[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by formation of neuritic plaque primarily composed of a small filamentous protein called amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ is the processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Hence, BACE1 activity plausibly plays a rate-limiting role in the generation of potentially toxic Aβ within brain and the development of AD, thereby making it an interesting drug target. A phase II trial of the promising LY2886721 inhibitor of BACE1 was suspended in June 2013 by Eli Lilly and Co., due to possible liver toxicity. This outcome was apparently a surprise to the study's team, particularly since BACE1 knockout mice and mice treated with the drug did not show such liver toxicity. Lilly proposed that the problem was not due to LY2886721 anti-BACE1 activity. We offer an alternative hypothesis, whereby anti-BACE1 activity may induce apparent hepatotoxicity through inhibiting BACE1's processing of β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (STGal6 I). In knockout mice, paralogues, such as BACE2 or cathepsin D, could partially compensate. Furthermore, the short duration of animal studies and short lifespan of study animals could mask effects that would require several decades to accumulate in humans. Inhibition of hepatic BACE1 activity in middle-aged humans would produce effects not detectable in mice. We present a testable model to explain the off-target effects of LY2886721 and highlight more broadly that so-called off-target drug effects might actually represent off-site effects that are not necessarily off-target. Consideration of this concept in forthcoming drug design, screening, and testing programs may prevent such failures in the future.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 10/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Culturing primary cortical neurons is an essential neuroscience technique. However, most cultures are derived from rodent brains and standard protocols for human brain cultures are sparse. Herein, we describe preparation, maintenance and major characteristics of a primary human mixed brain culture, including neurons, obtained from legally aborted fetal brain tissue. This approach employs standard materials and techniques used in the preparation of rodent neuron cultures, with critical modifications.ResultsThis culture has distinct differences from rodent cultures. Specifically, a significant numbers of cells in the human culture are derived from progenitor cells, and the yield and survival of the cells grossly depend on the presence of bFGF. In the presence of bFGF, this culture can be maintained for an extended period. Abundant productions of amyloid-ß, tau and proteins make this a powerful model for Alzheimer¿s research. The culture also produces glia and different sub-types of neurons.Conclusion
We provide a well-characterized methodology for human mixed brain cultures useful to test therapeutic agents under various conditions, and to carry forward mechanistic and translational studies for several brain disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains limited. Brain overgrowth has been hypothesized to be associated with the development of ASD. A derivative of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), secreted APPα (sAPPα), has neuroproliferative effects and has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of persons with ASD compared to control subjects. Reduction in sAPPα holds promise as a novel molecular target of treatment in ASD. Research into the neurochemistry of ASD has repeatedly implicated excessive glutamatergic and deficient GABAergic neurotransmission in the disorder. With this in mind, acamprosate, a novel modulator of glutamate and GABA function, has been studied in ASD. No data is available on the impact of glutamate or GABA modulation on sAPPα function.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5), a family member of the cyclin-dependent kinases, plays a pivotal role in the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, Cdk5 is indispensable for brain development and, in the adult brain, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes, including higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation. However, Cdk5 activity becomes deregulated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which leads to neurotoxicity. Therefore, precise control over Cdk5 activity is essential for its physiological functions. This Commentary covers the various mechanisms of Cdk5 regulation, including several recently identified protein activators and inhibitors of Cdk5 that control its activity in normal and diseased brains. We also discuss the autoregulatory activity of Cdk5 and its regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. We finally highlight physiological and pathological roles of Cdk5 in the brain. Specific modulation of these protein regulators is expected to provide alternative strategies for the development of effective therapeutic interventions that are triggered by deregulation of Cdk5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has shown limited promise so far in human clinical studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet overwhelmingly positive preclinical work in animals and human brain cultures support the notion that the therapy remains potentially efficacious. Here, we elaborate on IVIG neuropreservation by demonstrating that IVIG protects human primary neurons against oxidative stress in vitro and that IVIG preserves antioxidant defense mechanisms in vivo. Based on these results, we propose the following translational impact: If the dosage and treatment conditions are adequately optimized, then IVIG treatment could play a significant role in preventing and/or delaying the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD. We suggest that IVIG warrants further investigation to fully exploit its potential as an anti-oxidant, neuroprotective and synapto-protecting agent.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 04/2014; 34(S1). · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), either as an isolated injury or in conjunction with other injuries, is an increasingly common event. An estimated 1.7 million injuries occur within the USA each year and 10 million people are affected annually worldwide. Indeed, nearly one third (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the USA are associated with TBI, which will soon outpace many common diseases as the major cause of death and disability. Associated with a high morbidity and mortality and no specific therapeutic treatment, TBI has become a pressing public health and medical problem. The highest incidence of TBI occurs in young adults (15-24 years age) and in the elderly (≥75 years of age). Older individuals are particularly vulnerable to these types of injury, often associated with falls, and have shown increased mortality and worse functional outcome after lower initial injury severity. In addition, a new and growing form of TBI, blast injury, associated with the detonation of improvised explosive devices in the war theaters of Iraq and Afghanistan, are inflicting a wave of unique casualties of immediate impact to both military personnel and civilians, for which long-term consequences remain unknown and may potentially be catastrophic. The neuropathology underpinning head injury is becoming increasingly better understood. Depending on severity, TBI induces immediate neuropathologic effects that, for the mildest form, may be transient; however, with increasing severity, these injuries cause cumulative neural damage and degeneration. Even with mild TBI, which represents the majority of cases, a broad spectrum of neurologic deficits, including cognitive impairments, can manifest that may significantly influence quality of life. Further, TBI can act as a conduit to longer term neurodegenerative disorders. Prior studies of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated neurotrophic/neuroprotective activities across a broad spectrum of cellular and animal models of chronic neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and acute cerebrovascular (stroke) disorders. In view of the mechanisms underpinning these disorders as well as TBI, we review the literature and recent studies assessing GLP-1 receptor agonists as a potential treatment strategy for mild to moderate TBI.
Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 02/2014; 10(1S):S62-S75. · 14.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although significant accomplishments have been made in research to understand, diagnose and treat Alz-heimer's disease (AD) and its prequel, mild cognitive impairment, over the last two decades, a huge amount more remains to be achieved to impact this incurable, terminal disease that afflicts an estimated 26.6 million people worldwide. Increas-ing evidence indicates that early diagnosis will be fundamental to maximizing treatment benefits. Moreover, mechanisti-cally-based, hypothesis-driven treatment strategies are now emerging to hopefully spearhead future therapy. The cross-fertilization of ideas from multiple disciplines will prove key to optimize strategies and translate them to meaningful clini-cal utility, and forms the basis of the current issue focused on "Advances in Alzheimer therapy". The 10th International Hong Kong/Springfield Pan-Asian Symposium on Advances in Alzheimer Therapy, held in Kowloon, Hong Kong, on February 28, 29 and March 1, 2008, for the first time integrated across East and West more than 1200 basic and clinical research scientists/physicians to impart the latest information to unravel the origin and patho-genesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to both discuss and highlight improvements towards its diagnosis and potential treatment by established as well as novel strategies. This unique biennial symposium series continues to provide a priceless mechanism to bring under the same roof a dichot-omy of scientific interests and expertise to specifically focus them on AD and related dementias and to disseminate the most current knowledge on recent advances in its potential therapy. AD is now recognized as an incurable, degenerative and terminal disease that is global – afflicting an estimated 26.6 million people worldwide in 2006, with the number growing in an unabated and frightening manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a glucocorticoid responsive protein that links the nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) and the glucocorticoid signaling pathways. Functional and binding studies suggest that the proline-rich region at the carboxy terminus of GILZ binds the p65 subunit of NFκB and suppresses the immunoinflammatory response. A widely-used strategy in the discovery of peptide drugs involves exploitation of the complementary surfaces of naturally occurring binding partners. Previously, we observed that a synthetic peptide (GILZ-P) derived from the proline-rich region of GILZ bound activated p65 and ameliorated experimental encephalomyelitis. Here we characterize the secondary structure of GILZ-P by circular dichroic analysis. GILZ-P adopts an extended polyproline type II helical conformation consistent with the structural conformation commonly observed in interfaces of transient intermolecular interactions. To determine the potential application of GILZ-P in humans, we evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of the peptide drug in mature human macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Treatment with GILZ-P at a wide range of concentrations commonly used for peptide drugs was nontoxic as determined by cell viability and apoptosis assays. Functionally, GILZ-P suppressed proliferation and glutamate secretion by activated macrophages by inhibiting nuclear translocation of p65. Collectively, our data suggest that the GILZ-P has therapeutic potential in chronic CNS diseases where persistent inflammation leads to neurodegeneration such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:2409-21. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) results, in part, from the excess accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as neuritic plaques in the brain. The short Aβ peptide is derived from the large transmembrane Aβ precursor protein (APP). The rate limiting step in the production of Aβ from APP is mediated by the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Dysregulation of BACE1 levels leading to excess Aβ deposition is implicated in sporadic AD. Thus, elucidating the full complement of regulatory pathways that control BACE1 expression is key to identifying novel drug targets central to the Aβ-generating process. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are expected to participate in this molecular network. Here, we identified a known miRNA, miR-339-5p, as a key contributor to this regulatory network. Two distinct miR-339-5p target sites were predicted in the BACE1 3'-UTR by in silico analyses. Co-transfection of miR-339-5p with a BACE1 3'-UTR reporter construct resulted in significant reduction in reporter expression. Mutation of both target sites eliminated this effect. Delivery of miR-339-5p mimic also significantly inhibited expression of BACE1 protein in human glioblastoma cells and human primary brain cultures. Delivery of target protectors designed against the miR-339-5p BACE1 3'-UTR target sites in primary human brain cultures significantly elevated BACE1 expression. Finally, miR-339-5p levels were found to be significantly reduced in brain specimens isolated from AD patients as compared to age-matched controls. Therefore, miR-339-5p regulates BACE1 expression in human brain cells and is most likely dysregulated in at least a subset of AD patients making this miRNA a novel drug target.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in older adults, affecting over 50% of those over age 85. Aging is the most important risk factor for the development of LOAD. Aging is associated with the decrease in the ability of cells to cope with cellular stress, especially protein aggregation. Here we describe how the process of aging affects pathways that control the processing and degradation of abnormal proteins including amyloid-β (Aβ). Genetic association studies in LOAD have successfully identified a large number of genetic variants involved in the development of the disease. However, there is a gap in understanding the interconnections between these pathomolecular events that prevent us from discovering therapeutic targets. We propose novel, pertinent links to elucidate how the biology of aging affects the sequence of events in the development of LOAD. Furthermore we analyze and synthesize the molecular-pathologic-clinical correlations of the aging process, involving the HSF1 and FOXO family pathways, Aβ metabolic pathway, and the different clinical stages of LOAD. Our new model postulates that the aging process would precede Aβ accumulation, and attenuation of HSF1 is an "upstream" event in the cascade that results in excess Aβ and synaptic dysfunction, which may lead to cognitive impairment and/or trigger "downstream" neurodegeneration and synaptic loss. Specific host factors, such as the activity of FOXO family pathways, would mediate the response to Aβ toxicity and the pace of progression toward the clinical manifestations of AD.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 12/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor