V Carrière

Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6, Paris, Ile-de-France, France

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Publications (41)136.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Les désordres métaboliques comme le diabète, l’obésité et le syndrome métabolique sont des préoccupations majeures de santé publique. Malgré sa contribution à l’homéostasie énergétique par sa fonction d’absorption des nutriments, l’intestin a reçu peu d’attention concernant son rôle potentiel dans ces pathologies comparé au foie, muscles et tissu adipeux. Deux formes du récepteur nucléaire HNF-4, alpha et gamma, sont fortement exprimés dans l’épithélium intestinal. Nous avons démontré précédemment que HNF-4alpha contrôle l’homéostasie de l’épithélium intestinal et l’absorption des lipides alimentaires par l’intestin. Contrairement à la forme alpha, HNF-4gamma a été peu étudié. Notre objectif est de déterminer son rôle physiologique. Matériels et méthodes Nous avons utilisé un modèle murin d’invalidation totale et constitutive de HNF-4gamma présentant un gain de poids significatif dès 4 mois suggérant une perturbation métabolique. Résultats La perte d’expression de HNF-4gamma entraîne une augmentation de la tolérance au glucose et une hyperinsulinémie lors d’un test oral au glucose mais pas lors d’un test intrapéritonéal, démontrant la part intestinale du phénotype observé. Grâce à un antagoniste du GLP-1, l’exendine 9, nous avons montré que le GLP-1, une entérohormone incrétine, est directement impliquée dans cet effet. De plus, l’invalidation de HNF-4gamma entraîne une augmentation du nombre de cellules exprimant le GLP-1 dans le jéjunum et le côlon (×1,7) ainsi que la quantité plasmatique basal et en réponse au glucose de GLP-1. L’analyse morphologique du pancréas et fonctionnelle sur îlots de Langherans isolés montre que la perte d’expression de HNF-4gamma entraîne une augmentation du nombre d’îlots moyens et larges (respectivement ×1,5 et ×1,8) ainsi que de leurs contenus en insuline (×1,7) sans que leurs capacités sécrétoires soit affectées. Conclusion Nous démontrons pour la première fois un rôle spécifique de HNF-4gamma dans le contrôle de l’homéostasie glucidique soulignant l’implication de l’intestin dans le contrôle de la balance énergétique.
    Diabetes & Metabolism. 01/2014; 40:A4.
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    ABSTRACT: Enterocytes, the intestinal absorptive cells, have to deal with massive alimentary lipids upon food consumption. They orchestrate complex lipid trafficking events that lead to the secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and/or the intracellular transient storage of lipids as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs originate from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are mainly composed of a triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol-ester core surrounded by a phospholipid and cholesterol monolayer and specific coat proteins. The pivotal role of LDs in cellular lipid homeostasis is clearly established but processes regulating LD dynamics in enterocytes are poorly decrypted. Here we show that delivery of alimentary lipid micelles to polarized human enterocytes induces an immediate autophagic response, accompanied by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate appearance at the ER membrane. We observed a specific and rapid capture of newly synthesized LD at the ER membrane by nascent autophagosomal structures. By combining pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that autophagy is a key player in TG targeting to lysosomes. Our results highlight the yet unraveled role of autophagy in the regulation of TG distribution, trafficking and turnover in human enterocytes.
    Molecular biology of the cell 10/2013; · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Signal initiation by the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), which is important to actions of HDL on endothelium and other processes, requires cholesterol efflux and the C-terminal transmembrane domain (CTTM). The CTTM uniquely interacts with plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol. Objective: The molecular basis and functional significance of SR-BI interaction with plasma membrane cholesterol are unknown. We tested the hypotheses that the interaction is required for SR-BI signaling, and that it enables SR-BI to serve as a plasma membrane cholesterol sensor. Methods and Results: In studies performed in COS-M6 cells, mutation of a highly-conserved CTTM glutamine to alanine (SR-BI-Q445A) decreased PM cholesterol interaction with the receptor by 71% without altering HDL binding or cholesterol uptake or efflux, and it yielded a receptor incapable of HDL-induced signaling. Signaling prompted by cholesterol efflux to methyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD) was also prevented, indicating that PM cholesterol interaction with the receptor enables it to serve as a PM cholesterol sensor. Using SR-BI-Q445A, we further demonstrated that PM cholesterol sensing by SR-BI does not influence SR-BI-mediated reverse cholesterol transport to the liver in mice. However, the PM cholesterol sensing does underlie apolipoprotein B intracellular trafficking in response to postprandial micelles or CD in cultured enterocytes, and it is required for HDL activation of eNOS and migration in cultured endothelial cells and HDL-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Conclusions: Through interaction with plasma membrane cholesterol, SR-BI serves a PM cholesterol sensor, and the resulting intracellular signaling governs processes in both enterocytes and endothelial cells.
    Circulation Research 09/2012; · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With an excessive postprandial accumulation of intestine-derived, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins being a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to characterize the mechanisms controlling the intestinal absorption of dietary lipids. Our aim was to investigate the role of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α in this process. We used transgenic mice with a specific and inducible intestinal knockout of Hnf-4α gene. One hour after a lipid bolus, in the presence of the lipase inhibitor tyloxapol, lower amounts of triglycerides were found in both plasma and intestinal epithelium of the intestine-specific Hnf-4α knockout (Hnf-4α(intΔ)) mice compared with the Hnf-4α(loxP/loxP) control mice. These discrepancies were due to a net decrease of the intestinal uptake of fatty acid in Hnf-4α(intΔ) mice compared with Hnf-4α(loxP/loxP) mice, as assessed by the amount of radioactivity that was recovered in intestine and plasma after gavage with labeled triolein or oleic acid, or in intestinal epithelial cells isolated from jejunum after a supply of labeled oleic acid-containing micelles. This decreased fatty acid uptake was associated with significant lower levels of the fatty acid transport protein-4 mRNA and protein along the intestinal tract and with a lower acyl-CoA synthetase activity in Hnf-4α(intΔ) mice compared with the control mice. We conclude that the transcription factor HNF-4α is a key factor of the intestinal absorption of dietary lipids, which controls this process as early as in the initial step of fatty acid uptake by enterocytes.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 03/2012; 302(11):G1253-63. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As arginine plays a key role in the regulation of liver ureagenesis, we hypothesised that a modulation of enzymes involved in arginine metabolism within the intestine contributes to the regulation of N homeostasis according to protein supply. Our aim was to study the influence of variations in protein or amino acid (AA) supply on intestinal arginase, glutaminase, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), argininosuccinate lyase and argininosuccinate synthetase. We evaluated in vivo in rats the responses of these enzymes to short-term (ST, 16 h) and long-term (LT, 15 d) variations in dietary protein (10, 17 or 25 % protein diet). In addition, in order to test whether these responses could involve a direct action of AA on the gene expression and activity of these enzymes, Caco-2/TC7 cells were cultured for 3 d with increasing AA concentrations. In vivo, in the ST, both high- and low-protein diets increased arginase activity in the intestinal mucosa (ST25 %: 46 (sem 2) μmol/g per min and ST10 %: 46 (sem 2) μmol/g per min v. ST17 %: 36 (sem 3) μmol/g per min, P < 0.05). In the LT, OAT expression was increased in the LT10 % group (+277 %, P < 0.05) compared with the LT17 % group. Caco-2/TC7 cells showed inverse relationships between AA supply and arginase (P = 0.058) and OAT (P = 0.035) expressions. The present study demonstrates the regulation of intestinal arginase and OAT expressions in response to protein supply. Our in vitro experiments further indicate a direct AA-induced regulation of the mRNA abundance of these enzymes. In situations of limited protein supply, this regulation would increase intestinal arginine catabolism and, possibly via a decrease in arginine portal release, decrease hepatic AA oxidation, thus promoting N sparing.
    The British journal of nutrition 07/2011; 106(2):227-36. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2011; 12(1):94-94.
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    ABSTRACT: The intestine is responsible for absorbing dietary lipids and delivering them to the organism as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). It is important to determine how this process is regulated in enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the intestine, as prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis. During the postprandial period, dietary lipids, mostly triglycerides (TG) hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes, are combined with bile products and reach the apical membrane of enterocytes as postprandial micelles (PPM). Our aim was to determine whether these micelles induce, in enterocytes, specific early cell signaling events that could control the processes leading to TRL secretion. The effects of supplying PPM to the apex of Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes were analyzed. Micelles devoid of TG hydrolysis products, like those present in the intestinal lumen in the interprandial period, were used as controls. The apical delivery of PPM specifically induced a number of cellular events that are not induced by interprandial micelles. These early events included the trafficking of apolipoprotein B, a structural component of TRL, from apical towards secretory domains, and the rapid, dose-dependent activation of ERK and p38MAPK. PPM supply induced the scavenger receptor SR-BI/CLA-1 to cluster at the apical brush border membrane and to move from non-raft to raft domains. Competition, inhibition or knockdown of SR-BI/CLA-1 impaired the PPM-dependent apoB trafficking and ERK activation. These results are the first evidence that enterocytes specifically sense postprandial dietary lipid-containing micelles. SR-BI/CLA-1 is involved in this process and could be a target for further study with a view to modifying intestinal TRL secretion early in the control pathway.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(1):e4278. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(1). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestine contributes to lipid homeostasis through the absorption of dietary lipids, which reach the apical pole of enterocytes as micelles. The present study aimed to identify the specific impact of these dietary lipid-containing micelles on gene expression in enterocytes. We analyzed, by microarray, the modulation of gene expression in Caco-2/TC7 cells in response to different lipid supply conditions that reproduced either the permanent presence of albumin-bound lipids at the basal pole of enterocytes or the physiological delivery, at the apical pole, of lipid micelles, which differ in their composition during the interprandial (IPM) or the postprandial (PPM) state. These different conditions led to distinct gene expression profiles. We observed that, contrary to lipids supplied at the basal pole, apical lipid micelles modulated a large number of genes. Moreover, compared with the apical supply of IPM, PPM specifically impacted 46 genes from three major cell function categories: signal transduction, lipid metabolism, and cell adhesion/architecture. Results from this first large-scale analysis underline the importance of the mode and polarity of lipid delivery on enterocyte gene expression. They demonstrate specific and coordinated transcriptional effects of dietary lipid-containing micelles that could impact the structure and polarization of enterocytes and their functions in nutrient transfer.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 09/2008; 295(5):G942-52. · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2008; 3:199-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction et but de l’étude Le flux portal d’Arginine (Arg) est un élément clé de la régulation de l’uréogenèse hépatique. L’intestin est l’organe qui contrôle la disponibilité de l’Arg apportée par voie digestive. Cela dépendrait d’une modulation de l’expression de différentes enzymes (arginase, glutaminase, ornithine ami-notransférase (OAT) et argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) et synthétase (ASS)) par les apports en protéines de la ration alimentaire. Le but de ce travail a été d’étudier l’influence d’apports croissants en acides aminés (AA) sur l’expression de ces enzymes dans un modèle de cellules intestinales, les cellules Caco-2/TC7. Matériel et méthodes Des cellules Caco-2/TC7 ont été cultivées sur filtre semi-perméable pendant 15 jours en milieu standard puis ont été réparties en 4 groupes (n=3). Les cellules ont alors été exposées pendant 3 jours à différents milieux dépourvu d’AA (0), ou contenant des concentrations croissantes en AA, correspondant à une (1X), deux (2X) et quatre (4X) fois les concentrations physiologiques plasmatiques post-prandiales. Les ARNm codant pour les enzymes d’intérêt ont été quantifiés par PCR en temps réel. Les résultats ont été analysés par régression linéaire (test de Student sur la pente). Résultats Il existe une relation inverse entre les apports en AA et l’expression de la glutaminase (p= 0,028), de l’OAT (p= 0,035), de l’ASS (p= 0,028) et de l’arginase (p= 0,058). Conclusions Cette étude montre pour la première fois un effet direct des AA sur la régulation au niveau transcriptionnel des enzymes du carrefour intestinal de l’arginine en fonction de l’apport Tableau 1Les niveaux d’expression des différentes enzymes, rapportées à la quantité d’ARNr 18SView Within Article azoté. Cette régulation permettrait ainsi, dans des situations de faibles apports azotés, de favoriser la synthèse intestinale de citrulline et par conséquent la néosynthèse rénale d’Arg. Lors d’apports azotés plus importants, cela favoriserait le passage de l’Arg absorbée dans le système porte et donc une stimulation adaptée de l’uréoge-nèse hépatique.
    Nutrition Clinique Et Metabolisme - NUTR CLIN METAB. 01/2007; 21:53-54.
  • Gastroenterologie Clinique Et Biologique - GASTROEN CLIN BIOL. 01/2006; 30(5):702-702.
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalyzes the release of glucose from glucose 6-phosphate. This enzyme was mainly studied in the liver, but while detected in the small intestine little is known about the regulation of its intestinal expression. This study describes the mechanisms of the glucose-dependent regulation of G6Pase expression in intestinal cells. Results obtained in vivo and in Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes showed that glucose increases the G6Pase mRNA level. In Caco-2/TC7 cells, glucose stabilized G6Pase mRNA and activated the transcription of the gene, meaning that glucose-dependent G6Pase expression involved both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Reporter-gene studies showed that, although the -299/+57 region of the human G6Pase promoter was sufficient to trigger the glucose response in the hepatoma cell line HepG2, the -1157/-1133 fragment was required for maximal activation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene transcription in Caco-2/TC7 cells. This fragment binds the aryl receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, and upstream stimulatory factor transcription factors. The DNA binding activity of these transcription factors was increased in nuclear extracts of differentiated cells from the intestinal villus of mice fed sugar-rich diets as compared with mice fed a no-sugar diet. A direct implication of ARNT in the activation of G6Pase gene transcription by glucose has been observed in Caco-2/TC7 cells using RNA interference experiments. These results support a physiological role for G6Pase in the control of nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2005; 280(20):20094-101. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, a component of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins secreted by the small intestine, has been shown to play an important role in the control of lipid homeostasis. Numerous studies have described the induction of apoA-IV gene expression by lipids, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. In this study, we have demonstrated that a lipid bolus induced transcription of the apoA-IV gene in transgenic mice and that the regulatory region of the apoA-IV gene, composed of the apoC-III enhancer and the apoA-IV promoter (eC3-A4), was responsible for this induction. In enterocyte Caco-2/TC7 cells, a permanent supply of lipids at the basal pole induced expression of the apoA-IV gene both at the transcriptional level and through mRNA stabilization. ApoA-IV gene transcription and protein secretion were further induced by an apical supply of complex lipid micelles mimicking the composition of duodenal micelles, and this effect was not reproduced by apical delivery of different combinations of micelle components. Only induction of the apoA-IV gene by lipid micelles involved the participation of hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-4, as demonstrated using a dominant negative form of this transcription factor. Accordingly, lipid micelles increased the DNA binding activity of HNF-4 on the eC3-A4 region. These results emphasize the importance of physiological delivery of dietary lipids on apoA-IV gene expression and the implication of HNF-4 in this regulation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2005; 280(7):5406-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aminopeptidase B (Ap-B), a ubiquitous enzyme, catalyses the amino-terminal cleavage of basic residues of peptide or protein substrates, indicating a role in precursor processing. The physiological function of Ap-B still remains an open question, even though its activity suggests that it could be involved in inflammatory processes and proliferation of tumor cells. This study was conducted to determine the expression of Ap-B in the developing and adult retina as a path to envisage physiological roles of Ap-B. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to detect expression of Ap-B mRNA and activity tests, Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to identify and localize the enzyme in the rat retina. These biochemical and morphological methods show that Ap-B is expressed in the retina from embryo to adult. Expression level is restricted to specific layers (pigmented epithelium, outer and inner plexiform layers and ganglion cell layer) and is developmentally regulated. Moreover, a preliminary analysis indicates that Ap-B, the glucose transporter GLUT3 and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) share a similar expression pattern in retina. Altogether, Ap-B appears predominantly expressed in neuronal cells lying in retinal layers containing neuritic extensions and synaptic junctions. Such expression is up-regulated during ontogenesis allowing to hypothesized that Ap-B participates in processes accompanying retinal neuronal cell differentiation.
    Experimental Eye Research 12/2004; 79(5):639-48. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological significance of the presence of GLUT2 at the food-facing pole of intestinal cells is addressed by a study of fructose absorption in GLUT2-null and control mice submitted to different sugar diets. Confocal microscopy localization, protein and mRNA abundance, as well as tissue and membrane vesicle uptakes of fructose were assayed. GLUT2 was located in the basolateral membrane of mice fed a meal devoid of sugar or containing complex carbohydrates. In addition, the ingestion of a simple sugar meal promoted the massive recruitment of GLUT2 to the food-facing membrane. Fructose uptake in brush-border membrane vesicles from GLUT2-null mice was half that of wild-type mice and was similar to the cytochalasin B-insensitive component, i.e. GLUT5-mediated uptake. A 5 day consumption of sugar-rich diets increased fructose uptake fivefold in wild-type tissue rings when it only doubled in GLUT2-null tissue. GLUT5 was estimated to contribute to 100 % of total uptake in wild-type mice fed low-sugar diets, falling to 60 and 40 % with glucose and fructose diets respectively; the complement was ensured by GLUT2 activity. The results indicate that basal sugar uptake is mediated by the resident food-facing SGLT1 and GLUT5 transporters, whose mRNA abundances double in long-term dietary adaptation. We also observe that a large improvement of intestinal absorption is promoted by the transient recruitment of food-facing GLUT2, induced by the ingestion of a simple-sugar meal. Thus, GLUT2 and GLUT5 could exert complementary roles in adapting the absorption capacity of the intestine to occasional or repeated loads of dietary sugars.
    The Journal of Physiology 12/2003; 552(Pt 3):823-32. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorzoxazone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, was previously shown to be hydroxylated on carbon 6 specifically by cytochrome P450 2E1. Accordingly, this drug has been proposed as a potential noninvasive in-vivo probe for screening the hepatic P450 2E1 activity. This study was carried out to test the specificity of such a substrate when first experiments conducted by using human hepatocyte cultures showed that the chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation activity increased after 3-methylcholanthrene treatment of cells. Indeed, the ability of both rat and human hepatocytes to metabolize chlorzoxazone significantly increased after treatments by 3-methylcholanthrene alone or plus ethanol, suggesting the involvement of P450 1A enzymes in this oxidative reaction. Identical results were obtained by in-vivo treatment of rats with four inducers of P450 1A enzymes, namely, beta-naphthoflavone, isosafrole, Arochlor 1254, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Furthermore, the chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation activity was inhibited by both alpha-naphthoflavone and dimethyl sulfoxide, both known to inhibit P450 1A and P450 2E1 activities, respectively. Finally, the use of yeasts genetically engineered for expression of human P450 1A1, 1A2, 2C9, and 3A4 demonstrated that P450 1A1 was significantly involved in this catalytic activity. In conclusion, these results taken together suggest that chlorzoxazone should be used with precaution as in-vivo tool for evaluating P450 2E1. However, the relative Km of P450 1A1 and 2E1 for chlorzoxazone and, on the other hand, the relative levels of these two enzymes in the human liver suggest that P450 2E1 would generally be the major form metabolizing chlorzoxazone in-vivo.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 04/2002; 6(6):852-7. · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • 12/2001: pages 15-21;
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    V Carrière, M Lacasa, M Rousset
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes are known to control the activity of several transcription factors. The nutrition-dependent expression of sucrase-isomaltase and Na+/glucose co-transporter 1, two proteins implicated in the intestinal absorption of glucose, has been shown to be closely related to modifications of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) activity. This study was conducted to determine whether phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes could control HNF1 activity. We show that expression of the gene encoding sucrase-isomaltase is inhibited in the enterocytic Caco-2 clone TC7 by okadaic acid at a concentration that is known to inhibit protein phosphatases 1/2A and that does not affect cell viability. At the same concentration, phosphorylation of the HNF1alpha and HNF1beta isoforms is greatly enhanced and their DNA-binding capacity is decreased. The phosphorylation state of HNF1beta isoforms directly affects their DNA-binding capacity. In contrast, the decreased DNA-binding activity of the HNF1alpha isoforms, which was observed after the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1/2A, is due to a net decrease in their total cellular and nuclear amounts. Such an effect results from a decrease in both the HNF1alpha mRNA levels and the half-life of the protein. This is the first evidence for the implication of protein phosphatases 1/2A in the control of the activity of HNF1 isoforms. Moreover, these results emphasize a physiological role for the balance between phosphatases and kinases in the nutrition-dependent regulation of HNF1-controlled genes.
    Biochemical Journal 04/2001; 354(Pt 2):301-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • V Carrière, J Chambaz, M Rousset
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    ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier met by the exogenous compounds of food or orally delivered drugs. To be transferred to the whole body, drugs and xenobiotics have first to pass through the intestinal epithelium, where detoxification systems have to minimize the potential of damage from toxic xenobiotics. However, most studies on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes have focused on liver enzymes. Such a situation may be explained by the fact that this organ is the site of toxification/detoxification for both endogenous and exogenous compounds, and also because adequate in vitro hepatocytes models have been available for a long time. By contrast, normal cellular models for the in vitro study of the intestinal processes of biotransformation still remain difficult to obtain. In the present report we will thus focus on the most commonly used models, which are Caco-2 cells and their derivative clones, and we will report recent procedures that allow the isolation of normal enterocytes which maintain their functions and integrity for several hours or even several days. Their respective performance and advantages for the study of the induction of the drug-metabolizing enzymes will be discussed.
    Toxicology in Vitro 01/2001; 15(4-5):373-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

510 Citations
136.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2011
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Centre de recherche des Cordeliers - UMR_S 872
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • Institut des Systèmes Complexes, Paris Île-de-France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France