[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kainate receptor (KAR) subunits are believed to be involved in abnormal GABAergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus (HIPP) in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder. Postmortem studies have shown changes in the expression of the GluR5/6 subunits of KARs in the stratum oriens (SO) of sectors CA2/3, where the basolateral amygdala (BLA) sends a robust projection. Previous work using a rat model of SZ demonstrated that BLA activation leads to electrophysiological changes in fast-spiking interneurons in SO of CA2/3. The present study explores KAR modulation of interneurons in CA2/3 in response to BLA activation. Intrinsic firing properties of these interneurons through KAR-mediated activity were measured with patch-clamp recordings from rats that received 15 days of picrotoxin infusion into the BLA. Chronic BLA activation induced changes in the firing properties of CA2/3 interneurons associated with modifications in the function of KARs. Specifically, the responsiveness of these interneurons to activation of KARs was diminished in picrotoxin-treated rats, while the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude was increased. In addition, we tested blockers of KAR subunits which have been shown to have altered gene expression in SO sector CA2/3 of SZ subjects. The GluR5 antagonist UBP296 further decreased AP frequency and increased AHP amplitude in picrotoxin-treated rats. Application of the GluR6/7 antagonist NS102 suggested that activation of GluR6/7 KARs may be required to maintain the high firing rates in SO interneurons in the presence of KA. Moreover, the GluR6/7 KAR-mediated signaling may be suppressed in PICRO-treated rats. Our findings indicate that glutamatergic activity from the BLA may modulate the firing properties of CA2/3 interneurons through GluR5 and GluR6/7 KARs. These receptors are expressed in GABAergic interneurons and play a key role in the synchronization of gamma oscillations. Modulation of interneuronal activity through KARs in response to amygdala activation may lead to abnormal oscillatory rhythms reported in SZ subjects.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32483. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is compelling postmortem evidence that GABA cell dysfunction plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Based on a unique distribution of postmortem abnormalities in layer II of the anterior cingulate cortex and sectors CA3/2 of the hippocampus, we postulated that afferent fibers from the basolateral amygdala to these sites may contribute to diminished GABAergic modulation in these disorders. To test this hypothesis, picrotoxin (PICRO), a non-competitive antagonist of the GABA-A receptor, is stereotaxically infused the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to increase the flow of excitatory activity into stratum oriens (SO) of sectors CA3/2 of the hippocampus. This pharmacological manipulation results in a selective reduction of GABAergic interneurons containing parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin in CA3/2. Using single cell recordings in a hippocampal slide preparation, these changes in PICRO-treated rats seem to be associated with a reduction in evoked and spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (sIPSCs) recorded from pyramidal neurons in sector CA3/2, but not CA1. A lower resting membrane potential and an increased action potential firing rate have been recorded in interneurons in the SO of CA2/3, but not CA1. Additionally, currents associated with hyperpolarization-activated cationic channels (Ih), which help to control neuronal firing rates of GABA cells in the hippocampus, were also increased. Overall, these studies support the view that postmortem studies contribute information for the development of empiric models of SZ, ones that can be used as translational tools for elucidating the functional changes that may be present in GABA cell subtypes their molecular regulatory mechanisms in this disorder.
Behavioural brain research 07/2009; 204(2):363-8. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SZ) involves dysfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission in the hippocampus (HIPP), particularly in sector CA2/3. Previous work using a rodent model of postmortem abnormalities in SZ demonstrated that activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) results in decreases of GABA currents in pyramidal neurons of CA2/3 but not CA1. In addition, a decrease of GABA cells has been reported in postmortem studies of the HIPP in SZ. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that BLA activation in this rodent model of SZ leads to changes in the electrical properties of interneurons located in sector CA2/3.
Patch clamp recordings in HIPP slices were performed in rat HIPP slices after 15 days of infusion of picrotoxin into the BLA. The intrinsic and firing properties and hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih) of interneurons were measured in stratum oriens (SO) of CA2/3 and CA1.
The BLA activation was associated with a lower resting membrane potential and an increased action potential firing rate in interneurons of CA2/3 but not CA1. Recordings from interneurons further demonstrated an increase of currents associated with hyperpolarization-activated cationic channels (Ih), which help to control neuronal firing rates and oscillatory rhythms.
Taken together, these results suggest that the enhanced BLA activity is capable of increasing the excitability of interneurons in SO of CA2/3 and might contribute to GABAergic dysfunction in SZ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathology of schizophrenia is characterized by increased hippocampal activity at baseline and during auditory hallucinations. Animal-model studies in which the flow of activity to the hippocampus is increased through decreased amygdalar GABAergic inhibition have shown alterations of hippocampal circuitry similar to schizophrenia, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. We provide evidence of decreased hippocampal feed-forward and tonic GABA-mediated inhibition in this animal model, complementing increased hippocampal activity seen in neuroimaging and postmortem studies. We demonstrate that GABA dysfunction increases long-term potentiation through activation of the cholinergic system, offering a new mechanism for pharmacological strategies of this disorder.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2005; 102(37):13301-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor