junctional epithelium was devoid of accumulations of inflammatory cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 04/1995; 22(3):255-61. · 3.69 Impact Factor