J Horácek

Prague Psychiatric Center, Praha, Praha, Czech Republic

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Publications (121)99.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis consumption has individual influence to cognitive and psychomotor functions of drivers and it has been generally accepted that driving under influence is risky in the perspective of traffic safety. However, rules how to assess fitness to drive are not quite clear. The psychoactive compound delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs cognition, psychomotor behaviour and driving performance in a dose-related manner approximately. After a single drug dose, THC blood concentration peaks within minutes, before the end of smoking, with a subsequent rapid decrease to the analytical limit of detection. Peak euphoria is delayed compared to THC peak blood concentration and physiological and behavioural effects return to baseline within 3-5 hours. In chronic users, the lipophilic THC accumulates in fat tissues, where its slow redistribution into blood is the rate limiting process in its terminal elimination. In our experimental study we have attempted to contribute to this discussion with results obtained from human volunteers - cannabis consumers in Czech Republic. Aim of our study was to document the time profile of serum THC level in occasional and chronic cannabis users. The observational interval covered the time immediately after the drug consumption (an own cigarette/joint) till 24 hours after. Our preliminary results have shown that in occasional users, THC serum levels cannot be detected already 4 hours after usual cannabis dose, whereas in chronic users measurable THC concentrations in serum persist longer. Moreover, some chronic consumers were practically with permanent THC detection during our observation period and also the chronic users consumed higher THC doses significantly related to doses in occasional ones. Presented results of the experimental study with human volunteers confirm a great individual variability of the kinetic profile of THC in blood due to complicated redistribution. The practical forensic question is how long the psychotropic effects of THC can persist after the last drug dose. In chronic users there are well documented indications of long term adverse effects to neurocognitive functions. THC blood level itself can not directly document the intensity of impairment of a driver. Moreover, the concentration of THC in blood at the time of driving is probably substantially higher than at the time of blood sampling. Therefore due to the prevention of traffic risk, some countries adopted per se traffic legislation based on analytical principle with minimum tolerance to illegal drugs in blood of drivers at driving. Low blood concentrations of THC close to the limit of detection of a specific toxicological method (GC-MS or LC-MS) are justified in an effective traffic legislation. Keywords: cannabis - delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) - psychotropic effects - pharmacokinetics - traffic risk - driving impairment.
    Soudní lékarství / casopis Sekce soudního lékarstvi Cs. lékarské spolecnosti J. Ev. Purkyne 01/2014; 59(1):2-6.
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we investigated the potential antipsychotic effects of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 on changes in EEG power spectra and coherence in the ketamine model of psychosis. In order to use behaviorally active drug doses, experiments detecting changes in locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating were also conducted. In EEG experiments, adult male Wistar rats were injected with ketamine 30 mg/kg i.p. and LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. Cortical EEG was recorded from six electrodes placed homolaterally on each hemisphere. To avoid interference with the behavioral hyperactivity of ketamine challenge, the behavioral activity of animals was simultaneously registered at the time of recording. Subsequent power spectral and coherence analyses were assessed in epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity. Analysis of segments with behavioral activity compared to inactivity was also performed. The effects of LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. on the deficits in sensorimotor processing and on hyperlocomotion induced by ketamine were evaluated in the test of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR) and in the open field. LY379268 reversed the ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion but had no effect on ketamine-induced PPI deficits. In EEG epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity ketamine decreased the power in the delta band, induced a power increase in the high frequency bands and globally decreased EEG coherence. Pretreatment with the LY379268 completely reversed the ketamine-induced increase in high frequency bands and had a partial effect on EEG coherence. LY379268 alone induced a decrease of beta, high beta and low-gamma power, and an increase in coherence in high frequency bands. Additional analysis revealed that behavioral activity increases power as well as coherence in most frequency bands. In conclusion, agonism of mGlu2/3 receptors was effective in reversing most of the changes induced by ketamine, however due to the lack of effectiveness on PPI deficits its potential antipsychotic properties remain disputable.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    Clinical EEG and neuroscience; 12/2013
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    Clinical EEG and neuroscience: official journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS) 12/2013; 44(4):E1-121. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Study goal: Analysis of the prevalence rates of selected diagnoses of congenital anomalies in the Czech Republic in 1994-2009. Study type: Retrospective epidemiological analysis of postnatal and total (including prenatally diagnosed cases) prevalence of congenital anomalies from the database of the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of the Czech Republic. Material and methods: Data from the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies (NRCA) maintained by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic (IHIS CR) were used. Data on congenital anomalies in general and selected types of congenital anomalies were analyzed for the entire Czech Republic from 1994-2009. Additional data on prenatally diagnosed anomalies were obtained from medical genetics centres in the Czech Republic thanks to voluntary cooperation. This study analyzed postnatal and overall prevalence of congenital anomalies, with the latter including results of positive prenatal diagnosis. More detailed analysis was carried out for the following diagnoses: cystic kidney disease, renal agenesis/hypoplasia, tetralogy of Fallot, large vessel transposition, left heart hypoplasia, aortic coarctation, Down syndrome, Edward syndrome, and Patau syndrome. Results: Cystic kidney disease showed a significant increase in 1999 and 2000, mainly due to postnatally diagnosed cases. This can be explained, on the one hand, by the modification made to the reporting of congenital anomalies in the Czech Republic and, on the other hand, by an earlier and more complete detection of postnatal cases. Since 2000, there has been a significant increase in reported cystic kidney disease as a result of postnatal kidney screening. In 1994-1999, the prevalence rates of this diagnosis ranged from 1.7 to 3.1 per 10,000 live births. Similar trend is seen in the prevalence of renal agenesis/hypoplasia. In the monitored period, prenatally diagnosed cases showed a slight increase while postnatally diagnosed cases showed a considerable rise. In 1994-1999, the prevalence rates of renal agenesis/hypoplasia ranged between 1.7 and 3.0 per 10,000 live births and in 2000-2009, between 3.9 and 7.7 per 10,000 live births. A major contributor to the upward trend is more frequent detection of unilateral renal agenesis/hypoplasia. The prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot remains nearly unchanged, with prenatally diagnosed cases accounting for more than 20% since 2000. The mean postnatal prevalence rate was 3.20 per 10,000 live births and the overall prevalence rate was 3.54 per 10,000 live births. A similar prevalence trend is seen in large vessel transposition. The mean postnatal prevalence rate was 3.01 per 10,000 live births and the mean overall prevalence rate was 3.38 per 10,000 live births. The proportion of prenatally diagnosed left heart hypoplasia showed a slow upward trend, reaching more than 75% in 2006. The mean postnatal prevalence rate was 1.44 per 10,000 live births and the mean overall prevalence rate was 2.86 per 10,000 live births. Aortic coarctation was diagnosed prenatally most often in 2003 (15.25%), with a mean of 7.5% for the whole period analyzed. Despite the prenatal diagnostic outcomes, the postnatal prevalence rates of left heart hypoplasia did not substantially vary in 1994-2009. The mean postnatal prevalence rate was 4.87 per 10,000 live births and the mean overall prevalence rate was 5.26 per 10,000 live births. The prevalence rates of prenatally diagnosed Down syndrome were continuously increasing from 4.79 to 17.73 per 10,000 live births and conversely, the postnatal prevalence rates were continuously decreasing from 7.79 to 3.31 per 10,000 live births. Increase in the overall prevalence rates can be explained mainly by the demographic situation in the Czech Republic in recent years: the average age at first birth and the first birth rate for women aged over 35 years were on the rise. The rate of prenatally diagnosed Down syndrome doubled from 40% to 80%. Similarly, the prevalence rate of prenatally diagnosed Edwards syndrome was on the rise while that of postnatally diagnosed cases was declining. The rate of prenatally diagnosed cases rose from 63% to 96% over the last two years. The mean prevalence rate of postnatally diagnosed cases was 0.72 per 10,000 live births and the mean overall prevalence rate was 3.78 per 10,000 live births. Similarly, the rate of prenatally diagnosed Patau syndrome increased from 30% in 1997 to 100% in 2009 and the rate of postnatally diagnosed cases was declining. The mean prevalence rate of postnatally diagnosed cases was 0.40 per 10,000 live births and the mean overall prevalence rate was 1.38 per 10,000 live births. Conclusion: The overall prevalence rates of the monitored diagnoses from the group of congenital kidney disease (cystic kidney disease and renal agenesis/hypoplasia) were on the rise in the monitored -period mainly due to advances in imaging technologies (ultrasonography) and their use in both prenatal and postnatal diagnosis. Increase in postnatally diagnosed cases can be attributed primarily to the reporting of less severe cases (cystic kidney disease) or unilateral anomalies (renal agenesis and hypoplasia). As for the monitored congenital heart defects, advances in ultrasonographic imaging diagnosis played a considerable role in the increase of cases. The overall prevalence rate show a slow upward trend, but there is a significant decline in postnatally diagnosed cases due to prenatal diagnosis of a severe anomaly, left heart hypoplasia. As for congenital chromosomal aberrations, several interconnected factors influenced the final rate. Firstly, the proportion of prenatally diagnosed cases increases due to quantitative and qualitative improvements of the screening tests. They resulted in greater efficiency of prenatal diagnosis and, at the same time, in less need for invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures. Another factor is increase in average age at first birth and in the first birth rate for women aged over 35 years resulting in higher overall prevalence rates of Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, and Patau syndrome in the Czech Republic. Keywords: congenital anomaly - prevalence - Czech Republic - cystic kidney disease - renal agenesis/hypoplasia - tetralogy of Fallot - large vessel transposition - left heart hypoplasia - aortic coarctation - Down syndrome - Edwards syndrome - Patau syndrome.
    Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie: casopis Spolecnosti pro epidemiologii a mikrobiologii Ceske lekarske spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne 10/2013; 62(3):112-128. · 0.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous EEG source localization studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reported ambiguous results. The reason probably lies in different OCD samples included in the studies-obsessive-compulsive subjects selected based on a psychopathology questionnaire (the Symptom Checklist-Revised), drug-naïve OCD cases or patients with a long-term disorder. This study was conceived as a replication of our previous research on OCD population coming to treatment in Prague Psychiatric Centre (Koprivova et al., 2011). We included 50 OCD patients (8 drug-free and 42 medicated with SSRIs) and 50 healthy controls. All subjects were different from those enrolled in the previous study. Resting state EEG was analyzed in 8 frequency bands as well as with 1Hz frequency resolution using the standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). In OCD, sLORETA indicated low-frequency power excess at 2 and 3Hz in the cingulate gyrus with maximal t-values in Brodmann area 24. The low-frequency activity was unrelated to the severity of clinical symptoms and illness duration but delta power in the right orbitofrontal cortex positively correlated with age of OCD onset. Our results confirm previous finding of the low-frequency excess in the cingulate gyrus in OCD and document the essential role of delta frequencies. Delta activity in the cingulate gyrus is negatively associated with reward-signalling dopamine release in the ventral striatum and increases in states connected with a need for reinforcement. Thus, delta activity could reflect a repetitive need to perform compulsive behaviour in OCD patients.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The goal of this study was to assess the effect of independent component neurofeedback (NFB) on EEG and clinical symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Subsequently, we explored predictors of treatment response and EEG correlates of clinical symptoms. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, 20 inpatients with OCD underwent 25 sessions of NFB or sham feedback (SFB). NFB aimed at reducing EEG activity in an independent component previously reported abnormal in this diagnosis. Resting-state EEG recorded before and after the treatment was analyzed to assess its posttreatment changes, relationships with clinical symptoms and treatment response. Results: Overall, clinical improvement in OCD patients was not accompanied by EEG change as assessed by standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography and normative independent component analysis. Pre- to posttreatment comparison of the trained component and frequency did not yield significant results; however, in the NFB group, the nominal values at the downtrained frequency were lower after treatment. The NFB group showed significantly higher percentage reduction of compulsions compared to the SFB group (p = 0.015). Pretreatment higher amount of delta (1-6 Hz) and low alpha oscillations as well as a lower amount of high beta activity predicted a worse treatment outcome. Source localization of these delta and high beta oscillations corresponded with previous EEG resting-state findings in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: Independent component NFB in OCD proved useful in percentage improvement of compulsions. Based on our correlation analyses, we hypothesize that we targeted a network related to treatment resistance.
    Neuropsychobiology 04/2013; 67(4):210-223. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    Filip Tylš, Tomáš Páleníček, Jiří Horáček
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    ABSTRACT: Psilocybin, a psychoactive alkaloid contained in hallucinogenic mushrooms, is nowadays given a lot of attention in the scientific community as a research tool for modeling psychosis as well as due to its potential therapeutic effects. However, it is also a very popular and frequently abused natural hallucinogen. This review summarizes all the past and recent knowledge on psilocybin. It briefly deals with its history, discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and compares its action in humans and animals. It attempts to describe the mechanism of psychedelic effects and objectify its action using modern imaging and psychometric methods. Finally, it describes its therapeutic and abuse potential.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2013; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVEs: Ketamine and other NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonists produce fast-acting antidepressant-like effects, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Furthermore, high affinity NMDA antagonists such as ketamine are associated with psychotomimetic effects. To date the link between the antidepressant and psychotomimetic effects of ketamine has not been explored. We examined the relationship between the antidepressant and psychotomimetic effects of a single ketamine infusion in subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder. METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled, two weeks clinical trial we studied the effects of ketamine (0.54 mg/kg within 30 min) in a group of 27 hospitalized depressive patients. RESULTS: Higher intensity of psychotomimetic symptoms, measured using BPRS, during ketamine administration correlated with alleviation in mood ratings during the following week with maximum on day seven. Ketamine was superior to placebo in all visits (day 1, 4, and 7) assessed by MADRS with effect size (Cohen s d) of 0.62, 0.57, and 0.44 respectively. There was no significant correlation between ketamine and nor-ketamine plasma levels and MADRS score change at any study time point. CONCLUSION: The substantial relationship between ketamine's antidepressant and psychotomimetic effects was found. This relationship could be mediated by the initial steps of ketamine's action, trough NMDA receptors, shared by both ketamine's clinical effects.
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 01/2013; 34(4):287-293.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis is a lifelong parasitic disease that appears to be associated to schizophrenia. However, no distinguishing attributes in Toxoplasma-infected schizophrenia patients have been described as yet. METHOD: We searched for differences in symptom profile, cognitive performance and treatment response between 194 Toxoplasma-free and 57 (22.7%) Toxoplasma-infected schizophrenia patients treated in Prague Psychiatric Centre between 2000 and 2010. RESULTS: Infected and non-infected patients differed in severity of symptoms (P = 0.032) measured with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). Infected patients scored higher in positive subscale of PANSS, but not in the general and negative subscales. Infected men scored higher also in Total PANSS score, and negative, reality distortion, disorganisation and cognitive scores. Higher PANSS scores of positive, negative and disorganised psychopathology were associated with the lower titres of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies suggesting that psychopathology deteriorates with duration of parasitic infection. Infected patients remained about 33 days longer in hospital during their last admission than uninfected ones (P = 0.003). Schizophrenia started approximately 1 year earlier in infected men and about 3 years later in infected women, no such difference was observed in uninfected subjects. CONCLUSION: Latent toxoplasmosis in schizophrenia may lead to more severe positive psychopathology and perhaps less favourable course of schizophrenia.
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 11/2012; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Behavioral, neurochemical and pharmaco-EEG profiles of a new synthetic drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in rats were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Locomotor effects, prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reaction (ASR), dopamine and its metabolite levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc), EEG power spectra and coherence in freely moving rats were analysed. Amphetamine was used as a reference compound. RESULTS: 2C-B had a biphasic effect on locomotion with initial inhibitory followed by excitatory effect; amphetamine induced only hyperlocomotion. Both drugs induced deficits in the PPI; however they had opposite effects on ASR. 2C-B increased dopamine but decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the NAc. Low doses of 2C-B induced a decrease in EEG power spectra and coherence. On the contrary, high dose of 2C-B 50 mg/kg had a temporally biphasic effect with an initial decrease followed by an increase in EEG power; decrease as well as increase in EEG coherence was observed. Amphetamine mainly induced an increase in EEG power and coherence in theta and alpha bands. Increases in the theta and alpha power and coherence in 2C-B and amphetamine were temporally linked to an increase in locomotor activity and DA levels in NAc. CONCLUSIONS: 2C-B is a centrally active compound similar to other hallucinogens, entactogens and stimulants. Increased dopamine and decreased DOPAC in the NAc may reflect its psychotomimetic and addictive potential and monoaminoxidase inhibition. Alterations in brain functional connectivity reflected the behavioral and neurochemical changes produced by the drug; a correlation between EEG changes and locomotor behavior was observed.
    Psychopharmacology 07/2012; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    A Sípek, V Gregor, J Horáček, P Langhammer
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of study: An analysis of incidences of selected birth defects in the Czech Republic in 2000 - 2008 period. Type of study: Retrospective epidemiological analysis of birth defects incidences in births and total birth defects incidences (including prenatally diagnosed cases) from the Czech National Birth Defects Register database.Material and methods: Data from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics) in the Czech Republic in the 2000 - 2008 period were used along with data on prenatally diagnosed defects from particular departments of medical genetics. Sixteen selected defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, congenital hydrocephalus, coarctation of aorta, transposition of great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Fallot tetralogy, omphalocele, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, oesophageal atresia and stenosis, anorectal malformations, Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Patau syndrome) were analyzed in detail. Results: There were 119 570 live births (61 326 boys and 58 244 girls) in 2008. In the same period, 4664 live births with a birth defect (under the age of one year) were reported, out of which 2754 boys and 1910 girls. Mean incidence was 390.06 (449.08 in boys and 327.93 in girls) per 10 000 live births. In 1994 - 2006, totally 1 238 398 children were born, out of which more than 42 000 with a birth defect. In the 2000 - 2006 period, absolute numbers of diagnosed live births with birth defect varied between 3600 - 3800 cases per year while in 2007 and 2008 years absolute numbers raised over 4600 cases per year. During 2000 - 2008 period following mean incidences (per 10 000 live births) of selected defects were ascertained (total incidences including prenatal diagnostics in brackets): anencephaly 0 - 0.3 (1.9 - 3.7), spina bifida 0.7 - 2.3 (3.2 - 5.2), encephalocele 0.1 - 0.4 (0.9 - 2.4), congenital hydrocephalus 1.6 - 3.5 (5.3 - 7.0), coarctation of aorta 3.9 - 5.2 (4.8 - 6.1), transposition of great vessels 2.9 - 4.5 (3.2 - 5.0), hypoplastic left heart syndrome 0.7 - 2.3 (2.2 - 4.3), Fallot tetralogy 2.6 - 4.0 (3.2 - 4.4), omphalocele 1.0 - 1.7 (1.8 - 3.8), gastroschisis 0.2 - 1.2 (2.4 - 3.4), diaphragmatic hernia 1.3 - 2.9 (1.5 - 3.9), Down syndrome 3.3 - 6.5 (15.8 - 22.2), Edwards syndrome 0.2 - 1.0 (3.5 - 5.8) and Patau syndrome 0.2 - 1.0 (1.2 - 2.6). Conclusions: There has been no major change in birth defect incidences in live births in the Czech Republic in last years. Number of non-viable defects has decreased in stillbirths and in perinatal mortality in the Czech Republic. An incidence of some defects has decreased mostly due to a nation-wide system of prenatal diagnostics; some incidences remain stable in live-birth population in others incidences have increased. A total incidence has mostly increased (anencephaly being an exception) mostly due to an earlier prenatal diagnostics. In chromosomal syndromes, an increasing maternal age as well as a growing number of mothers of 35 years of age and over has contributed to the increased incidences. Key words: birth defect, incidence, Czech Republic, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, congenital hydrocefalus, coarctation of aorta, transposition of great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Fallot tetralogy, omphalocele, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, oesophageal atresia and stenosis, anorectal malformations, Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Patau syndrome.
    Ceska gynekologie / Ceska lekarska spolecnost J. Ev. Purkyne 01/2012; 77(5):424-36.
  • V Gregor, A Sípek, J Horáček, P Langhammer
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of study: An analysis of prenatal and postnatal incidences of selected birth defects and secondary prevention efficiency in the Czech Republic in 1994 - 2008 period. Type of study: Retrospective epidemiological analysis of birth defects data from particular centers of clinical genetics and prenatal diagnostics (prenatal data) and from the Czech National Birth Defects Register database (birth data).Material and methods: Data from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic) were used along with data from particular centers of clinical genetics and prenatal diagnostics covering the whole area of the Czech and the 1994 - 2008 period. Total prenatal diagnostics efficiency and an efficiency of prenatal diagnostics of 5 selected defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, omphalocele, gastroschisis and Down syndrome) were studied.Results: In the period under study the number of prenatally diagnosed birth defects has increased. In 1994, the incidence of prenatally diagnosed (and selectively terminated) birth defects was 27.40 per 10 000 live births while in 2008 it was 73.26 per 10 000. In prenatally diagnosed but not terminated defects the corresponding numbers were 8.91 in 1994 and 32.87 in 2008. In last years, a quality change in prenatal birth defects screening has taken place in the Czech Republic. A first trimester screening with an increased efficiency not only for Down syndrome (DS) has been used more often implicating a wider application of chorionic villi sampling (CVS). An increased screening efficiency also made possible a relative decrease of invasive prenatal diagnostics procedures necessary to diagnose a single case of Down syndrome. When comparing CVS and amniocentesis from this particular point of view a higher CVS efficiency (about 12 CVS versus some 120 amniocenteses per 1 case of DS). Prenatal diagnostics efficiency has increased in all defects under study over the 1994 - 2008 period, being about 80% in DS almost 10% in anencephaly, 65 - 68% in omphalocele and gastroschisis and 80% in spina bifida in last years.Conclusions: Chromosomal aberration (DS especially) are among the most frequent prenatally diagnosed birth defects, further being heart defects, neural tube defects (anencephaly, encephalocele, spina bifida), hydrocephalus, congenital skeletal system defects, abdominal wall defects (omphalocele, gastroschisis) and renal defects. In some defects, prenatal diagnostics has also significantly influenced their incidence in births (anencephaly, gastroschisis and DS e.g.). Key words: birth defect, incidence, prenatal diagnostics, anencephaly, spina bifida, omphalocele, gastroschisis, Down syndrome, amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling, Czech Republic.
    Ceska gynekologie / Ceska lekarska spolecnost J. Ev. Purkyne 01/2012; 77(5):437-44.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the changes in EEG power spectra and EEG coherence in a ketamine model of psychosis in rats. Analyses of behavioral measurements--locomotion and sensorimotor gating--and the pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine were also conducted. Ketamine and norketamine levels in rat sera and brains were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after ketamine 30 mg/kg (i.p.). Ketamine 9 and 30 mg/kg (i.p.) were used in the behavioral and EEG experiments. Locomotor effects in an open field test and deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR) were evaluated in the behavioral experiments. EEG signals were simultaneously recorded from 12 implanted active electrodes; subsequently, an EEG power spectral and coherence analysis was performed. Ketamine had a rapid penetration into the brain; the peak concentrations of the drug were reached within 15 min after administration. Ketamine induced marked hyperlocomotion and deficits in the PPI ASR. EEG spectral analysis mainly showed increases in EEG power as well as coherence. These were most robust at 10-15 min after the administration and influenced all parts of the spectrum with ketamine 30 mg/kg. Ketamine at behaviorally active doses induces a robust increase in EEG power spectra and coherence. The maximum levels of change correlated with the kinetics of ketamine.
    Neuropsychobiology 03/2011; 63(4):202-18. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite poisoning with the ecstasy substitute para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) being typically associated with severe hyperthermia and death, behavioral and toxicological data on this drug are missing. Herein we present the behavioral profile of PMMA, its hyperthermic potency and pharmacokinetic profile in rats. The effects of PMMA 5 and 20 mg/kg on locomotion, on prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reaction (ASR), on body temperature under isolated and crowded conditions and on the pharmacokinetics analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were evaluated. PMMA increased overall locomotion with the higher dose showing a biphasic effect. PPI was decreased dose-dependently. The hyperthermic response was present only with PMMA 20 mg/kg and was accompanied by extensive perspiration under crowded conditions. Serum levels of PMMA peaked at approximately 30 min after both treatments; on the contrary the maximum brain concentrations of PMMA at 20 mg/kg peaked approximately 1h after the administration, which was rather delayed compared to maximum after 5mg/kg dose. These data indicate that PMMA has a similar behavioral profile to stimulants and hallucinogens and that the toxicity might be increased in a crowded environment. High doses of PMMA have a gradual penetration to the brain which might lead to the delayed peak concentrations and prolonged effects of the drug.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 03/2011; 98(1):130-9. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assess the activity of intracortical EEG sources in patients with OCD. We compared resting state EEG from 50 OCD patients and 50 matched controls using standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) and normative independent component analysis (NICA). Data were analyzed with 1 Hz frequency resolution. Group ICA was used to separate seven independent components from the control group data. The resulting weights and norms served to derive the same components from the OCD group and to compare their power with controls. In OCD, sLORETA indicated low-frequency power excess (2-6 Hz) in the medial frontal cortex, whereas group ICA showed increased low-frequency power in a component reflecting the activity of subgenual anterior cingulate, adjacent limbic structures and to a lesser extent also of lateral frontal cortex. Both methods provided evidence for medial frontal hyperactivation in OCD. Our study is the first to use normative ICA in a clinical sample and indicates its potential utility as a diagnostic tool. The findings provide consistent results based on EEG source localization in OCD and are of practical interest for therapeutic interventions.
    Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 02/2011; 122(9):1735-43. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective data analysis on prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of birth defects in the Czech Republic. Incidences of selected both pre- and postnataly diagnosed defects in the Czech Republic in 2008 were processed and compared to corresponding data from 1994–2007 period. In prenatal diagnostics a number of operations performed has been increasing and influencing incidences of some defects in births accordingly. Incidences in primarily severe defects in births has decreased significantly (anencephaly, spina bifida, abdominal wall defects), in others (Down syndrome) has decreased less significantly and in those defects which are not diagnosticable prenatally at the moment is more or less stable. However, a spectrum of screening methods as well as methods of prenatal diagnostics in use has changed recently which makes their efficiency in some defects increasing and also moves their diagnostics into the first trimester of pregnancy.
    Praktický lékar̆ 02/2011; 91(2):85-90.
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    ABSTRACT: FOXP2, the first gene known to be involved in the development of speech and language, can be considered to be, a priori, a candidate gene in schizophrenia, given the mounting evidence that the underlying core deficit in this disease could be a failure of structures relevant to normal language processing. To investigate the potential link between grey matter concentration (GMC) changes in patients with schizophrenia and the FOXP2 rs2396753 polymorphism previously reported to be associated with hallucinations in schizophrenia, we analysed high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance images of 40 genotyped patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls, using optimised voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Here we show that the common SNP rs2396753 (C>A) gene variant of the FOXP2 gene has significant effects on GMC in patients with schizophrenia, within regions of the brain known to be affected by this disease. Our data suggest that GMC reductions in schizophrenia may be driven by C allele carriers of the FOXP2 gene variant.
    Neuroscience Letters 02/2011; 493(3):131-5. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • European Psychiatry - EUR PSYCHIAT. 01/2011; 26:695-696.
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2011; 21.

Publication Stats

236 Citations
99.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • Prague Psychiatric Center
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2012
    • The Police Academy of the Czech Republic in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2006–2008
    • Thomayerova nemocnice
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1998–2007
    • Ústav pro péči o matku a dítě
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1999
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic