Debomoy K Lahiri

Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (262)1146.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies are essential for translation to disease treatments and effective use in clinical practice. An undue emphasis on single approaches to Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears to have retarded the pace of translation in the field, and there is much frustration in the public about the lack of an effective treatment. We critically reviewed past literature (1990-2014), analyzed numerous data, and discussed key issues at a consensus conference on Brain Ageing and Dementia to identify and overcome roadblocks in studies intended for translation. We highlight various factors that influence the translation of preclinical research and highlight specific preclinical strategies that have failed to demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials. The field has been hindered by the domination of the amyloid hypothesis in AD pathogenesis while the causative pathways in disease pathology are widely considered to be multifactorial. Understanding the causative events and mechanisms in the pathogenesis are equally important for translation. Greater efforts are necessary to fill in the gaps and overcome a variety of confounds in the generation, study design, testing, and evaluation of animal models and the application to future novel anti-dementia drug trials. A greater variety of potential disease mechanisms must be entertained to enhance progress.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2015; 47(4):815-843. DOI:10.3233/JAD-150136 · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • D Sokol · D Lahiri · B Maloney · C Ho
  • Becker RE · Seeman MV · Nigel H Greig · Debomoy K Lahiri
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    ABSTRACT: Drug development for psychiatric disorders has almost ground to a halt. Some newer drugs are better tolerated or safer than older ones, but none is more effective. Years of failure in preventing or delaying the onset of illness, ameliorating symptoms, lowering suicide rates, or improving quality of life has put the commercial investments that had previously funded drug development at risk. To promote the development of psychiatric drugs with greater efficacy, we need to improve the way we bring potentially beneficial drugs to market. We need to acknowledge, as has been done in other specialties, that people differ in their response to drugs. Psychiatric drug research needs to be grounded in a better understanding of molecular brain mechanisms, neural circuits, and their relations to clinical disease. With this understanding, drugs need to be more precisely directed at specific brain targets. In psychiatric drug development, government, industry, regulatory bodies, and academia should realign to ensure medical science is used in the best interests of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 08/2015; 2(8):756-764. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00214-X
  • Debomoy K Lahiri
    Current Alzheimer research 05/2015; 12(2):96-9. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Yokesh Balaraman · Debomoy K. Lahiri · John I. Nurnberger
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in genome-wide association studies are pointing towards a major role for voltage-gated ion channels in neuropsychiatric disorders and, in particular, bipolar disorder (BD). The phenotype of BD is complex, with symptoms during mood episodes and deficits persisting between episodes. We have tried to elucidate the common neurobiological mechanisms associated with ion channel signaling in order to provide a new perspective on the clinical symptoms and possible endophenotypes seen in BD patients. We propose a model in which the multiple variants in genes coding for ion channel proteins would perturb motivational circuits, synaptic plasticity, myelination, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, circadian neuronal rhythms, and energy regulation. These changes in neurobiological mechanisms would manifest in endophenotypes of aberrant reward processing, white matter hyperintensities, deficits in executive function, altered frontolimbic connectivity, increased amygdala activity, increased melatonin suppression, decreased REM latency, and aberrant myo-inositol/ATP shuttling. The endophenotypes result in behaviors of poor impulse control, motivational changes, cognitive deficits, abnormal stress response, sleep disturbances, and energy changes involving different neurobiological process domains. The hypothesis is that these disturbances start with altered neural circuitry during development, following which multiple environmental triggers may disrupt the neuronal excitability balance through an activity-dependent molecular process, resulting in clinical mood episodes.
    04/2015; 1(1):23-35. DOI:10.1159/000371886
  • Mythily Srinivasan · Debomoy K Lahiri
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Advances in molecular pathogenesis suggest that the chronic inflammation is a shared mechanism in the initiation and progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases with diverse clinical manifestations such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Restricted cell renewal and regenerative capacity make the neural tissues extremely vulnerable to the uncontrolled inflammatory process leading to irreversible tissue damage. Areas covered: A predominant consequence of increased inflammatory signaling is the upregulation of the transcription factor, NF-κB with subsequent neuroprotective or deleterious effects depending on the strength of the signal and the type of NF-κB dimers activated. We discuss the interplay between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration keeping in focus NF-κB signaling as the point of convergence of multiple pathways associated with the development of the neurodegenerative pathologies, AD and MS. Expert opinion: Considerable interest exists in developing efficient NF-κB inhibitors for neurodegenerative diseases. The review includes an overview of natural compounds and rationally designed agents that inhibit NF-κB and mediate neuroprotection in AD and MS. The key chemical moieties of the natural and the synthetic compounds provide efficient leads for the development of effective small molecule inhibitors that selectively target NF-κB activation; this would result in the desired benefit to risk therapeutic effects.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 02/2015; 19(4):1-17. DOI:10.1517/14728222.2014.989834 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β proteins(Aβ) of 42 (Aβ42)and 40 aa (Aβ40) accumulate as senile plaques (SP) and cerebrovascular amyloid protein deposits that are defining diagnostic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of rare mutations linked to familial AD (FAD) on the Aβ precursor protein (APP),Presenilin-1 (PS1), Presenilin-2 (PS2),Adamalysin10,and other genetic risk factors for sporadic AD such as the γ4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE-γ4) foster the accumulation of Aβ and also induce the entire spectrum of pathology associated with the disease. Aβ accumulation is therefore a key pathological event and a prime target for the prevention and treatment of AD. APP is sequentially processed by β -site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1)and β-secretase, a multisubunit PS1/PS2-containing integral membrane protease, to generate Aβ. Although Aβ accumulates in all forms of AD, the only pathways known to be affected in FAD increase Aβ production by APP gene duplication or via base substitutions on APP and γ-secretase subunits PS1 and PS2 that either specifically increase the yield of the longer Aβ42 or both Aβ40 and Aβ42.However, the vast majority of AD patients accumulate Aβ without these known mutations. This led to proposals that impairment of Aβdegradation or clearance may play a key rolein AD pathogenesis. Several candidate enzymes, including Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), Neprilysin (NEP), Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Plasmin, and Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified and some have even been successfully evaluated in animal models. Several studies also have demonstrated the capacity of γ-secretase inhibitors to paradoxically increase the yield of Aβ and we have recently established that the mechanism is by skirting Aβ degradation. This review outlines major cellular pathways of Aβ degradation to provide a basis for future efforts to fully characterize the panel of pathways responsible for Aβturnover.
    Current Alzheimer Research 12/2014; 12(1). DOI:10.2174/1567205012666141218140953 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    Mythily Srinivasan · Corinne Blackburn · Debomoy K Lahiri
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a glucocorticoid responsive protein that links the nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) and the glucocorticoid signaling pathways. Functional and binding studies suggest that the proline-rich region at the carboxy terminus of GILZ binds the p65 subunit of NFκB and suppresses the immunoinflammatory response. A widely-used strategy in the discovery of peptide drugs involves exploitation of the complementary surfaces of naturally occurring binding partners. Previously, we observed that a synthetic peptide (GILZ-P) derived from the proline-rich region of GILZ bound activated p65 and ameliorated experimental encephalomyelitis. Here we characterize the secondary structure of GILZ-P by circular dichroic analysis. GILZ-P adopts an extended polyproline type II helical conformation consistent with the structural conformation commonly observed in interfaces of transient intermolecular interactions. To determine the potential application of GILZ-P in humans, we evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of the peptide drug in mature human macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Treatment with GILZ-P at a wide range of concentrations commonly used for peptide drugs was nontoxic as determined by cell viability and apoptosis assays. Functionally, GILZ-P suppressed proliferation and glutamate secretion by activated macrophages by inhibiting nuclear translocation of p65. Collectively, our data suggest that the GILZ-P has therapeutic potential in chronic CNS diseases where persistent inflammation leads to neurodegeneration such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 12/2014; 8:2409-21. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S59722 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    Nigel H. Greig · Kumar Sambamurti · Debomoy K. Lahiri · Robert E. Becker
    Annals of Neurology 10/2014; 76(4). DOI:10.1002/ana.24254 · 9.98 Impact Factor
  • Debomoy K. Lahiri · Bryan Maloney · Justin M. Long · Nigel H. Greig
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by formation of neuritic plaque primarily composed of a small filamentous protein called amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ is the processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Hence, BACE1 activity plausibly plays a rate-limiting role in the generation of potentially toxic Aβ within brain and the development of AD, thereby making it an interesting drug target. A phase II trial of the promising LY2886721 inhibitor of BACE1 was suspended in June 2013 by Eli Lilly and Co., due to possible liver toxicity. This outcome was apparently a surprise to the study's team, particularly since BACE1 knockout mice and mice treated with the drug did not show such liver toxicity. Lilly proposed that the problem was not due to LY2886721 anti-BACE1 activity. We offer an alternative hypothesis, whereby anti-BACE1 activity may induce apparent hepatotoxicity through inhibiting BACE1's processing of β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (STGal6 I). In knockout mice, paralogues, such as BACE2 or cathepsin D, could partially compensate. Furthermore, the short duration of animal studies and short lifespan of study animals could mask effects that would require several decades to accumulate in humans. Inhibition of hepatic BACE1 activity in middle-aged humans would produce effects not detectable in mice. We present a testable model to explain the off-target effects of LY2886721 and highlight more broadly that so-called off-target drug effects might actually represent off-site effects that are not necessarily off-target. Consideration of this concept in forthcoming drug design, screening, and testing programs may prevent such failures in the future.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 10/2014; 10(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.11.004 · 12.41 Impact Factor
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    Balmiki Ray · Nipun Chopra · Justin M Long · Debomoy K Lahiri
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    ABSTRACT: Background Culturing primary cortical neurons is an essential neuroscience technique. However, most cultures are derived from rodent brains and standard protocols for human brain cultures are sparse. Herein, we describe preparation, maintenance and major characteristics of a primary human mixed brain culture, including neurons, obtained from legally aborted fetal brain tissue. This approach employs standard materials and techniques used in the preparation of rodent neuron cultures, with critical modifications.ResultsThis culture has distinct differences from rodent cultures. Specifically, a significant numbers of cells in the human culture are derived from progenitor cells, and the yield and survival of the cells grossly depend on the presence of bFGF. In the presence of bFGF, this culture can be maintained for an extended period. Abundant productions of amyloid-ß, tau and proteins make this a powerful model for Alzheimer¿s research. The culture also produces glia and different sub-types of neurons.Conclusion We provide a well-characterized methodology for human mixed brain cultures useful to test therapeutic agents under various conditions, and to carry forward mechanistic and translational studies for several brain disorders.
    Molecular Brain 09/2014; 7(1):63. DOI:10.1186/s13041-014-0063-0 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Understanding of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains limited. Brain overgrowth has been hypothesized to be associated with the development of ASD. A derivative of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), secreted APPα (sAPPα), has neuroproliferative effects and has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of persons with ASD compared to control subjects. Reduction in sAPPα holds promise as a novel molecular target of treatment in ASD. Research into the neurochemistry of ASD has repeatedly implicated excessive glutamatergic and deficient GABAergic neurotransmission in the disorder. With this in mind, acamprosate, a novel modulator of glutamate and GABA function, has been studied in ASD. No data is available on the impact of glutamate or GABA modulation on sAPPα function. Methods: Plasma APP derivative levels pre- and post-treatment with acamprosate were determined in two pilot studies involving youth with idiopathic and fragile X syndrome (FXS)-associated ASD. We additionally compared baseline APP derivative levels between youth with FXS-associated or idiopathic ASD. Results: Acamprosate use was associated with a significant reduction in plasma sAPP(total) and sAPPα levels but no change occurred in Aβ40 or Aβ42 levels in 15 youth with ASD (mean age: 11.1 years). Youth with FXS-associated ASD (n = 12) showed increased sAPPα processing compared to age-, gender- and IQ-match youth with idiopathic ASD (n = 11). Conclusions: Plasma APP derivative analysis holds promise as a potential biomarker for use in ASD targeted treatment. Reduction in sAPP (total) and sAPPα may be a novel pharmacodynamic property of acamprosate. Future study is required to address limitations of the current study to determine if baseline APP derivative analysis may predict subgroups of persons with idiopathic or FXS-associated ASD who may respond best to acamprosate or to potentially other modulators of glutamate and/or GABA neurotransmission.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2014; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.07.011 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Scott E Counts · Debomoy K Lahiri
    Current Alzheimer Research 08/2014; 11(7):623-5. DOI:10.2174/156720501107140815102453 · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Debomoy K Lahiri · Balmiki Ray
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deleterious accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into senile plaque, neurofibrillary tangles formed from hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and loss of cholinergic synapses in the cerebral cortex. The deposition of Aβ-loaded plaques results in microglial activation and subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals. Neurons in aging and AD brains are particularly vulnerable to ROS and other toxic stimuli. Therefore, agents that decrease the vulnerability of neurons against ROS may provide therapeuticvaluefor the treatment orprevention ofAD. In the present study, our goal was to test whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment preserves and protects neurons from oxidative damage. We report that treatment withIVIG protects neuronal viability and synaptic proteins in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Further, we demonstrate the tolerability of IVIG treatment in the primary human fetal mixed brain cultures. Indeed, a high dose (20mg/mL) of IVIG treatment was well-tolerated by primary human brain cultures that exhibit a normal neuronal phenotype. Wealso observed a potent neuropreservatory effect of IVIG against ROS-mediated oxidative insults in these human fetalbrain cultures. These results suggest that IVIG treatment has great potential to preserve and protect primary human neuronal-enriched cultures andto potentially rescue dying neurons from oxidative insults. Therefore, our findings suggest that IVIG treatment may represent an important therapeutic agent for clinical trials designed to prevent and delay the onset of neurodegeneration as well as AD pathology.
    Current Alzheimer Research 08/2014; 11(7). DOI:10.2174/1567205011666140812113851 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    Baindu L. Bayon · Debomoy K. Lahiri
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    Debomoy K. Lahiri · Balmiki Ray

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,146.35 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2015
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      • • Institute of Psychiatric Research
      • • Psychiatry
      • • Medical and Molecular Genetics
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2014
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2007–2014
    • University of Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1991–2014
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics
      • • Institute of Psychiatric Research
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Neurology
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • Riley Hospital for Children
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2011
    • The Neurosciences Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2010
    • Indian Institute of Toxicology Research
      • Division of Developmental Toxicology
      Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2009
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Rhode Island
      • Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Kingston, RI, United States
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Department of Medicine
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2002–2006
    • National Institute on Aging
      • • Laboratory of Neurosciences (LNS)
      • • Drug Design and Development Section
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Neurosciences (College of Medicine)
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 1989
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States