Adam Jurgoński

Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Allenstein, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (18)35.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine.
    European journal of nutrition. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were fed diets containing low (0.051% of diet) or high (0.153% of diet) levels of an ellagitannin-rich (ET) strawberry extract with dietary fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or cellulose (CEL) for 4 weeks. The in vivo study demonstrated that some positive changes in the cecal metabolism resulting from the ingestion of a diet enriched only with FOS were completely or slightly suppressed by the dietary ET. In particular, the pH value (7.21 vs. 7.36), short-chain fatty acid production (41.2 vs 30.0 μmol/100g BW), and β-glucuronidase activity (20.2 vs. 15.7 μmol/h/g) in the cecum of rats fed with FOS were affected upon the addition of the ET extract. Dietary FOS caused higher metabolism of the tested ET strawberry extract in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Moreover, the systemic effect of the supplements when consumed together showed undesired serum HDL-cholesterol decrease (0.78 vs. 1.02 mmol/L in the treatment with FOS only).
    Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The consumption of a high level of dietary extract from blackcurrant pomace rich in polyphenols was hypothesised to exert beneficial effects on the serum lipid profile, the markers of insulin resistance and the antioxidant status of the host without negative changes in the intestinal tract. This hypothesis was tested on 20 male New Zealand white rabbits randomly assigned to four groups of five individuals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were subjected to the following dietary treatments: two control groups were fed a standard or a high-fat diet (7 and 32 % energy from fat, respectively), and two experimental groups were fed a standard or a high-fat diet with the addition of 1.5 % blackcurrant polyphenolic extract. The extract obtained from blackcurrant fruit pomaces was characterised by high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols (48.9 and 17.9 %, respectively). The high-fat feeding regimen led to a series of unfavourable changes, such as increased body weight, disturbance of fermentative processes in the hindgut as well the induction of oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Dietary supplementation with blackcurrant extract decreased the concentration of putrefactive metabolites (ammonia and putrefactive SCFA) and β-glucuronidase activity in the hindgut digesta. Additionally, the extract ameliorated hyperlipidaemia by decreasing triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations in the serum and increased the antioxidant capacity of the serum. This study suggests that a polyphenol-rich extract from blackcurrant pomace ingested at relatively high amounts may be a useful therapeutic option in the reversal of dysfunctions related to obesity and its complications.
    European Journal of Nutrition 02/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.
    Nutrients 01/2014; 6(2):616-26. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The berries of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.), including an edible Kamchatka variety (var. kamtschatica Sevast.), are a potential but relatively unknown source of anthocyanins, which are thought to have favorable effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine whether the dietary addition of a Kamchatka honeysuckle berry extract (KHBE, 327 mg anthocyanins/g) is able to limit the disorders related to these diseases induced by a high-fructose diet in rats. METHODS: The experiment was conducted using 24 adult male Wistar rats distributed into 3 groups of 8 animals each and fed semipurified casein diets differentiated by the carbohydrate source for 4 wk, as follows: a control cornstarch diet (681 g/kg) or a high-fructose diet (633 g/kg), with or without the addition of KHBE (2 g/kg). RESULTS: The mucosal lactase activity in the small intestine was increased in the rats fed the KHBE-containing diet compared with the rats fed the control diet. In the cecal digesta, the dietary KHBE considerably increased bacterial α- and β-glucosidase activity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance were detected in the rats fed the high-fructose diet. The dietary KHBE normalized the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity, whereas plasma non-HDL cholesterol, insulin concentration, and insulin resistance were ameliorated to levels comparable with the rats fed the control diet. CONCLUSION: An anthocyanin-rich Kamchatka honeysuckle berry extract supplemented to an unbalanced diet is able to ameliorate the disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism that are the fundamental risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Moreover, the extract stimulates enzymatic activity within the gut that seems to be related to the metabolism of polyphenols.
    Nutrition 02/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet), the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit) and the interaction between these two dietary factors. When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 04/2012; 9(1):31. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparison of the effects of a high-fructose diet supplemented with rutin, a phenolic compound with well-recognized bioavailability and bioactivity, and a chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed extract rich in caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) on gut physiology and the development of disorders related to metabolic syndrome. A 28-d experiment was conducted on 32 young male Wistar rats. In comparison with control rats fed a standard corn starch diet (group C), the experimental group (group E) was fed a diet with an increased content of cholesterol and fructose (to 1% and 66% of the diet, respectively), as well as with oxidized soybean oil. Rats from the other two experimental groups were administered the same diet as group E during the first 2 wk of feeding, whereas at the beginning of the last 2 wk, the diet was enriched with rutin (group ER) or the CQA-rich ethanol extract from chicory seeds (9.6% of CQA, group EC), so the amount of added phenolics was equal in both dietary groups (0.15%). The diet administered in group E caused hyperglycemia and increased blood serum atherogenicity in rats, but did not induce other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. Additionally, it affected gut physiology through increasing mucosal sucrase activity and disturbing fermentative processes in the cecum, such as the production of short-chain fatty acids and the activity of microbial enzymes. Similarly to rutin, the dietary addition of the chicory seed extract improved glycemia, which was comparable to that determined in group C. In addition, the extract was found to decrease the atherogenic index to the level observed in group C and to increase blood antioxidant status. Both dietary supplements reduced the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in kidney and heart tissue when compared with group E. The potential efficacy of the CQA-rich extract from chicory seeds in improving diet-induced metabolic disturbances proved to be better than that of rutin; thus, the extract might be considered as a dietary supplement for carrying out clinical trials.
    Nutrition 03/2012; 28(3):300-6. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present 4-week study on growing Wistar rats was aimed at assessing the potential advantages of dietary supplementation with apple pomace containing both fibre and polyphenols, which enables nutritional exploitation of the physiological traits of both compounds. A total of twenty-four rats, assigned to the control (C), group fed with a diet supplemented with 14% of processed apple pomace (A) and group fed with a diet supplemented with 15% unprocessed apple pomace (AP) groups, were fed the following iso-fibrous diets: control, ethanol-extracted and unprocessed apple pomaces (low and high level of dietary polyphenols, i.e. 0·002 and 0·018%, respectively). To measure the animal response, parameters describing the caecal fermentation, antioxidative status and lipoprotein profile of rats were assessed. Both dietary apple pomaces were found to significantly (P≤0·05) decrease caecal pH and ammonia concentration, microbial β-glucuronidase activity as well as to increase caecal SCFA concentration in comparison to the control diet. The unprocessed pomace did not suppress caecal fermentation. Unlike the extracted one, the dietary apple pomace rich in polyphenols significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and serum antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances and significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) decreased amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver tissue. Moreover, the 4-week administration of the AP diet to rats evoked a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (P≤0·05 v. C and A groups). In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich fibre complexes from apple pomace exerted positive effects on gastrointestinal physiology and antioxidant status of rats.
    The British journal of nutrition 08/2011; 107(8):1138-46. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the effects of supplementation with a polyphenol-rich pomace from strawberry (US) and a strawberry pomace without most of these compounds (PS) on gastrointestinal, blood, and tissue biomarkers in rats fed diets differing in carbohydrate contents for 4 wk. The diets were: corn starch (group CS), high fructose (60% by weight; group F), starch with 7.7% of either US or PS (groups CS+US and CS+PS, respectively), and high fructose with 7.7% of either US or PS (groups F+US and F+PS, respectively). An interaction (P < 0.05) was observed between diet type and strawberry preparation, showing that upon fructose feeding, US had a greater effect than PS on lowering serum insulin, liver total cholesterol, and conjugated dienes. Additionally, the F+US group had lower serum FFA than the F+PS group (P < 0.05). The extraction of polyphenols diminished the physiological effect associated with strawberry intake, suggesting that the fiber component of the pomace was also active in reducing metabolic complications following fructose feeding to rats.
    Journal of Nutrition 08/2011; 141(10):1777-83. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We verified the hypothesis that the consumption of polyphenol concentrate (PC), rich in quercetin and its glycosides (36 g/100 g), in association with different dietary fiber matrices, that is, an easily fermentable fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or non-fermentable cellulose (CEL), causes a disparate adaptive response of the cecal microbial activity in rats. This in turn facilitates further utilization of biologically active polyphenolic compounds, which are not, as usual, digested in the foregut. Four-week experimental feeding of male Wistar rats consisted of diets containing 5% FOS or CEL, as a source of dietary fiber, with or without 0.3% addition of PC. Positive changes in rat cecum were observed resulting from the ingestion of an FOS-containing diet, such as decreased pH and increased the production of short-chain fatty acids in the digesta, compared with a CEL-containing diet. The addition of PC to the FOS diet did not eliminate the positive effects of the latter, except for a slight increase in cecal pH and a decrease in microbial glycolytic activity. However, a simultaneous increase in the cecal butyrate pool was also observed. An adaptation process of the microflora enzymatic system to dieting with PC and FOS was proven in further enhanced susceptibility of rutin (quercetin 3-O-glucorhamnoside), hyperoside (quercetin 3-O-galactoside), and quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside) to hydrolysis by the cecal digesta solution. Especially when consumed together, PC and FOS are important dietary factors affecting the susceptibility of quercetin glycosides to microbial metabolism in the cecum. The intensification of the hydrolysis of quercetin glycosides by dietary treatments leads also to the increased metabolism of quercetin itself.
    Nutrition 03/2011; 27(3):351-7. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this 28 d experiment was to examine the physiological response of growing rats to a dietary combination of prebiotic chicory fructans, with polyphenols originating from different parts of the chicory plant, i.e. roots, root peels, seeds and leaves. A total of forty rats were assigned to groups fed the following diets characterised by a similar content of oligofructose and inulin: control, with 10 % of a root extract (a low level of dietary polyphenols, 0·05 %), with 6·5 % of a root peel extract (a medium level of dietary polyphenols, 0·107 %), with a combination of 8 % of a peel extract and 0·8 % of a seed extract (a high level of dietary polyphenols, 0·208 %) and with 2·5 % of a leaf extract (a medium level of dietary polyphenols, 0·106 %, with chicoric acid constituting half of them). Chicory seeds are the richest source of polyphenols, especially abundant in dicaffeoylquinic acids. When applied as a dietary supplement, the mixture of monocaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acids, from the extracts made of roots, root peels and seeds, elicited more favourable changes in parameters of the antioxidative status of the body and in the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase in the faeces and caecal digesta. In turn, the extract from chicory leaves, containing considerable quantities of chicoric acid and polyphenolic glycosides, apart from chlorogenic acids, also triggered desirable changes in the lipid profile of the blood serum. The high concentration of polyphenols in the extracts examined enables their application as dietary supplements to be administered in low doses.
    The British journal of nutrition 03/2011; 105(5):710-20. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The experiment was aimed at studying the effects of easily fermentable oligosaccharides and phenolic compounds from chicory root meal (CRM) on the fermentative processes in the caecum, the antioxidative status and the lipoprotein profile of rats. Five different diets were fed ad libitum to 40 Wistar rats (eight animals per group, individually housed): a control group (C); group PCM (10% processed CRM, deprived of polyphenolic fraction); group PCMO (8% processed CRM and 1.6% oligofructose); group UCM (10% unprocessed CRM); and group FP (8.3% fructan-polyphenol concentrate from CRM). Diets PCM, PCMO, UCM and FP induced favourable metabolic changes in the caecum, blood lipid profile and the antioxidative status of the body. In the caecum, the experimental diets increased the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acidification of digesta as well as a decrease in the ammonia concentration and bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity. In blood serum, the total cholesterol concentration was reduced and, simultaneously, the proportion of HDL in the total cholesterol concentration was increased. The presence of the polyphenolic fraction in the unprocessed meal (diets UCM and FP) evoked a significant increase in the total antioxidative status in blood serum. Dietary fibre and the polyphenolic fraction present in diet UCM and the FOS-polyphenol concentrate in diet FP did not exhibit an antagonistic activity regarding the physiological parameters analysed, except for in the intensity of caecal fermentation. The results of the experiment point to the benefits of dietary supplementation with chicory preparations containing both prebiotic saccharides and polyphenolic compounds, which enable us to take advantage of the physiological traits of both components.
    Archives of animal nutrition 02/2011; 65(1):74-87. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different fats, that is pork lard, refined soybean oil, and unrefined, cold pressed flaxseed oil, on the antioxidant status, inflammatory markers and blood lipid profile of rats fed diets rich in fructose. Four week of experimental feeding with flaxseed oil enriched diet (16%) led to a significant decrease in the degree oflipid peroxidation in liver when compared with rats fed the same amount of pork lard. Moreover the addition of soybean oil or flaxseed oil to the diet (16%) decreased significantly triglyceride and total cholesterol blood levels, as well as reduced atherogenic index of plasma. The concentration of HDL cholesterol was retained on a higher blood level in rats fed flaxseed oil enriched diet, when compared with the soybean oil group.
    Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 01/2011; 62(2):215-8.
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    ABSTRACT: In two experiments on Wistar rats, the influence of chicory fructans and their dietary combination with polyphenols on nitrogen excretion routes and mineral absorption in the ileum was examined. In the first experiment, during 15 days, twenty four rats were randomly divided into three equal groups of eight animals. The rats were assigned to the following diets: control (C), with 7.5% of chicory fructooligosaccharides (F), and that containing 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides combined with 0.05% of polyphenols (FP) were applied to 24 animals. In the second experiment on 30 rats, an in situ technique in an open system based on controlled flow of perfusion fluid through the small intestine of anaesthetized rats was used for assessing gut absorption. The content of fructooligosaccharides in the F fluid was 9.7 g/100 ml, while in the FP group the fluid contained similar amount of FOS and 62.5 mg of chicory polyphenols per 100 ml. Feeding fructooligosaccharides caused, typical for this type of dietary fibre, higher nitrogen excretion in faeces and lower N losses in urea as compared to the control group. Simultaneous dietary addition of polyphenols slightly increased these effects, however, the N digestibility and utilization indices did not differ significantly between F and FP groups (Experiment I). The chicory preparation containing both fructooligosaccharides and polyphenols decreased the ileal absorption of glucose and magnesium from the perfusion fluid in comparison to the F group. It was reflected in the lowest serum concentration of glucose in the FP group measured just after the perfusion period. Both preparations F and FP similarly increased the rate of calcium absorption when compared to the control treatment. Lenkijos mokslų akademijos Gyvūnų reprodukcijos ir maisto tyrimų institutas, Tuwima g. 10, 10-747 Olštynas, Lenkija 2 Cheminės technologijos ir maisto institutas, Lodzės technikos universitetas, Wolczanska g.171/173 90-924 Lodzė, Lenkija 3 Paukštininkystės katedra, Olštyno Varmijos-Mozūrijos universitetas, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olštynas, Lenkija Santrauka. Atlikti du bandymai su Wistar linijos žiurkėmis. Buvo tiriama cikorijos fruktanų ir jų racionų derinių su polifenoliais įtaka žiurkių organizme išskiriamo azoto kiekiui ir mineralinių medžiagų absorbcijai klubinėje žarnoje. Pirmuoju bandymu, kuris tęsėsi 15 dienų, 24 žiurkės buvo šeriamos trimis racionais: kontroliniu (C), papildytu 7,5 proc. cikorijos fruktooligosacharidų (F), ir papildytu 7,5 proc. fruktooligosacharidų bei 0,05 proc. polifenolių (FP) mišiniu. Antruoju bandymu su 30 žiurkių žarnyno absorbcijai įvertinti taikytas in situ atviros sistemos metodas, pagrįstas kontroliuojamu perfuzijos skysčio srautu per anestezuotų žiurkių plonąsias žarnas. F grupės skystyje buvo 9,7 g fruktooligosacharidų 100 ml, FP grupės skystyje buvo tiek pat fruktooligosacharidų ir 62,5 mg cikorijos polifenolių 100 ml skysčio. Šėrimas fruktooligosacharidais parodė (tai būdinga šio davinio ląstelienos tipui), kad su išmatomis azoto išskiriama daugiau, o su šlapalu išskiriamo azoto nuostoliai mažesni palyginti su kontrolinės grupės žiurkėmis. Raciono papildymas polifenoliais šiek tiek sustiprino šį poveikį, o azoto virškinamumo ir panaudojimo rodikliai tarp grupių F ir FP skyrėsi nežymiai (I bandymas). Cikorijos preparatai, kurių sudėtyje buvo ir fruktooligosacharidų, ir polifenolių, sumažino gliukozės ir magnio absorbciją iš perfuzinio skysčio klubinėje žarnoje palyginti su F grupe. FP grupėje tas pasireiškė mažesne gliukozės serumo koncentracija, kuri nustatyta iškart po perfuzijos laikotarpio. Abu preparatai – F ir FP – beveik vienodai padidino kalcio absorbcijos laipsnį. Raktažodžiai: cikorija, fruktanai, polifenoliai, azoto balansas, absorbcija klubinėje žarnoje, žiurkės. Introduction. Numerous studies have reported effects of non-digestible carbohydrates and various phytochemicals, for instance polyphenols, added to a diet as single supplements on the upper and lower
    Veterinarija ir Zootechnika 01/2009; 47(69):10-15. · 0.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents a complex analysis of changes proceeding in the gut, blood and internal organs of rats with induced oxidative stress, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia after dietary supplementation with an extract from black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruit, that is a condensed source of polyphenols (714 mg/g), especially anthocyanin glycosides (56.6%). The disturbances mimicking those observed in metabolic syndrome were induced by a high-fructose diet and simultaneous single injection of streptozotocin (20 mg/kg). Dietary supplementation with the chokeberry fruit extract (0.2%) decreased activity of maltase and sucrase as well as increased activity of lactase in the mucosa of the small intestine. Its ingestion led also to the improvement of antioxidant status, especially, the concentration of a lipid peroxidation indicator (TBARS) in organ tissues (liver, kidney and lung) was normalized; some cholesterol-lowering and distinct hypoglycemic actions were also observed. The mechanism of glucose reduction is likely to be multifactorial, and we suggest the factors related with the decreased activity of mucosal disaccharidases important for further investigation. In conclusion, chokeberry fruit derivatives may act as a promising supplementary therapeutic option in the prevention and treatment of disorders occurring in metabolic syndrome, as well as their complications.
    Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 09/2008; 63(4):176-82. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rats with severe streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were subjected to dietary green tea extract supplementation at 2 doses (0.01% and 0.2%; GTL and GTH groups, respectively) to evaluate their effects on antioxidant, gastrointestinal, and renal parameters of experimental animals. The lower dietary supplementation reflects daily consumption of 3 cups of green tea for an average adult weighing 70 kg. Supplementation of a diet with green tea extract had no influence on elevated food intake, body weight loss, increased glucose concentration, or declined antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances in plasma in the diabetic rats. In cases of intestinal maltase activity, attenuation of liver and kidney hypertrophy, triacylglycerol concentration, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the serum, both dietary treatments normalized metabolic disorders caused by STZ injection to a similar extent. Unlike the GTL group, the GTH treatment significantly ameliorated development of diabetes-induced abnormal values for small intestinal saccharase and lactase activities, renal microalbuminuria, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content in kidney tissue, as well as total antioxidant status in the serum of rats. The GTH group was also characterized by higher antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in the serum. Although the higher dose of green tea extract did not completely protect against STZ-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in experimental rats, this study suggests that green tea extract ingested at high amounts may prove to be a useful therapeutic option in the reversal of diabetic dysfunction.
    Nutrition research 06/2008; 28(5):343-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the physiological effects of black currant seeds after supercritical carbon dioxide extraction on the gastrointestinal tract and metabolism of rats used as an experimental model. The preparation contained 25% of total protein, 57.9% of dietary fiber and 4% of fat. Young Wistar rats divided into two experimental groups of 10 animals each, were fed for 28 days using semi-purified casein diets with a high fructose content (69%). The diets contained the same amount of protein and fiber. An inclusion of the tested seeds to the diet (10% as expense of cellulose, corn starch and part of casein) lowered the activity of glycolytic enzymes in the mucosa of the small intestine, whereas intestinal microflora elevated its glycolytic activity, and in consequence, increased production of short-chain fatty acids in the caecum. A distinct hypoglycemic actions of the tested preparation were also observed, while its antioxidant properties were found to be rather low and expressed by the decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the kidney tissue.
    Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 02/2008; 59(4):421-7.
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    A Jurgoński, J Juśkiewicz, Z Zduńczyk
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    ABSTRACT: Forty eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups and fed over 4 weeks with diets containing 2.5, 5 or 10% addition of potentially inert carbohydrate cellulose (CEL) or easily fermentable fructooligosaccharides (FOS). In rats fed on CEL diets no substantial changes in the pH, caecal mass, as well as protein, ammonia and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in the caecal digesta were observed; almost all microbial enzymes activity also was not modifi ed, except the activity of β-glucuronidase which decreased considerably upon higher doses of CEL (5 and 10%). Lower FOS supplementation (2.5 and 5%) led to desirable changes typical for dietary fructans (increased SCFA concentration and acidifi cation of digesta), while the 10% addition of FOS had some unfavourable effects such as decreased SCFA concentration, especially butyrate, and excessive enlargement of the caecum (tissue and digesta). In conclusion, 10% addition of FOS seems to be an overdose, while CEL can be recognized as a good negative control in experiments with non-digestible saccharides, however, its infl uence on microfl ora activity should be considered during the interpretation of the obtained results.