[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused in humans by the larval stage of the Echinococcus granulosus cestode. Although notification of infestation is required, there are no reliable data on the prevalence of this parasitosis among humans in Italy. This zoonosis was first reported in ancient times (Hippocrates, fourth century BC) and since then many cases of echinococcosis/hydatidosis have been described. Currently, it is considered one of the main parasitoses affecting animals bred for income and one of the most important parasitic zoonoses. We present the clinical case of a three-year-old child, living in Palermo with a dog in his house, who came to our observation for dyspnea occurring after physical exercise. Diagnosis of echinococcosis was performed on the operating table and by histological examination. The case presented is special in its manifestation from a clinical point of view, because the young patient experienced multiple injuries only to lungs, without involvement of other organs and, although the left lung cysts appeared fissured on the operating table, our patient never presented immunoallergic disorders.
Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 03/2010; 18(1):35-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prader Willi Syndrome (PWS) is characterized by typical appearance, obesity, short stature, hypothalamic hypogonadism, cryptorchidism, hypotonia, behavioural abnormalities and mental retardation. It is considered as a continuous genes syndrome with different genotypes: microdeletion of the region 15q11-q13 with paternal imprinting; maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15; chromosomal rearrangement. Clinical manifestations evolve with age from newborn (hypotonia, poor sucking, hypoplastic external genitalia) to childhood (delay in psychomotor development, hyperphagia, obesity, acromicria and craniofacial dysmorphisms). We present five newborns who received an early diagnosis, based on clinical presentation. The early treatment and follow-up can in fact improve the natural evolution of the syndrome in order to prevent respiratory tract diseases and obesity, and to improve growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Turner's syndrome (TS) is characterized by typical facial features, short stature, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, streak gonads, infertility, hearth and kidney malformations. Typical karyotype is 45,X0; however, 6% of TS have mosaic patterns including Y chromosome or fragments of Y. This karyotype is a risk factor of developing a dysgerminoma in dysgenic gonads. Furthermore, rare cases of polycystic ovary are described in young-adult patients with TS. We describe the clinical case of a 12-year-old girl with TS treated with GH who showed a good response to treatment. She developed an ovary with histological polycystic pattern and a contralateral gonadoblastoma in the streak gonad. Laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed, with a good prognosis. Of remark is the opportunity to carry out gonadectomy in prepubertal age in girls with TS and Y chromosome material. This is a rare precocious case of polycystic ovary in TS, with different evolution in the two gonads with different histological differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coeliac disease, daily more frequently diagnosed in our population, involves many organs also in oligosymptomatic patients and with an adequate nutritional regime. Possible endocrine implications include failure to thrive, pubertal delay and reproduction diseases due to deregulation of GH, FSH and LH secretion. Leptin, an adipose tissue hormone, can be decreased as well and its deficiency could be related to growth and puberty anomalies. We studied 14 asymptomatic coeliac patients in peripubertal age (7.5-13.8 years) and tested their leptin levels in order to correlate them with endocrine and anthropometric data. Before the diet was started leptinaemia (M+/-DS) was: 4.94+/-5.53 ng/ml. In 10/14 patients (71%) leptinaemia was<or=2 DS for gender and age. In all the patients, after a period of 6-12 months of gluten-free diet, Leptin levels appreciably raised to 10.8+/-7.9 ng/ml, with a significant correlation to the time of the diet. Leptinaemia was actually lower in patients with a severe mucosal atrophy, and in these patients it increased more significantly after the diet was started. The removal of gluten itself may reduce immunological hit to adipose tissue and the 'malnutrition' of adipocytes: leptin can hence increase despite no significant increase of body mass index occurs. This study could partially explain the correlation between body mass index, Coeliac disease and the deregulation of puberty and fertility, mainly in patients who started the diet late. It could also explain the reversibility of this alteration if the cause is removed.
Hormone Research 01/2007; 67(2):100-4. DOI:10.1159/000096422 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection and antiretroviral drugs have relevant endocrine implications, affecting growth and pubertal development. Moreover stature impairment cannot depend only on decreased hormonal secretion.
We studied for 7 years growth, puberty, bone maturation, hormonal secretion [Growth Hormone (GH) basal and after stimulation with Clonidin and Insulin, Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3), FSH, LH- gonadic hormones axis, ACTH, Cortisol, TSH, fT4, T4, T3, anti-thyroid antibodies, Leptin] of 10 HIV-infected children.
In 3 patients stature was <-2 SDS in the first 2 years and in prepubertal age, with intervals of improved growth. The weight was >2 SDS in 6 children, <-2 SDS in 1 girl, while the other 3 patients had a weight <-2SDS only in the first 2 years of life. Height growth velocity was >10 degrees Centile all over the years of follow-up in 9 patients, while weight growth velocity was pathological in 5. Leptinemia showed higher levels at the beginning of follow up: 0.82-11.68 ng/L (M+/-DS: 3.29+/-4.15) than at the end of the study: 0.2-3 ng/L (M+/-DS: 1.65+/-1.01). Leptin levels showed a statistically significant correlation with CD4/CD8 count (P: 0.010; r: 0.916) and with the CDC stage (P: 0.006; r: 0.937), meaning a strong link to the severity of the disease.
A good clinical control of HIV infection can guarantee growth within physiological centile in most of HIV-infected children. Over all IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 are good markers of growth, more usable than GH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Auxological and endocrinological complications frequently occur in children with connatal HIV infection. These complications seem to be related both to the infection itself and the antiretroviral therapy. Many children consequently show height-weight and pubertal retardation without any evidence of hormonal deficit. We studied 10 children with connatal HIV infection who were enrolled in this analysis and followed up for 7 years in order to evaluate their height-weight growth, pubertal maturation, bone age progression and hormonal pattern [basal Growth hormone (GH) and GH after Clonidine or Insulin stimulation, Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3), FSH, LH, ACTH and Cortisol, TSH, fT4, T4, T3, Ab-TGO, Leptin]. Three children showed a height lower than 3rd centile during the first two years of their life and in prepubertal age, with recurring improvement in their growth rate. Weight growth was very compromised in one girl, remaining firmly lower than 3rd centile during the follow-up. Three children presented a weight lower than 3rd centile until they were two years old. However, a height growth rate higher than 10th centile was found in nine children throughout the follow-up, while it was pathological in five children. The blood level of Leptin was higher at the beginning of the study: 0.82 - 11.68 ng/l (M+/-DS: 3.29+/-4.15) than at its conclusion: 0.2 - 3 ng/l (M+/-DS: 1.65+/-1.01). There was a statistically significant correlation between leptinemia and the CD4/CD8 count (p: 0.010; r: 0.916) and the CDC classification (p: 0.006; r: 0.937), indicating a strong relationship with the degree of virological and immunological impairment. The authors stress the importance of a careful height-weight growth rate control in HIV-infected children, as it reflects the clinical and virological course of the disease. Adequate control of the infection allows physiological growth in most patients. Moreover, we emphasize the utility of IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 measurements, since they represent growth markers which are more exact and better capable of reproduction than GH.
Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 10/2006; 14(3):135-44.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PHA is a rare cause of hydramnios, characterized by increased amniotic fluid levels of aldosterone and sodium. Two distinct genetic entities (PHA type I and PHA type II) are included. Both are stemmed by a target organ defect with diminished renal tubular responsiveness to aldosterone. The AA present a case in which pregnancy resulted in a preterm infant with severe hydramnios, metabolic acidosis, hyponatriemia, hyperkaliemia. Salt and fluid replacement significantly improved clinical and metabolic condition. However a growth deficiency (-2 SDS) persists at follow-up.
La Pediatria medica e chirurgica: Medical and surgical pediatrics 04/2004; 26(2):145-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletion of long arm of chromosome 1 (1q-) is a rare condition with malformations of many organs (central nervous system, heart, kidney, etc.). Authors describe a young girl characterised by 1q 25-32 deletion, with severe intra- and extrauterine growth retardation, facial dismorphisms, multiple organ malformations. The patient is followed for a long-term clinical and endocrine evaluation, with evidence of hypoplastic hypophysis and multiple endocrine deficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent therapeutic approaches have improved the prognosis of children with HIV. Many new efforts could be involved in their quality of life and therefore could need additional diagnostic strategies. Leptin regulates pubertal development; furthermore a continuous immune stimulus, as in chronic infectious diseases, can enhance leptin's secretion by the action of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. To clarify this role in patients infected with HIV, we assayed leptin and IL-6 and evaluated the influence of HIV severity on its secretion. IL-6 (380.5 +/- 257.6 pg/ml; range: 22-900 pg/ml) showed a significant correlation with leptinemia, HIV-1 RNA, and viremia related to the stage of HIV disease. The difference in leptinemia from a control group (3 +/- 3.2 ng/ml; range: 1-12 ng/ml in HIV patients; 6.72 +/- 8 ng/ml in the controls) did not reach statistical significance, nor did it correlate with pubertal stage, BMI, viremia, CD4 or anti-retroviral therapy. There was a statistically significant correlation between leptinemia and the stage of the HIV disease, and with IL-6 level. We want to stress the role of immunological factors in enhancing leptin secretion.