Antonia Domingo-Salvany

IMIM Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (97)265.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The use of opiates, particularly heroin, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Half of the deaths among heroin consumers are attributed to overdose. In response to this problem, overdose prevention programs (OPPs) were designed. The objective of our study was to assess coverage of OPPs among the target population in a specific Spanish region (Catalonia) and to identify characteristics related to attendance. A cross-sectional survey recruited individuals from outpatient treatment centers (OTCs), therapeutic communities (ThCs), and harm reduction facilities (HRFs) in Catalonia. From 513 participants, 306 opiate users and/or injectors were selected for this study. Coverage was calculated as the proportion of subjects who declared having participated in an OPP. A Poisson regression with robust variance was used to assess factors (socio-demographic aspects and psychoactive substance use patterns) associated to OPP participation, taking into account recruitment strategy. Average age of the 306 subjects was 39.7 years (s.d.: 7.7); 79% were male; 79.2% lived in urban areas and 56.3% were unemployed or had never worked. Overall OPP coverage was 43.5% (95% CI: 37%-49%). Training was received mostly in HRF (60%), followed by OTC (24.4%), prison (19%), and ThC (16%). OPP sessions were attended by 41% of Spanish-born study participants and by 63.3% of foreigners; 92.2% of the participants lived in urban areas. The Poisson regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, and type of recruitment center showed that OPP participation rates were higher for individuals with foreign nationality (PR =1.3; 95% CI: 1.04-1.72), for those living in municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants (PR =2.0; 95% CI: 1.37-2.81) or the Barcelona conurbation (PR =2.5; 95% CI: 1.68-3.77), and for those having ever been in prison (PR =1.6; 95% CI: 1.41-1.81) and had first consumption when they were less than 12 years old (PR =1.2; 95% CI: 1.06-1.45). Coverage as a whole can be considered high. However, in Catalonia, new strategies ought to be developed in order to attract opiate users and injectors not currently participating, by expanding OPP offer to services and regions where coverage is poor.
    Harm Reduction Journal 11/2014; 11(1):33. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in a sample of the Spanish working population and to examine its association with certain work-related stress factors.
    Gaceta sanitaria / S.E.S.P.A.S. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To explore the prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in a sample of the Spanish working population and to examine its association with certain work-related stress factors. Methods Using data from the 2007 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs (Encuesta Domiciliaria sobre Alcohol y Drogas en España [EDADES]), we analyzed the distribution of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in the previous month in the working population aged 16 to 64 years old (n = 13,005). Associations with exposure to certain work-related stress factors (noxious working environment, precariousness, workload, and social support) were examined using logistic regression modelling. Results The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives among women in the previous month doubled that of men (6.5% and 3.3%, respectively), while use among the oldest age group was twice that of the youngest group in both sexes (10.2% in women and 5.5% in men older than 45 years), and was four times higher among those reporting poor health (18.9% in women and 11% in men). Concerning work-related stress, exposure to moderate (OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.31-2.92) and high (OR: 1.95; 95%CI: 1.14-3.34) levels of precariousness in men and moderate levels in women (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.03-1.99) was associated with the use of hypnotics and sedatives. Conclusions The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives was high in women and in workers older than 45 years. Further research is needed on the relationship between the use of hypnotics and sedatives and workers’ health, and on the role that work-related stress factors play in this association.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 01/2014; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the profile of community-recruited regular cocaine users and the prevalence of recent depression and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 630 regular cocaine users who were not heroin consumers. Depression, social support and dependence were evaluated with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the Duke-Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Severity of Dependence Scale, respectively. The mean age was 23 years and 33% of users were women. The predominant profile of cocaine use was recreational-intense. Most (88%) participants had completed secondary education. The use of emergency services in the previous year was 45.9% and 7.8% were under drug-dependence/psychiatric treatment. The prevalence of depression was 14.6%. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with recent depression were female gender, homelessness, ketamine consumption, and less confidential support CONCLUSIONS: Regular cocaine users may require specific attention in general health services. Greater access to treatment for depression is needed among this group.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 12/2013; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a brief tool, the Dual Diagnosis Screening Instrument (DDSI), to screen psychiatric disorders in substance users in treatment and nontreatment-seeking samples. Methods: A total of 827 substance users (66.5% male, mean age 28.6 ± 9.9 years) recruited in treatment (in- and outpatient) and nontreatment (substance user volunteers in university research studies) settings were assessed by trained interviewers using the DDSI and the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) as the criterion standard. Both instruments were administered blind to the results of the other. Disorders obtained with the DDSI were compared to lifetime diagnoses obtained with the PRISM. Sensitivity, specificity, negative, and positive predictive values were estimated. Also test-retest reliability of the DDSI was assessed. Results: The DDSI showed a high sensitivity (≥80%) for identifying lifetime depression, mania, psychosis, panic, social phobia, and specific phobia disorders. Specificity was ≥82% for those diagnoses. Test-retest κ showed excellent agreement (range 81-95%). The mean duration of the DDSI administration was 16.8 ± 2.5 min. Conclusion: The DDSI is a valid and easy-to-administer screening tool to detect possible psychiatric comorbidity among substance users.
    European Addiction Research 08/2013; 20(1):41-48. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Non-fatal opioid overdose (NFOO) and major depression (MD) are highly prevalent in heroin users. Many risk factors are known for NFOO, but studies in non-clinical samples on its relationship with MD are lacking. We aimed to examine this relationship in a street-recruited sample, controlling for potential well-known confounders. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 452 heroin users street-recruited by chain referral methods in three Spanish cities. Eligibility criteria were: age ≤30 years, heroin use at least 12 days in the last year and at least once in the last 3 months. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A precise definition of NFOO was used. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for the NFOO predictors were obtained by logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of NFOO and MD in the last 12 months was 9.1 and 23.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, NFOO and MD were significantly associated (AOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.01-4.74). Other associated factors were imprisonment (AOR 4.1; 95% CI 1.4-12.1), drug injection (AOR 6.7; 95% CI 2.4-18.4) and regular use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills (AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.16-7). Conclusions: Drug and mental health treatment facilities should consider the relationship between MD and NFOO when contacting and treating heroin users. Imprisonment, drug injection and use of tranquillisers/sleeping pills are also risk factors for NFOO.
    European Addiction Research 08/2013; 20(1):1-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Spain, the new National Classification of Occupations (Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones [CNO-2011]) is substantially different to the 1994 edition, and requires adaptation of occupational social classes for use in studies of health inequalities. This article presents two proposals to measure social class: the new classification of occupational social class (CSO-SEE12), based on the CNO-2011 and a neo-Weberian perspective, and a social class classification based on a neo-Marxist approach. The CSO-SEE12 is the result of a detailed review of the CNO-2011 codes. In contrast, the neo-Marxist classification is derived from variables related to capital and organizational and skill assets. The proposed CSO-SEE12 consists of seven classes that can be grouped into a smaller number of categories according to study needs. The neo-Marxist classification consists of 12 categories in which home owners are divided into three categories based on capital goods and employed persons are grouped into nine categories composed of organizational and skill assets. These proposals are complemented by a proposed classification of educational level that integrates the various curricula in Spain and provides correspondences with the International Standard Classification of Education.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 05/2013; 27(3):263–272. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: This study estimates lifetime incidence trends of cannabis and cocaine use over 38 years from general population surveys of drug use (GPSDU) in Spain, taking into account changes of population age structure. DESIGN: Periodic cross-sectional studies. SETTING: Eight biennial GPSDU from 1995 to 2009 in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Interviewees aged 15-64 who reported age of first ever cannabis and/or cocaine use between 10 and 64 years between 1971 and 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Estimates of raw and standardized incidences were calculated as a weighted mean of the incidences from all surveys. Standardization was done to take into account changes of population age structure. Incidence trends were extracted applying weighted cubic smoothing splines to incidence estimates. FINDINGS: For both substances, estimated raw incidence trends increased up until the year 2000 (rates of 11.5±0.7 and 3.6±0.5 per 1,000, respectively for cannabis and cocaine), and then decreased significantly (in 2008, 9.6±1.2 and 2.7±0.6, respectively). In contrast, standardized rates exhibit a steadily increasing trend up to 2000 (9.0±0.6 and 2.8±0.4), followed by a statistically non-significant increasing trend afterwards (in 2008, 9.5±1.2 and 2.8±0.6). The largest increases of incidence were observed in subjects 15 to 19 years old, both males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Using data from Spanish general population surveys of drug use, an apparently decreasing trend of raw incidence rates in both cannabis and cocaine use from 2000 became non-decreasing trends when these rates were standardized. First experiences of cannabis and cocaine use in Spain mainly occur in younger ages (15-19 years).
    Addiction 02/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Spain, the new National Classification of Occupations (Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones [CNO-2011]) is substantially different to the 1994 edition, and requires adaptation of occupational social classes for use in studies of health inequalities. This article presents two proposals to measure social class: the new classification of occupational social class (CSO-SEE12), based on the CNO-2011 and a neo-Weberian perspective, and a social class classification based on a neo-Marxist approach. The CSO-SEE12 is the result of a detailed review of the CNO-2011 codes. In contrast, the neo-Marxist classification is derived from variables related to capital and organizational and skill assets. The proposed CSO-SEE12 consists of seven classes that can be grouped into a smaller number of categories according to study needs. The neo-Marxist classification consists of 12 categories in which home owners are divided into three categories based on capital goods and employed persons are grouped into nine categories composed of organizational and skill assets. These proposals are complemented by a proposed classification of educational level that integrates the various curricula in Spain and provides correspondences with the International Standard Classification of Education.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 02/2013; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    Marta Torrens, Francina Fonseca, Claudio Castillo, Antonia Domingo-Salvany
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    ABSTRACT: During the 1980s, Spain had very strict laws limiting access to opioid agonist maintenance treatment (OAMT). Because of this, mortality among people who used illicit opioids and other illicit drugs was high. Spain was also the European country with the highest number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmitted through illicit drug injection. The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people using heroin led to a shift from a drug-free approach to the treatment of opioid dependence to one focused on harm reduction. A substantial change in legislation made it possible to meet public health needs and offer OAMT as part of harm reduction programmes in the public health system, including prisons. Legislative changes were made throughout the country, although at a different pace in different regions. Legal changes facilitated the expansion of OAMT, which has achieved a coverage of 60%. A parallel reduction in the annual incidence of HIV infection has been reported. Reductions in morbidity and mortality and improved health-related quality of life have been described in patients undergoing OAMT. The treatment of opioid dependence has been more heavily influenced by moral concepts and prejudices that hinder legislation and interfere with the implementation of OAMT than by scientific evidence. To fulfil public health needs, OAMT should be integrated in harm reduction programmes offered primarily in public facilities, including prisons. Longitudinal studies are needed to detect unmet needs and evaluate programme impact and suitability.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 02/2013; 91(2):136-41. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Existing incidence estimates of heroin use are usually based on one information source. This study aims to incorporate more sources to estimate heroin use incidence trends in Spain between 1971 and 2005. METHODS: A multi-state model was constructed, whereby the initial state "heroin consumer" is followed by transition to either "admitted to first treatment" or to "left heroin use" (i.e. permanent cessation or death). Heroin use incidence and probabilities of entering first treatment ever were estimated following a back-calculation approach. RESULTS: The highest heroin use incidence rates in Spain, around 1.5 per 1,000 inhabitants aged 10--44, occurred between 1985 and 1990; subdividing by route of administration reveals higher incidences of injection between 1980 and 1985 (a mean of 0.62 per 1.000) and a peak for non-injectors in 1990 (0.867 per 1,000). CONCLUSIONS: A simple conceptual model for heroin users' trajectories related to treatment admission, provided a broader view of the historical trend of heroin use incidence in Spain.
    BMC Medical Research Methodology 01/2013; 13(1):4. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To identify the profile of community-recruited regular cocaine users and the prevalence of recent depression and associated factors. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out in 630 regular cocaine users who were not heroin consumers. Depression, social support and dependence were evaluated with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the Duke-Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Severity of Dependence Scale, respectively. Results The mean age was 23 years and 33% of users were women. The predominant profile of cocaine use was recreational-intense. Most (88%) participants had completed secondary education. The use of emergency services in the previous year was 45.9% and 7.8% were under drug-dependence/psychiatric treatment. The prevalence of depression was 14.6%. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with recent depression were female gender, homelessness, ketamine consumption, and less confidential support Conclusions Regular cocaine users may require specific attention in general health services. Greater access to treatment for depression is needed among this group
    Gaceta Sanitaria 01/2013; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study aims to determine lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders (including substance use disorders, -SUD and other non substance use disorders, –Non-SUD) among 289 young (18- 30 years) regular cannabis users, during the last year, in non-clinical settings in Barcelona. The Spanish version of the Psychiatric Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) was administered. Only 28% of the participants did not present any psychiatric disorder; while 65% had some SUD, the most common related to cannabis use (62%). Nearly 27% presented a non-SUD disorder. A younger age of initiation on alcohol use was associated with the presence of some SUD. Having consumed a greater number of “joints” in the last month was associated with the presence of both psychiatric disorders (SUD and non-SUD). While three quarters of subjects with non-SUD disorders had received some kind of treatment, only 28% of those with any SUD had received treatment. Given the low perception for need of treatment, there is a need for prevention strategies and to be able to offer therapies specifically tailored targeting young cannabis users.
    Adicciones 01/2013; 25(1):45-53. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Adicciones 01/2013; 25(1):87-8. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments’ items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too.
    ISRN Addiction. 12/2012; 2013.
  • Esther Colell, Albert Sánchez-Niubò, Antònia Domingo-Salvany
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Men present higher overall rates of substance use and abuse than women; yet, evidence suggests that an increase of substance use by the younger cohorts of women in recent decades is narrowing this gap in western societies. Moreover, younger cohorts may also be reporting earlier initiation of substance use, representing an increased risk for developing substance-related problems. With this study we intend to identify changes in the patterns of substance use of men and women in Spain for public health policy, planning and intervention. METHODS: Sex differences in the cumulative incidence of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and cocaine were examined by birth cohort using a combined sample of individuals aged 15-64 years from eight editions of the Spanish National Survey on Drugs (1995-2009). RESULTS: Initiation of substance use in Spain is progressively taking place at younger ages, particularly among women. The gender-gap of life-time occurrence of substance use is narrowing (cannabis and cocaine) almost closing (alcohol) and even reversing (tobacco) in the youngest cohort. CONCLUSION: These results reflect the particular evolution and trends of Spanish society regarding substance use. Women's increased use of substances and the earlier age of initiation of substance use by both sexes present particular challenges for prevention and treatment of future substance-related problems. The trends registered for legal and illegal substances would require re-evaluation of existing prevention policies.
    The International journal on drug policy 11/2012; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe consumption patterns of alcohol and other drugs in the active population in Spain by gender. METHODS: Based on 15,082 active persons selected from the Domiciliary Survey of Alcohol and Drugs (Encuesta Domiciliaria de Alcohol y Drogas [EDADES]) 2007, we estimated prevalences for high-risk alcohol consumption (>50g/day in males, >30g/day in females), daily intake of tranquilizers, cannabis consumption in the last 30 days, and consumption of any other illegal drug in the last 12 months, by employment status, economic sector and occupational categories. Odds ratios (OR) and their confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: The following prevalences were found: high-risk alcohol consumption, 3.4%; daily use of tranquilizers, 2.3%; cannabis consumption in the last 30 days, 7.9%; and consumption of any illegal drug in the last 12 months, 11.9%. Except for tranquilizer use, prevalences were higher in men than in women. Consumption of tranquilizers (OR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.04-2.73), cannabis and other illegal drugs were all higher in unemployed men than in employed men, while only tranquilizer consumption was higher in unemployed women (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.23-2.34). High-risk alcohol consumption was greater among men engaged in the catering, primary production and construction sectors in comparison to manufacturing industries: OR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.11-2.38), OR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.04-2.20), and OR = 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10-2.04), respectively. For women, those in catering showed higher consumptions of cannabis (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.28-4.27) and of other illegal drugs (OR = 2.85; 95% CI: 1.71-4.76); the latter were also higher in commerce, transport and administration sectors than in manufacturing industries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings could serve as a useful reference for companies wanting to carry out preventive programs, and also for future studies assessing the impact of preventive measures.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 07/2012; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the validity of two cannabis use severity scales among young cannabis users and to evaluate their ability to detect Substance Use Disorders (SUD). 241 volunteers (18-25 years), with a wide spectrum of cannabis use in the last 12 months. The Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) were self-administered. The Psychiatric Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) was used as gold standard for cannabis use disorders according to DSM-IV. Reliability and validity were assessed for two different CAST coding algorithms (b-binary and f-full) and for the SDS. In addition, the cannabis use diagnostic criteria contained in the PRISM were grouped to approximate forthcoming proposed DSM-V criteria to further evaluate these scales. 26.6% (95% CI: 21.0-32.2) of the subjects met criteria for cannabis dependence, and 49.0% (95% CI: 42.7-55.3) for cannabis use disorders. For both scales internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha>0.71) and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.80) were good. The score 12 in the CAST-full discriminated better than others between presence and absence of dependence (27.0%; 95% CI: 21.4-32.6) while the score for discrimination of SUD was 9 (51.5%; 95% CI: 45.1-57.8). For the SDS the values were 7 (22.0%; 95% CI: 16.8-27.2) and 3 (64.7%; 95% CI: 58.7-70.8), respectively. According to proposed DSM-V criteria, for moderate and severe addiction the values for the CAST-f were 7 (68.5%; 95% CI: 62.5-74.3) and 12 (27%; 95% CI: 21.3-32.6) and for the SDS, 3 (65.0%; 95% CI: 58.7-70.8) and 7 (22%; 95% CI: 17.0-34.3), respectively. The CAST and SDS applied to young cannabis users are reliable and valid measures to detect cannabis use disorders when compared to both DSM-IV and proposed DSM-V criteria.
    Addictive behaviors 02/2012; 37(6):709-15. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although, in the laboratory, most acute adverse effects of cocaine are dose-dependent and alcohol potentiates some of these effects, there are few observational studies, and scarce awareness that the risk of acute cocaine intoxication (ACI) can increase as the amounts of cocaine and alcohol consumed increase. Our objectives were to assess if the risk of ACI increases with the level cocaine use, both in chronic and binge use; and also to determine whether it increases when a cocaine binge is combined with binge drinking or with regular excessive drinking. Hypotheses were evaluated using logistic regression and case-crossover analyses in a sample of 720 young regular cocaine users who did not regularly use heroin, recruited at drug scenes in 2004-2006. All data on ACI, predictor and confounding variables were obtained through a computer-assisted personal interview. The annual prevalence of ACI was 21%. In the last year 10.3% of the participants reported cocaine binges (≥ 0.5 g in 4 h). ACI risk increased considerably in the 4 h following a cocaine binge (odds ratio = 34.6; 95% confidence interval 11.5-170.8). Also, it increased with increases in the average level of cocaine used over a long period and when users regularly drank excessively. Finally, the results suggest that the high risk of ACI associated with cocaine binge may increase even more when combined with binge drinking. Awareness of the dose-dependent effect of cocaine on ACI risk, as well as the possible synergistic effect of alcohol, ought to be incorporated into preventive and care strategies.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 01/2012; 31(4):439-46. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. Moreover, co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders are common among drug users. This paper examines psychiatric disorders of young cocaine and heroin users using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). A cohort of 1266 young (18-30 years) current regular cocaine (705) and heroin (561) users were recruited outside the health services in Barcelona, Madrid and Seville, Spain. The WMH-CIDI was used to evaluate mental disorders; the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) measured the degree of dependence; and the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) assessed social support, in a crosssectional study design. About 43% was diagnosed with a lifetime mental disorder. The most common diagnoses were depression (37.5%) and specific phobia (6.8%). During the last 12 months, prevalence rates were also slightly higher in heroin group (26.4%) than in cocaine cohort (21.7%). Every day cocaine consumption, having unstable living conditions and low social support were variables highly associated with psychiatric morbidity in cocaine cohort. In heroin cohort, earning money through illegal activities was associated with psychiatric morbidity, while the moderate use of alcohol acted as a protective factor for mental pathology. Morbidity was associated to having received psychiatric/psychological treatment during the last 12 months in both cohorts. This study has shown a relatively high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in cocaine and heroin users recruited in non-clinical settings. Future studies examining differences between cocaine and heroin patterns of consumption associated with mental diseases are necessary.
    Adicciones 01/2012; 24(3):201-10. · 1.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
265.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • IMIM Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute
      • Drug Abuse Epidemiology Group
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1995–2013
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • Departamento de Psiquiatría y Medicina Legal
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1993–2013
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      • Center for Research in Occupational Health (CISAL)
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009–2012
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1999–2011
    • Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999–2010
    • Parc de Salut Mar
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008
    • Parc de recerca biomedica de barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2001
    • Universitat de Girona
      • Departament de Psicologia
      Girona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000
    • University of Alicante
      Alicante, Valencia, Spain
  • 1996
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain