[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the potential of flicker-defined form (FDF) perimetry to detect functional loss in patient groups with beginning glaucoma, and to evaluate the dynamic range of the FDF stimulus in individual patients and at individual test positions.
FDF perimetry and standard automated perimetry (SAP) were performed at identical test locations (adapted G1 protocol) in 60 healthy subjects and 111 glaucoma patients. All patients showed glaucomatous optic disc appearance. Grouping within the glaucoma cohort was based on SAP-performance: 33 "preperimetric" open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, 28 "borderline" OAG (focal defects and SAP-mean defect (MD) <2 dB), 33 "early" OAG (SAP-MD < 5 dB), 17 "advanced" OAG. All participants were experienced in psychophysical and perimetric tests. Defect values and the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) in patient groups were statistically compared.
The values of FDF-MD in the preperimetric, borderline, and early OAG group were 2.7 ± 3.4 dB, 5.5 ± 2.6 dB, and 8.5 ± 3.4 dB respectively (all significantly above normal). The percentage of patients exceeding normal FDF-MD was 27.3 %, 60.7 %, and 87.9 % respectively. The age-adjusted FDF-mean defect (MD) of the G1X-protocol was not significantly correlated with refractive error, lens opacity, pupil size, or gender. Occurrence of ceiling effects (inability to detect targets at highest contrast) showed a high correlation with visual field losses (R = 0.72, p < 0.001). Local analysis indicates that SAP losses exceeding 5 dB could not be distinguished with the FDF technique.
The FDF stimulus was able to detect beginning glaucoma damage. Patients with SAP-MD values exceeding 5 dB should be monitored with conventional perimetry because of its larger dynamic range.
Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 12/2014; 253(3). DOI:10.1007/s00417-014-2887-9 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate rates of changes per year of central corneal thickness after antiglaucomatous drug administration with [beta]-blockers, prostaglandin analogs, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors monotherapy and combined topical antiglaucomatous therapy, in a cohort of patients with ocular hypertension, glaucoma suspects, and patients with perimetric glaucoma as compared with normal controls. Patients and Methods: This retrospective single-center study included 130 eyes as healthy controls, 121 eyes of ocular hypertensive patients, 105 eyes of glaucoma suspects, and 49 eyes of perimetric glaucoma patients. All patients underwent standard automated perimetry, 24-hour intraocular pressure profile, optic disc photography, and optical coherence pachymetry (OCP; Heidelberg Engineering). The cohort was divided into 8 groups on the basis of topical antiglaucomatous medication. Linear regression analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between central corneal thickness and exposure to antiglaucomatous medication during the follow-up. Results: Central corneal thickness did not change during the follow-up for investigated diagnostic subgroups. There was a statistically significant decrease in central corneal thickness for eyes treated with prostaglandin monotherapy (-3.1 [mu]m/y for left eye), and a combined therapy with prostaglandins, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and [beta]-blockers (-5.8 and -3.8 [mu]m/y for right and left eye, respectively). Conclusions: We recommend regular measurements before and during therapy with prostaglandin monotherapy and a combined therapy with prostaglandins, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and [beta]-blockers. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurements may be underestimated for eyes treated with the aforementioned treatment regimens if central corneal thickness is not measured on a regular basis.
Journal of Glaucoma 11/2014; DOI:10.1097/IJG.0000000000000190 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeTo test the hypothesis whether semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) provides additional information to static automated perimetry (SAP) in the assessment of the remaining visual field in end-stage glaucoma, as defined by disc appearance (cup-to-disc ratio worse than 0.9) and SAP criteria (MD worse than 20 dB).Methods
Fifty eyes of 44 patients presenting with end-stage glaucoma were examined first with SAP within the central 30° using stimulus size III, followed by SKP within 90° using test targets III4e and V4e.ResultsOverall, SKP provided additional information over SAP in more than half (54%) of the cases. In 16 instances (32%), SKP revealed visual field island beyond 30° that was undetected by SAP. In eight cases (16%), SKP showed both a central island and peripheral island of visual field. In three cases (6%) altitudinal scotomatous loss was found using SKP, but not in SAP. In 23 cases (46%) the central visual field island was defined both with SAP and SKP. The mean examination duration was 4 min for SAP and 9 min for SKP.Conclusions
In clinical practice, SKP with III4e and V4e test targets provides more information than 30° SAP regarding the remaining peripheral VF in patients with end-stage glaucoma; however, a longer test time is required for SKP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Higher levels of short-term fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) are characteristic of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). However, it is not known whether they are just a side effect of the higher mean intraocular pressure (IOP) or an independent feature. The purpose of this study was to compare short-term fluctuation of IOP between eyes with PEX and control eyes that were matched as closely as possible for mean IOP.
In this retrospective case–control study, all patients with confirmed PEX were identified from the database of the Erlangen Glaucoma Registry. From the same database, matched control eyes with similar treatment, age, glaucoma stage, and mean IOP were identified. For each patient, data from multiple extended diurnal IOP profiles were available.
Seventy-eight eyes were included in the study (39 with PEX and 39 matched control eyes). Although a very close match was achieved, a small but statistically significant difference in mean IOP was still present, but this did not seem to explain the differences in IOP fluctuation levels. Eyes with PEX had significantly higher short-term IOP fluctuations (SD of IOP and range of IOP).
The higher levels of short-term fluctuation in IOP appear to be an independent feature of PEX and not merely a secondary effect of the higher mean IOP. We suggest that this may have practical implications, even if IOP fluctuation levels should not prove to be an independent risk factor for development/progression of glaucoma, because more frequent measurements are needed in these patients to obtain good estimates of mean IOP and changes in IOP under treatment.
Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 10/2014; 253(1). DOI:10.1007/s00417-014-2821-1 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare Moorfields regression analysis (MRA), Glaucoma probability score (GPS), and different discriminant functions to predict future visual field conversion of patients with ocular hypertension and early glaucoma. Patients and Methods: The study included 120 eyes of patients with ocular hypertension and 110 eyes of patients with early glaucoma from the Erlangen glaucoma registry. Annually, all patients underwent standard automated perimetry, 24-hour intraocular pressure profile, optic disc photography, and HRT (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph I-III; Heidelberg Engineering) measurements. The cohort was divided into 2 groups based on the development of repeatable glaucomatous visual fields. Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were compared for MRA, GPS, and the classification of Bathija, Iester, Mardin, and Mikelberg at baseline. Kaplan-Meier Survival curves and Logrank tests were used to evaluate equality of survival distributions for different test results. Results: Median follow-up was 9.04 years. 26 eyes (11.3%) demonstrated glaucomatous visual field loss in the follow-up. MRA temporal-superior and temporal-inferior outside normal limits were predictive of future visual field loss with positive predictive values of 33.3% and 28.6%. Normal GPS Temporal Sector demonstrated a negative predictive value of 96.4% and normal results in discriminant functions between 94.7% and 95.5%. Conclusions: Confocal scanning laser tomography is a useful imaging modality to predict future visual field conversion. Development of visual field defects in 10 years is highly unlikely, if GPS classification and/or classification of discriminant analysis at baseline are normal. MRA temporal-superior and temporal-inferior outside normal limits are associated with future VF conversion (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NTC00494923).
Journal of Glaucoma 10/2014; Publish Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1097/IJG.0000000000000171 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Dyslipidaemia as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction is associated with glaucoma and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In additional to a genetic disposition, a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction could be an additive effect of several risk factors, like dyslipidaemia, smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes and hyperhomocysteinaemia. This paper reviews the literature concerning the association between dyslipidaemia and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of dyslipidaemia for the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. The role of exogeneous modifiable risk factors for prevention and therapy of glaucoma and their neutralisation by changing life style like weight reduction, modifications of nutrition and physical activity, are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the area of isopters obtained using semi-automated kinetic perimetry (SKP) and Vigabatrin dosage in epilepsy patients with pretreatment baseline examination during 2-years of the follow-up.
29 epilepsy patients were included into the study, but 15 individuals were excluded due to cognitive impairment, intracranial pathologies or eye diseases. Finally, 14 patients were examined with SKP before VGB treatment and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Reaction time (RT)-corrected areas of three isopters (III4e, I4e and I2e) were measured for each of five examinations and compared intra-individually during 2-years period. Additionally, six epilepsy patients on other antiepileptic drugs were examined five times with SKP as a control.
There was a significant decrease of I2e, I4e and III4e isopters’ area during the follow-up of two years. Correlation was found between the I2e isopter’s area and both cumulative dose and mean daily dose of VGB. With increasing RT, there was decreasing of all isopters’ area in patients receiving VGB. In epilepsy patients who were not receiving VGB, there were no significance differences in isopters’ area during follow-up.
There was attenuation of area of III4e, I4e and I2e isopters obtained with SKP during a period of 2 years. RT, the cumulative dose and the mean daily dose of VGB influenced isopters' area obtained with SKP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. We report a case of a male patient presented with sarcoid lesions of the iris and conjunctiva, mimicking tuberculosis due to epithelioid cell granulomas with small central necrosis in conjunctival biopsy. Patient. A 25-year-old man was referred to our department for further management of an "iris tumor with iridocyclitis" in his right eye. Initial examination showed an isolated vascular tumor of the iris and ciliary body with anterior uveitis and mutton-fat keratic precipitates, suggesting the diagnosis of a granulomatous disease. Conjunctival biopsy revealed granulomatous epithelioid cell inflammation with small central necrosis without acid-fast bacilli. Extensive systemic examination, including bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy, provided the diagnosis of sarcoidosis stage 2 with pulmonary involvement, thus ruling out tuberculosis. Systemic and local steroid therapy was initiated, leading to complete recovery of our patient with complete disappearance of the iris lesion and improvement of the pulmonary function. Conclusion. Although noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas are typical for sarcoidosis, small central necrosis can be found in some granulomas, leading to presumption of tuberculosis. Extensive systemic checkup in cooperation with other specialists is essential to confirm the correct diagnosis and to initiate the appropriate therapy.
Journal of Ophthalmology 03/2014; 2014:656042. DOI:10.1155/2014/656042 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of the cold pressor test (CPT) on steady-state-pattern electroretinograms (PERG) in normal subjects and glaucoma patients.
Steady state PERGs to 7.8 Hz pattern reversal stimuli were recorded in 63 subjects. Fifteen healthy control subjects, 14 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and 34 patients with open-angle glaucoma (20 normotensive (NTG) and 14 high tension glaucoma (HTG)) were examined. Steady State PERG amplitudes and latencies were analysed at baseline, during cold stimulus using a modified cold pressure test and during the subsequent recovery phase. Blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously recorded in 10 normals and 11 glaucoma patients.
During the three test conditions (baseline, ice-water, warm-water) glaucoma patients (NTG and HTG) showed significantly reduced PERG amplitudes in comparison to control subjects (p<0.001) and to OHT patients (p<0.004). Patients with OHT displayed lower PERG amplitudes than control subjects (n.s., with consideration of Bonferroni). Only NTG patients showed a significant effect of the CPT on PERG amplitude (significant decrease during warm-water p=0.02). Latencies shortened significantly during warm-water period after cold stimulus in control subjects (p=0.05) and in NTG patients (p=0.02) with a non-significant trend of shortened latencies in the OHT (p=0.06) and HTG groups (p=0.3). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased during cold water (p < 0.001) and a decreased during warming up conditions (p < 0.001).
This study shows that a cold pressure test influences the PERG responses particularly in NTG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report depicts the clinical course of a female patient with unilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP), who presented first in 1984 at the age of 43 years. At the beginning, there were cells in the vitreous leading to the diagnosis of uveitis with vasculitis. Within 30 years, the complete clinical manifestation of RP developed with bone spicule-shaped pigment deposits, pale optic disc, narrowed arterioles, cystoid macular oedema, posterior subcapsular cataract, concentric narrowing of the visual field and undetectable electroretinogram signal. At the age of 72 years, there are still no signs of retinal dystrophy in the other eye.
Case Reports 02/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1136/bcr-2013-202236
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the benefits of the internal limiting membrane removal in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pars plana vitrectomy.
The first study group (B) consisted of 26 patients who underwent vitrectomy with the internal limiting membrane peeling. The second control group (K) consisted of 15 patients, in whom vitrectomy was performed without he internal limiting membrane peeling. Macular detachment was confirmed preoperatively in all patients. Ophthalmic examination was performed 6 months after surgery. This included the best corrected visual acuity for distance and near, M-Charts, fundus examination and spectral domain--optical coherent tomography.
The results were statistically analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test and the Ch2 test of homogeneity. In the study group (B), the mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity for distance was 0.46, while in the control group (K) it was 0.35 (p = 0.35). The best corrected visual acuity for near in group B was 0.83 and 1.01 (p = 0.63) in group K. Central retinal thickness in group B was 268.64 μm, while in group K it was 335.07 μm (p = 0.20). The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups regarding the prevalence of defects in the ellipsoidal layer (p = 0.004). They were found to occur more frequently in group K (64.29%) than in group B (20.00%). The prevalence of epiretinal membrane was higher in group K (28.57%) than in group B (3.85%) (p = 0.02).
The internal limiting membrane peeling reduces the risk of secondary epiretinal membrane, restores the ellipsoidal layer integrity and does not affect the visual acuity for distance and near.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the changes in astigmatism after canaloplasty and to analyze its correlation with long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) results.
Twenty-six eyes of 26 consecutive patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (n=14) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (n=12) undergoing canaloplasty were included in this retrospective study. Canaloplasty comprised of 360-degree catheterisation of Schlemm canal by means of a flexible microcatheter with distension of the canal by 2 tensioning 10-0 polypropylene sutures. Primary outcome measures included IOP, glaucoma medication usage, astigmatism, and adverse events at 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively.
The mean preoperative IOP was 21.1±5.8 mm Hg. The mean IOP decreased to 14.25 ±4.3 mm Hg at 6 months. Mean astigmatism preoperatively was 0.77±0.5 D, which increased to 3.3±1.7 D at 2 weeks postoperatively (P≤0.05; Wilcoxon-test). Thereafter, the astigmatism underwent a spontaneous decline, reaching 1.9±0.8 D at 4 weeks and 1.2±0.74 D at 12 weeks postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity did not change significantly. Six months after canaloplasty, mean astigmatism reached the preoperative range of 0.86±0.52 D. Astigmatism at 2 weeks correlated significantly and inversely with IOP at 6 months (r=0.59, P=0.005; Spearman).
The change of astigmatism after canaloplasty follows a clear time course with a maximum at 2 weeks reaching preoperative values at 6 months. The amount of surgically induced astigmatism might be helpful to predict outcome of canaloplasty in terms of IOP reduction.
Journal of glaucoma 01/2014; 23(1):e53-9. DOI:10.1097/IJG.0b013e31829f9c31 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the results of Flicker Defined Form (FDF)-perimetry with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and retinal nerve-fiber-layer (RNFL) thickness measurements using spectral domain OCT. Methods: 64 healthy subjects, 45 ocular hypertensive patients, and 97 'early' open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients participated in this study. Definition of glaucoma was exclusively based on glaucomatous optic disc appearance. All subjects underwent FDF-perimetry, SAP and peripapillar measurements of the RNFL thickness. FDF-perimetry and SAP were performed at identical test locations (G1 protocol). Exclusion criteria were: subjects younger than 34 years, SAP-MD > 5 dB, eye diseases other than glaucoma, or non-reliable FDF-measurements. The correlations between the perimetric data on the one hand and RNFL thicknesses on the other hand were statistically analyzed. Results: The age corrected sensitivity values and the local results from the controls were used to determine FDF mean-defect (FDF-MD). FDF-perimetry and SAP showed high concordance in this cohort of experienced patients (MD-values: R=-0.69, P <0.001). 38 of in total 42 OAG-patients with abnormal SAP-MD also displayed abnormal FDF-MD. However, FDF-MD was abnormal in 28 out of 55 OAG-patients with normal SAP-MD. FDF-MD was significantly (R=-0.61, P <0.001) correlated with RNFL-thickness with a (non-significantly) larger correlation coefficient than conventional SAP-MD (R=-0.48, P <0.001). Conclusion: FDF-perimetry is able to uncover functional changes concurrent with the changes in RNFL thickness. FDF-perimetry may be an efficient functional test to detect early glaucomatous nerve atrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) Ocular Hypertension Glaucoma Treatment Study (OHTS), Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT), Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CITGS) and Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study (CNGTS) are often named as landmarks for glaucoma management as the results of these studies provided the evidence for numerous therapeutic decisions in clinical practice. The studies confirmed the consensus that reduction of intraocular pressure reduces the risk of glaucoma progression covering the whole spectrum of glaucoma from ocular hypertension to advanced glaucoma. Furthermore, the identification of new risk factors allows a higher precision of assessment of the risk of progression. The RCTs achieved the main goal of high level of evidence, thus making progress in the understanding of glaucoma and its treatment and bridging consensus-based and evidence-based decisions. However, the implementation of the results into clinical practice needs adequate and accurate interpretation of the results.
Der Ophthalmologe 12/2013; 110(12):1134-1148. DOI:10.1007/s00347-012-2671-3 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze if anterior chamber parameters are risk factors for the development of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and/or for the conversion to pigmentary glaucoma (PG).
This study included a total of 63 eyes from 35 patients with PDS and PG and 65 eyes from 49 unaffected volunteers as the control group. The following parameters were measured by slit lamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT): anterior chamber volume (ACV) and depth (ACD), angle opening distance (AOD) and the trabecular iris space area (TISA) at 500 µm and 750 μm from the scleral spur. Comparisons between the following groups were performed: between the PDS/PG and the control group, between PDS and PG and between male and female patients.
The results of ACV, ACD, AOD and TISA were significantly higher in PDS/PG patients when compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between PDS and PG. The gender-specific comparison also showed no significant differences.
Significantly higher anterior chamber parameters are a possible risk factor for development of PDS; however, a higher risk of conversion to PG does not seem to correlate with increased anterior chamber parameters. The parameters of the anterior chamber are apparently not associated with the male predominance of PDS and PG.
Der Ophthalmologe 09/2013; 111(7). DOI:10.1007/s00347-013-2943-6 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. To compare the longitudinal loss of RNFL thickness measurements by SD-OCT in normals and glaucoma patients with or without progression concerning optic disc morphology. Methods. 62 eyes, comprising 38 glaucomatous eyes with open angle glaucoma and 24 healthy controls, were included in the study (Erlangen Glaucoma Registry, NTC00494923). All patients were investigated annually over a period of three years by Spectralis SD-OCT measuring peripapillary RNFL thickness. By masked comparative analysis of photographs the eyes were classified into non-progressive and progressive glaucoma cases. Longitudinal loss of RNFL thickness was compared to morphological changes of optic disc morphology. Results. Mixed model analysis of annual OCT scans revealed an estimated annual decrease of the RNFL thickness by 2.12 µm in glaucoma eyes with progression, whereas glaucoma eyes without progression in optic disc morphology lost 1.18 µm per year in RNFL thickness (p = 0.002). The rate of change in healthy eyes was 0.60 µm and thereby also significantly lower than in glaucoma eyes with progression (p < 0.001). The intrasession variability of three successive measurements without head repositioning was 1.5 +- 0.7 µm. The loss of mean RNFL thickness exceeded the intrasession variability in 60% of non-progressive eyes, and in 85 % of progressive eyes after three years. Conclusions. Longitudinal measurements of RNFL thickness using SD-OCT show a more pronounced reduction of RNFL thickness in patients with progression compared to patients without progression in glaucomatous optic disc changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to measure alterations of trace elements levels in aqueous humor of patients with non-exsudative (dry) AMD.
For this pilot study, aqueous humor samples were collected from patients undergoing cataract surgery. 12 patients with dry AMD (age 77.9±6.62, female 8, male 4) and 11 patients without AMD (age 66.6±16.7, female 7, male 4) were included. Aqueous levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc were measured by use of Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), quality controlled with certified standards.
Patients with AMD had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of cadmium (median: 0.70 µmol/L, IQR: 0.40–0.84 vs. 0.06 µmol/L; IQR: 0.01–.018; p = 0.002), cobalt (median: 3.1 µmol/L, IQR: 2.62–3.15 vs. 1.17 µmol/L; IQR: 0.95–1.27; p<0.001), iron (median: 311 µmol/L, IQR: 289–329 vs. 129 µmol/L; IQR: 111–145; p<0.001) and zinc (median: 23.1 µmol/L, IQR: 12.9–32.6 vs. 5.1 µmol/L; IQR: 4.4–9.4; p = 0.020) when compared with patients without AMD. Copper levels were significantly reduced in patients with AMD (median: 16.2 µmol/L, IQR: 11.4–31.3 vs. 49.9 µmol/L; IQR: 32.0–.142.0; p = 0.022) when compared to those without. No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese and selenium between patients with and without AMD. After an adjustment for multiple testing, cadmium, cobalt, copper and iron remained a significant factor in GLM models (adjusted for age and gender of the patients) for AMD.
Alterations of trace element levels support the hypothesis that cadmium, cobalt, iron, and copper are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56734. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056734 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) glaucoma is the most frequent and most important type of secondary glaucoma, accounting for approximately 25% of open angle glaucoma worldwide and currently representing the most common identifiable cause of glaucoma overall. Due to high intraocular pressure levels, marked diurnal pressure fluctuations and spikes, and rapid optic nerve damage and visual field loss, PEX glaucoma represents a relatively severe and progressive type of glaucoma. Therefore, hard and fast lowering of intraocular pressure is necessary. Fixed combinations in medical therapy and early glaucoma surgery are recommended. When considering a surgical procedure (e.g. selective laser trabeculoplasty, bleb-dependent or bleb-independent surgery) the timing of cataract surgery plays a major role. Pathogenesis, clinical characteristics and therapeutic aspects of PEX glaucoma are described in the following article.
Der Ophthalmologe 10/2012; 109(10):962-75. DOI:10.1007/s00347-012-2532-0 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are many controversies among ophthalmologists and obstetricians regarding indications for caesarean section due to preexisting eye diseases. Many ophthalmologists still believe myopia, retinal detachment, glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy to be indications for a caesarean section. There is a discrepancy between clinical practice and evidence-based medicine, as none of the published trials have reported any retinal changes after vaginal delivery This report provides information on the influence of physiological changes on eye diseases during the final stage of the delivery. We conclude that an eye disease is not an indication for a caesarean section.
Ginekologia polska 08/2012; 83(8):613-7. · 0.68 Impact Factor