Debomoy K Lahiri

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

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Publications (201)714.51 Total impact

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    Balmiki Ray, Nipun Chopra, Justin M Long, Debomoy K Lahiri
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    ABSTRACT: Background Culturing primary cortical neurons is an essential neuroscience technique. However, most cultures are derived from rodent brains and standard protocols for human brain cultures are sparse. Herein, we describe preparation, maintenance and major characteristics of a primary human mixed brain culture, including neurons, obtained from legally aborted fetal brain tissue. This approach employs standard materials and techniques used in the preparation of rodent neuron cultures, with critical modifications.ResultsThis culture has distinct differences from rodent cultures. Specifically, a significant numbers of cells in the human culture are derived from progenitor cells, and the yield and survival of the cells grossly depend on the presence of bFGF. In the presence of bFGF, this culture can be maintained for an extended period. Abundant productions of amyloid-ß, tau and proteins make this a powerful model for Alzheimer¿s research. The culture also produces glia and different sub-types of neurons.Conclusion We provide a well-characterized methodology for human mixed brain cultures useful to test therapeutic agents under various conditions, and to carry forward mechanistic and translational studies for several brain disorders.
    Molecular brain. 09/2014; 7(1):63.
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains limited. Brain overgrowth has been hypothesized to be associated with the development of ASD. A derivative of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), secreted APPα (sAPPα), has neuroproliferative effects and has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of persons with ASD compared to control subjects. Reduction in sAPPα holds promise as a novel molecular target of treatment in ASD. Research into the neurochemistry of ASD has repeatedly implicated excessive glutamatergic and deficient GABAergic neurotransmission in the disorder. With this in mind, acamprosate, a novel modulator of glutamate and GABA function, has been studied in ASD. No data is available on the impact of glutamate or GABA modulation on sAPPα function.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Neurology 08/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Kavita Shah, Debomoy K Lahiri
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclin dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5), a family member of the cyclin-dependent kinases, plays a pivotal role in the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, Cdk5 is indispensable for brain development and, in the adult brain, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes, including higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation. However, Cdk5 activity becomes deregulated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which leads to neurotoxicity. Therefore, precise control over Cdk5 activity is essential for its physiological functions. This Commentary covers the various mechanisms of Cdk5 regulation, including several recently identified protein activators and inhibitors of Cdk5 that control its activity in normal and diseased brains. We also discuss the autoregulatory activity of Cdk5 and its regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. We finally highlight physiological and pathological roles of Cdk5 in the brain. Specific modulation of these protein regulators is expected to provide alternative strategies for the development of effective therapeutic interventions that are triggered by deregulation of Cdk5.
    Journal of cell science. 06/2014; 127(Pt 11):2391-2400.
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has shown limited promise so far in human clinical studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet overwhelmingly positive preclinical work in animals and human brain cultures support the notion that the therapy remains potentially efficacious. Here, we elaborate on IVIG neuropreservation by demonstrating that IVIG protects human primary neurons against oxidative stress in vitro and that IVIG preserves antioxidant defense mechanisms in vivo. Based on these results, we propose the following translational impact: If the dosage and treatment conditions are adequately optimized, then IVIG treatment could play a significant role in preventing and/or delaying the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD. We suggest that IVIG warrants further investigation to fully exploit its potential as an anti-oxidant, neuroprotective and synapto-protecting agent.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 04/2014; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), either as an isolated injury or in conjunction with other injuries, is an increasingly common event. An estimated 1.7 million injuries occur within the USA each year and 10 million people are affected annually worldwide. Indeed, nearly one third (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the USA are associated with TBI, which will soon outpace many common diseases as the major cause of death and disability. Associated with a high morbidity and mortality and no specific therapeutic treatment, TBI has become a pressing public health and medical problem. The highest incidence of TBI occurs in young adults (15-24 years age) and in the elderly (≥75 years of age). Older individuals are particularly vulnerable to these types of injury, often associated with falls, and have shown increased mortality and worse functional outcome after lower initial injury severity. In addition, a new and growing form of TBI, blast injury, associated with the detonation of improvised explosive devices in the war theaters of Iraq and Afghanistan, are inflicting a wave of unique casualties of immediate impact to both military personnel and civilians, for which long-term consequences remain unknown and may potentially be catastrophic. The neuropathology underpinning head injury is becoming increasingly better understood. Depending on severity, TBI induces immediate neuropathologic effects that, for the mildest form, may be transient; however, with increasing severity, these injuries cause cumulative neural damage and degeneration. Even with mild TBI, which represents the majority of cases, a broad spectrum of neurologic deficits, including cognitive impairments, can manifest that may significantly influence quality of life. Further, TBI can act as a conduit to longer term neurodegenerative disorders. Prior studies of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated neurotrophic/neuroprotective activities across a broad spectrum of cellular and animal models of chronic neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and acute cerebrovascular (stroke) disorders. In view of the mechanisms underpinning these disorders as well as TBI, we review the literature and recent studies assessing GLP-1 receptor agonists as a potential treatment strategy for mild to moderate TBI.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 02/2014; 10(1S):S62-S75. · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    Nigel H Greig, Debomoy K Lahiri
    Current Alzheimer research 02/2014; 11(2):107-9. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although significant accomplishments have been made in research to understand, diagnose and treat Alz-heimer's disease (AD) and its prequel, mild cognitive impairment, over the last two decades, a huge amount more remains to be achieved to impact this incurable, terminal disease that afflicts an estimated 26.6 million people worldwide. Increas-ing evidence indicates that early diagnosis will be fundamental to maximizing treatment benefits. Moreover, mechanisti-cally-based, hypothesis-driven treatment strategies are now emerging to hopefully spearhead future therapy. The cross-fertilization of ideas from multiple disciplines will prove key to optimize strategies and translate them to meaningful clini-cal utility, and forms the basis of the current issue focused on "Advances in Alzheimer therapy". The 10th International Hong Kong/Springfield Pan-Asian Symposium on Advances in Alzheimer Therapy, held in Kowloon, Hong Kong, on February 28, 29 and March 1, 2008, for the first time integrated across East and West more than 1200 basic and clinical research scientists/physicians to impart the latest information to unravel the origin and patho-genesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to both discuss and highlight improvements towards its diagnosis and potential treatment by established as well as novel strategies. This unique biennial symposium series continues to provide a priceless mechanism to bring under the same roof a dichot-omy of scientific interests and expertise to specifically focus them on AD and related dementias and to disseminate the most current knowledge on recent advances in its potential therapy. AD is now recognized as an incurable, degenerative and terminal disease that is global – afflicting an estimated 26.6 million people worldwide in 2006, with the number growing in an unabated and frightening manner.
  • Scott E Counts, Debomoy K Lahiri
    Current Alzheimer Research 01/2014; 11(7):623-5. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention.
    Translational neurodegeneration. 01/2014; 3:9.
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by formation of neuritic plaque primarily composed of a small filamentous protein called amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ is the processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Hence, BACE1 activity plausibly plays a rate-limiting role in the generation of potentially toxic Aβ within brain and the development of AD, thereby making it an interesting drug target. A phase II trial of the promising LY2886721 inhibitor of BACE1 was suspended in June 2013 by Eli Lilly and Co., due to possible liver toxicity. This outcome was apparently a surprise to the study's team, particularly since BACE1 knockout mice and mice treated with the drug did not show such liver toxicity. Lilly proposed that the problem was not due to LY2886721 anti-BACE1 activity. We offer an alternative hypothesis, whereby anti-BACE1 activity may induce apparent hepatotoxicity through inhibiting BACE1's processing of β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (STGal6 I). In knockout mice, paralogues, such as BACE2 or cathepsin D, could partially compensate. Furthermore, the short duration of animal studies and short lifespan of study animals could mask effects that would require several decades to accumulate in humans. Inhibition of hepatic BACE1 activity in middle-aged humans would produce effects not detectable in mice. We present a testable model to explain the off-target effects of LY2886721 and highlight more broadly that so-called off-target drug effects might actually represent off-site effects that are not necessarily off-target. Consideration of this concept in forthcoming drug design, screening, and testing programs may prevent such failures in the future.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 01/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
  • Justin M Long, Balmiki Ray, Debomoy K Lahiri
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) results, in part, from the excess accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as neuritic plaques in the brain. The short Aβ peptide is derived from the large transmembrane Aβ precursor protein (APP). The rate limiting step in the production of Aβ from APP is mediated by the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Dysregulation of BACE1 levels leading to excess Aβ deposition is implicated in sporadic AD. Thus, elucidating the full complement of regulatory pathways that control BACE1 expression is key to identifying novel drug targets central to the Aβ-generating process. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are expected to participate in this molecular network. Here, we identified a known miRNA, miR-339-5p, as a key contributor to this regulatory network. Two distinct miR-339-5p target sites were predicted in the BACE1 3'-UTR by in silico analyses. Co-transfection of miR-339-5p with a BACE1 3'-UTR reporter construct resulted in significant reduction in reporter expression. Mutation of both target sites eliminated this effect. Delivery of miR-339-5p mimic also significantly inhibited expression of BACE1 protein in human glioblastoma cells and human primary brain cultures. Delivery of target protectors designed against the miR-339-5p BACE1 3'-UTR target sites in primary human brain cultures significantly elevated BACE1 expression. Finally, miR-339-5p levels were found to be significantly reduced in brain specimens isolated from AD patients as compared to age-matched controls. Therefore, miR-339-5p regulates BACE1 expression in human brain cells and is most likely dysregulated in at least a subset of AD patients making this miRNA a novel drug target.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in older adults, affecting over 50% of those over age 85. Aging is the most important risk factor for the development of LOAD. Aging is associated with the decrease in the ability of cells to cope with cellular stress, especially protein aggregation. Here we describe how the process of aging affects pathways that control the processing and degradation of abnormal proteins including amyloid-β (Aβ). Genetic association studies in LOAD have successfully identified a large number of genetic variants involved in the development of the disease. However, there is a gap in understanding the interconnections between these pathomolecular events that prevent us from discovering therapeutic targets. We propose novel, pertinent links to elucidate how the biology of aging affects the sequence of events in the development of LOAD. Furthermore we analyze and synthesize the molecular-pathologic-clinical correlations of the aging process, involving the HSF1 and FOXO family pathways, Aβ metabolic pathway, and the different clinical stages of LOAD. Our new model postulates that the aging process would precede Aβ accumulation, and attenuation of HSF1 is an "upstream" event in the cascade that results in excess Aβ and synaptic dysfunction, which may lead to cognitive impairment and/or trigger "downstream" neurodegeneration and synaptic loss. Specific host factors, such as the activity of FOXO family pathways, would mediate the response to Aβ toxicity and the pace of progression toward the clinical manifestations of AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 12/2013; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of developmental disability and a single gene cause of autism. As a disorder with increasingly understood pathophysiology, FXS is a model form of developmental disability for targeted drug development efforts. Preclinical animal model findings have focused targeted drug treatment development in FXS on an imbalance between excessive glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. METHODS: We conducted a prospective open-label 10-week trial of acamprosate in 12 youth aged 6-17 years (mean age: 11.9 years) with FXS. RESULTS: Acamprosate use (mean dose: 1,054 ± 422 mg/day) was associated with treatment response (defined by a Clinical Global Impressions Improvement (CGI-I) scale score of "very much improved" or "much improved") in nine of 12 (75 %) subjects. Improvement was noted in social behavior and inattention/hyperactivity using multiple standard behavioral outcome measures. No significant adverse effects or changes in vital signs, including weight or laboratory measures, occurred during treatment with acamprosate. Additionally, pre- and post-treatment blood biomarker analyses looking at brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels found a significant increase in BDNF with treatment. In our pilot sample, treatment response did not correlate with change in BDNF with treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Acamprosate was generally safe and well tolerated and was associated with a significant improvement in social behavior and a reduction in inattention/hyperactivity. The increase in BDNF that occurred with treatment may be a useful pharmacodynamic marker in future acamprosate studies. Given these findings, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of acamprosate in youth with FXS is warranted.
    Psychopharmacology 02/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is intimately tied to amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide. Extraneuronal brain plaques consisting primarily of Abeta aggregates are a hallmark of AD. Intraneuronal Abeta subunits are strongly implicated in disease progression. Protein sequence mutations of the Abeta precursor protein (APP) account for a small proportion of AD cases, suggesting that regulation of the associated gene (APP) may play a more important role in AD etiology. The APP promoter possesses a novel 30 nucleotide sequence, or "proximal regulatory element" (PRE), at -76/-47, from the +1 transcription start site that confers cell type specificity. This PRE contains sequences that make it vulnerable to epigenetic modification and may present a viable target for drug studies. We examined PRE-nuclear protein interaction by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and PRE mutant EMSA. This was followed by functional studies of PRE mutant/reporter gene fusion clones. RESULTS: EMSA probed with the PRE showed DNA-protein interaction in multiple nuclear extracts and in human brain tissue nuclear extract in a tissue-type specific manner. We identified transcription factors that are likely to bind the PRE, using competition gel shift and gel supershift: Activator protein 2 (AP2), nm23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase/metastatic inhibitory protein (PuF), and specificity protein 1 (SP1). These sites crossed a known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). EMSA with PRE mutants and promoter/reporter clone transfection analysis further implicated PuF in cells and extracts. Functional assays of mutant/reporter clone transfections were evaluated by ELISA of reporter protein levels. EMSA and ELISA results correlated by meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that PuF may regulate the APP gene promoter and that AD risk may be increased by interference with PuF regulation at the PRE. PuF is targeted by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1, which also interacts with the integrins. These proteins are connected to vital cellular and neurological functions. In addition, the transcription factor PuF is a known inhibitor of metastasis and regulates cell growth during development. Given that APP is a known cell adhesion protein and ferroxidase, this suggests biochemical links among cell signaling, the cell cycle, iron metabolism in cancer, and AD in the context of overall aging.
    BMC Genomics 01/2013; 14(1):68. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the appearance in the brain of senile plaques that are primarily composed of aggregated forms of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) that derive from amyloid precursor protein (APP). Posiphen (1) tartrate is an experimental AD drug in current clinical trials that reduces Aβ levels by lowering the rate of APP synthesis without toxicity. To support the clinical development of Posiphen (1) and elucidate its efficacy, its three major metabolic products, (+)-N1-norPosiphen (15), (+)-N8-norPosiphen (17) and (+)-N1, N8-bisnorPosiphen (11), were required in high chemical and optical purity. The efficient transformation of Posiphen (1) into these metabolic products, 15, 17 and 11, is described. The biological activity of these metabolites together with Posiphen (1) and and its enantiomer, the AD drug candidate (-)-phenserine (2), was assessed against APP, α-synuclein and classical cholinergic targets. All the compounds potently inhibited the generation of APP and a-synuclein in neuronal cultures. In contrast, metabolites 11 and 15, and (-)-phenserine (2) but not Posiphen (1) or 17, possessed acetylcholinesterase inhibitory action and no compounds bound either nicotinic or muscarinic receptors. As Posiphen (1) lowered CSF markers of inflammation in a recent clinical trial, the actions of 1 and 2 on proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β release human peripheral bloodmononuclear cells was evaluated, and found to be potently inhibited by both agents.
    Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents) 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by social skills and communication deficits and interfering repetitive behavior. Intellectual disability often accompanies autism. In addition to behavioral deficits, autism is characterized by neuropathology and brain overgrowth. Increased intracranial volume often accompanies this brain growth. We have found that the Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), especially its neuroprotective processing product, secreted APP α, is elevated in persons with autism. This has led to the "anabolic hypothesis" of autism etiology, in which neuronal overgrowth in the brain results in interneuronal misconnections that may underlie multiple autism symptoms. We review the contribution of research in brain volume and of APP to the anabolic hypothesis, and relate APP to other proteins and pathways that have already been directly associated with autism, such as fragile X mental retardation protein, Ras small GTPase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin. We also present additional evidence of magnetic resonance imaging intracranial measurements in favor of the anabolic hypothesis. Finally, since it appears that APP's involvement in autism is part of a multi-partner network, we extend this concept into the inherently interactive realm of epigenetics. We speculate that the underlying molecular abnormalities that influence APP's contribution to autism are epigenetic markers overlaid onto potentially vulnerable gene sequences due to environmental influence.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:94. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reported that iron influx drives the translational expression of the neuronal amyloid precursor protein (APP), which has a role in iron efflux. This is via a classic release of repressor interaction of APP mRNA with iron-regulatory protein-1 (IRP1) whereas IRP2 controls the mRNAs encoding the L- and H-subunits of the iron storage protein, ferritin. Here, we identified thirteen potent APP translation blockers that acted selectively towards the uniquely configured iron-responsive element (IRE) RNA stem loop in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of APP mRNA. These agents were 10-fold less inhibitory of 5'UTR sequences of the related prion protein (PrP) mRNA. Western blotting confirmed that the 'ninth' small molecule in the series selectively reduced neural APP production in SH-SY5Y cells at picomolar concentrations without affecting viability or the expression of α-synuclein and ferritin. APP blocker-9 (JTR-009), a benzimidazole, reduced the production of toxic Aβ in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells to a greater extent than other well tolerated APP 5'UTR-directed translation blockers, including posiphen, that were shown to limit amyloid burden in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). RNA binding assays demonstrated that JTR-009 operated by preventing IRP1 from binding to the IRE in APP mRNA, while maintaining IRP1 interaction with the H-ferritin IRE RNA stem loop. Thus, JTR-009 constitutively repressed translation driven by APP 5'UTR sequences. Calcein staining showed that JTR-009 did not indirectly change iron uptake in neuronal cells suggesting a direct interaction with the APP 5'UTR. These studies provide key data to develop small molecules that selectively reduce neural APP and Aβ production at 10-fold lower concentrations than related previously characterized translation blockers. Our data evidenced a novel therapeutic strategy of potential impact for people with trisomy of the APP gene on chromosome 21, which is a phenotype long associated with Down syndrome (DS) that can also cause familial Alzheimer's disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e65978. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Debomoy K Lahiri
    Current Alzheimer research 01/2013; 10(1):1-3. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study determined the effects of voluntary ethanol drinking and deprivation on basal extracellular glutamate concentrations and clearance in the mesolimbic system and tested the hypothesis that chronic ethanol drinking would persistently increase basal glutamate neurotransmission. Three groups of alcohol-preferring (P) rats were used: 'water group (WG),' 'ethanol maintenance group (MG; 24-hour free choice water versus 15% ethanol)' and 'ethanol deprivation group (DG; 2 weeks of deprivation).' Quantitative microdialysis and Western blots were conducted to measure basal extracellular glutamate concentrations, clearance and proteins associated with glutamate clearance. Chronic alcohol drinking produced a 70-100% increase of basal extracellular glutamate concentrations in the posterior ventral tegmental area (4.0 versus 7.0 μM) and nucleus accumbens shell (3.0 versus 6.0 μM). Glutamate clearances were reduced by 30-40% in both regions of MG rats compared with WG rats. In addition, Western blots revealed a 40-45% decrease of excitatory amino transporter 1 (EAAT1) protein, but no significant changes in the levels of EAAT2 or cystine-glutamate antiporter in these regions of MG versus WG rats. The enhanced glutamate concentrations returned to control levels, accompanied by a recovery of glutamate clearance following deprivation. These results indicated that chronic alcohol drinking enhanced extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mesolimbic system, as a result, in part, of reduced clearance, suggesting that enhanced glutamate neurotransmission may contribute to the maintenance of alcohol drinking. However, because the increased glutamate levels returned to normal after deprivation, elevated glutamate neurotransmission may not contribute to the initiation of relapse drinking.
    Addiction Biology 12/2012; · 5.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
714.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2007–2014
    • University of Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Institute of Psychiatric Research
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2001–2013
    • National Institute on Aging
      • • Drug Design and Development Section
      • • Laboratory of Neurosciences (LNS)
      • • Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology (LEG)
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • University of Rhode Island
      • Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Kingston, RI, United States
    • University of Cape Town
      • Division of Medical Virology
      Cape Town, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Louisville, KY, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      • Psychiatry
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2011
    • The Neurosciences Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2010
    • Indian Institute of Toxicology Research
      • Division of Developmental Toxicology
      Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2002–2010
    • University of California, Irvine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
      Irvine, CA, United States
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2003–2006
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Neurosciences (College of Medicine)
      Charleston, SC, United States