[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Root formation is dependent on meristematic activity and is influenced by nitrogen supply. We have previously shown that ubiquitin ligase, EL5, in rice (Oryza sativa) is involved in the maintenance of root meristematic viability. When mutant EL5 protein is overexpressed to dominantly inhibit the endogenous EL5 function in rice, primordial and meristematic necrosis ia observed. Here, we analysed the cause of root cell death in transgenic rice plants (mEL5) overexpressing EL5V162A, which encodes a partly inactive ubiquitin ligase. The mEL5 mutants showed increased sensitivity to nitrogen that was reflected in the inhibition of root formation. Treatment of mEL5 with nitrate or nitrite caused meristematic cell death accompanied by browning. Transcriptome profiling of whole roots exhibited overlaps between nitrite-responsive genes in non-transgenic (NT) rice plants and genes with altered basal expression levels in mEL5. Phytohormone profiling of whole roots revealed that nitrite treatment increased cytokinin levels, but mEL5 constitutively contained more cytokinin than NT plants and showed increased sensitivity to exogenous cytokinin. More superoxide was detected in mEL5 roots after treatment with nitrite or cytokinin, and treatment with an inhibitor of superoxide production prevented mEL5 roots from both nitrite- and cytokinin-induced meristematic cell death. These results indicate a nitrogen-triggered pathway that leads to changes in root formation through the production of cytokinin and superoxide, on which EL5 acts to prevent meristematic cell death.
Journal of Experimental Botany 03/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin- and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate.
Journal of Experimental Botany 03/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The significance of plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) in phytoene desaturation and chloroplast function has been demonstrated using PTOX-deficient mutants, particularly in Arabidopsis. However, studies on its role in monocots are lacking. Here, we report cloning and characterization of the rice (Oryza sativa) PTOX1 gene. Using Ecotype Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (EcoTILLING) and TILLING as forward genetic tools, we identified the causative mutation of an EMS mutant characterized by excessive tillering, semi-dwarfism and leaf variegation that corresponded to the PTOX1 gene. The tillering and semi-dwarf phenotypes of the ptox1 mutant are similar to phenotypes of known strigolactone (SL)-related rice mutants, and both phenotypic traits could be rescued by application of the synthetic SL GR24. The ptox1 mutant accumulated phytoene in white leaf sectors with a corresponding deficiency in β-carotene, consistent with the expected function of PTOX1 in promoting phytoene desaturase activity. There was also no accumulation of the carotenoid-derived SL ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol in root exudates. Elevated concentrations of auxin were detected in the mutant, supporting previous observations that SL interaction with auxin is important in shoot branching control. Our results demonstrate that PTOX1 is required for both carotenoid and SL synthesis resulting in SL-deficient phenotypes in rice.
New Phytologist 01/2014; 202(1):116-131. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of phytohormones that control plant growth and development including shoot branching. Previous studies of the phenotypes of SL-related rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf (d) mutants demonstrated that SLs inhibit mesocotyl elongation by controlling cell division. Here, we found that the expression of cytokinin (CK)-responsive type-A RESPONSE REGULATOR genes was higher in d10-1 and d14-1 mutants than in the wild-type. However, CK levels in mesocotyls of the d mutants were not very different from those in the wild-type. On the other hand, application of a synthetic CK (kinetin) enhanced mesocotyl elongation in the d mutants and the wild-type. d10-1 and d14-1 mesocotyls were more sensitive to CK than wild-type mesocotyls, suggesting that the up-regulation of the CK-responsive type-A RR genes and the higher elongation of mesocotyls in the d mutants are mainly due to the increased sensitivity of the d mutants to CK. Co-treatment with kinetin and a synthetic SL (GR24) confirmed the antagonistic functions of SL and CK on mesocotyl elongation. OsTCP5, which encodes a transcription factor belonging to the cell division-regulating TCP family, was also regulated by SL and CK and its expression was negatively correlated with mesocotyl length. These findings suggest that OsTCP5 contributes to the SL- and CK-controlled mesocotyl elongation in darkness.
Plant and Cell Physiology 10/2013; · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bioactive form of jasmonate is the conjugate of the amino acid isoleucine (Ile) with jasmonic acid (JA), which is biosynthesized in a reaction catalyzed by the GH3 enzyme JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1). We examined the biochemical properties of OsJAR1 and its involvement in photomorphogenesis of rice (Oryza sativa). OsJAR1 has a similar substrate specificities as its orthologue in Arabidopsis. However, osjar1 loss-of-function mutants did not show as severe coleoptile phenotypes as the JA-deficient mutants coleoptile photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2) and hebiba, which develop long coleoptiles in all light qualities we examined. Analysis of hormonal contents in the young seedling stage revealed that osjar1 mutants are still able to synthesize JA-Ile conjugate in response to blue light, suggesting that a redundantly active enzyme can conjugate JA and Ile in rice seedlings. A good candidate for this enzyme is OsJAR2, which was found to be able to catalyze the conjugation of JA with Ile as well as with some additional amino acids. In contrast, if plants in the vegetative stage were mechanically wounded, the content of JA-Ile was severely reduced in osjar1, demonstrating that OsJAR1 is the most important JA-Ile conjugating enzyme in the wounding response during the vegetative stage.
Plant Cell and Environment 09/2013; · 5.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SWI/SNF-type chromatin-remodeling complexes (CRCs) are involved in regulation of transcription, DNA replication and repair, and cell cycle. Mutations of conserved subunits of plant CRCs severely impair growth and development, however the underlying causes of these phenotypes are largely unknown. Here we show that inactivation of SWI3C, the core component of Arabidopsis SWI/SNF CRCs, interferes with normal functioning of several plant hormone pathways and alters transcriptional regulation of key genes of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. The resulting reduction of GA4 causes severe inhibition of hypocotyl and root elongation, which can be rescued by exogenous GA-treatment. In addition, the swi3c mutation inhibits DELLA-dependent transcriptional activation of GID1 GA-receptor genes. Down-regulation of GID1a in parallel with the DELLA repressor gene RGA in swi3c indicates that lack of SWI3C also leads to defects in GA-signaling. Together with recent demonstration of function of SWI/SNF ATPase BRAHMA in the gibberellin pathway, these results reveal a critical role of SWI/SNF CRC in the regulation of GA biosynthesis and signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that SWI3C is capable of in vitro binding to, and shows in vivo BiFC interaction in cell nuclei with the DELLA proteins RGL2 and RGL3, which affect transcriptional activation of GID1 and GA3ox genes controlling GA perception and biosynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, we show that SWI3C also interacts with the O-GlcNAc transferase SPINDLY (SPY) required for proper functioning of DELLAs, and acts hypostatically to SPY in the GA-response pathway. These findings suggest that DELLA-mediated effects in GA-signaling as well as their role as a hub in hormonal crosstalk may be, at least in part, dependent on their direct physical interaction with complexes responsible for modulation of chromatin structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Critical responses to developmental or environmental stimuli are mediated by different transcription factors, including members of the ERF, bZIP, MYB, MYC, and WRKY families. Of these, MYB genes play roles in many developmental processes. The overexpression of one MYB gene, MYBH, significantly increased hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in the light, and the expression of this gene increased markedly in the dark. The MYBH protein contains a conserved motif, R/KLFGV, which was implicated in transcriptional repression. Interestingly, the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol blocked the increase in hypocotyl elongation in seedlings that overexpressed MYBH. Moreover, the function of MYBH was dependent on phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that hypocotyl elongation is regulated by a delicate and efficient mechanism in which MYBH expression is triggered by challenging environmental conditions such as darkness, leading to an increase in PIF accumulation and subsequent enhanced auxin biosynthesis. These results indicate that MYBH is one of the molecular components that regulate hypocotyl elongation in response to darkness.
Journal of Experimental Botany 07/2013; · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here we show that expression of genes encoding other bHLH transcription factors, Jasmonate Associated MYC2 LIKE 1 (JAM1), JAM2 and JAM3 is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner. However, contrary to myc2, jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl-jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants, as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid (12-OH-JA) in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA-responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gibberellins (GAs) are the plant hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development, including stem elongation. Genes encoding enzymes related to the GA biosynthetic and metabolic pathway have been isolated and characterized in many plant species. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) catalyzes bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms; therefore, playing a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs. In the present study, we produced transgenic plants of the liliaceous monocotyledon Tricyrtis sp. overexpressing the GA2ox gene from the linderniaceous dicotyledon Torenia fournieri (TfGA2ox2). All six transgenic plants exhibited dwarf phenotypes, and they could be classified into two classes according to the degree of dwarfism: three plants were moderately dwarf and three were severely dwarf. All of the transgenic plants had small or no flowers, and smaller, rounder and darker green leaves. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that the TfGA2ox2 expression level generally correlated with the degree of dwarfism. The endogenous levels of bioactive GAs, GA1 and GA4, largely decreased in transgenic plants as shown by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, and the level also correlated with the degree of dwarfism. Exogenous treatment of transgenic plants with gibberellic acid (GA3) resulted in an increased shoot length, indicating that the GA signaling pathway might normally function in transgenic plants. Thus, morphological changes in transgenic plants may result from a decrease in the endogenous levels of bioactive GAs. Finally, a possibility of molecular breeding for plant form alteration in liliaceous ornamental plants by genetically engineering the GA metabolic pathway is discussed.
Journal of plant physiology 06/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endogenous concentration of N-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is regulated by the balance between biosynthesis and deactivation and controls plant developmental processes and stress responses. Therefore, profiling of its precursors and metabolites is required to understand the mechanism by which the JA-Ile concentration is regulated. Also, other hormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene, have been suggested to interact with JA-Ile signaling. Profiling of these hormones and their metabolites should give us insights into their interaction mode. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry has enabled us to develop a highly sensitive and high-throughput comprehensive quantification analysis of phytohormones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62350. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA) are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM) ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58588. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants have evolved efficient defense mechanisms known as priming and synergy, both of which can mobilize defense responses more extensively against successive pathogen invasion or simultaneous stimulation by different signal molecules. However, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena were largely unknown. In the present study, we used cultured rice cells and combination of purified MAMP molecules as a model system to study the mechanisms of these phenomena. We found that the pretreatment of rice cells with a low concentration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) apparently primed the defense responses induced by successive N-acetylchitooctaose (GN8) treatment. On the other hand, simultaneous treatment with GN8 and LPS also resulted in the similar enhancement of defense responses observed for the LPS-induced priming, indicating that the synergistic effects of these MAMPs are basically responsible for such enhancement of defense responses, though the effect could be interpreted as "priming" under some experimental conditions. These results also indicate that such a positive crosstalk of signaling cascade downstream of MAMP receptors seems to occur very rapidly, probably at early step(s) of signaling pathway. Comprehensive analysis of phytohormones revealed a specific enhancement of the synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA), both in the LPS pretreatment and also simultaneous treatment, indicating a role of JA in the enhancement of downstream responses.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51953. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brassinosteroids (BRs) affect a wide range of developmental processes in plants and compromised production or signalling of BRs causes severe growth defects. To identify new regulators of plant organ growth, we searched the Arabidopsis FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene) collection for mutants with altered organ size and isolated two overexpression lines that display typical BR deficient dwarf phenotypes. The phenotype of these lines, caused by an overexpression of a putative acyltransferase gene PIZZA (PIZ), was partly rescued by supplying exogenous brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS), indicating that endogenous BR levels are rate-limiting for the growth of PIZ overexpression lines. Our transcript analysis further showed that PIZ overexpression leads to an elevated expression of genes involved in BR biosynthesis and a reduced expression of BR inactivating hydroxylases, a transcriptional response typical to low BR levels. Taking the advantage of relatively high endogenous BR accumulation in a mild bri1-301 background, we found that overexpression of PIZ results in moderately reduced levels of BL and CS and a strong reduction of typhasterol (TY) and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS), suggesting a role of PIZ in BR metabolism. We tested a set of potential substrates in vitro for heterologously expressed PIZ and confirmed its acyltransferase activity with BL, CS and TY. The PIZ gene is expressed in various tissues but as reported for other genes involved in BR metabolism, the loss-of-function mutants did not display obvious growth phenotypes under standard growth conditions. Together, our data suggest that PIZ can modify BRs by acylation and that these properties might help modulating endogenous BR levels in Arabidopsis.
PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e46805. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from pathogens. They confer durable resistance to a broad range of diseases by activating intrinsic immune mechanisms in plants. To obtain leads regarding useful compounds, we have screened a chemical library using an established method that allows selective identification of immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the characterisation of one of the isolated chemicals, imprimatinC1, and its structural derivative imprimatinC2. ImprimatinC1 functions as a weak analogue of salicylic acid (SA) and activates the expression of defence-related genes. However, it lacks antagonistic activity toward jasmonic acid. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that imprimatinC1 and C2 can be metabolised to 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 3,4-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively, to function in Arabidopsis. We also found that imprimatinC1 and C2 and their potential functional metabolites acted as partial agonists of SA. Thus, imprimatinC compounds could be useful tools for dissecting SA-dependent signal transduction pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant activators are compounds, such as analogs of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), that protect plants from pathogens by activating the plant immune system. Although some plant activators have been widely used in agriculture, the molecular mechanisms of immune induction are largely unknown. Using a newly established high-throughput screening procedure that screens for compounds that specifically potentiate pathogen-activated cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana cultured suspension cells, we identified five compounds that prime the immune response. These compounds enhanced disease resistance against pathogenic Pseudomonas bacteria in Arabidopsis plants. Pretreatments increased the accumulation of endogenous SA, but reduced its metabolite, SA-O-β-d-glucoside. Inducing compounds inhibited two SA glucosyltransferases (SAGTs) in vitro. Double knockout plants that lack both SAGTs consistently exhibited enhanced disease resistance. Our results demonstrate that manipulation of the active free SA pool via SA-inactivating enzymes can be a useful strategy for fortifying plant disease resistance and may identify useful crop protectants.
The Plant Cell 09/2012; 24(9):3795-804. · 9.58 Impact Factor