[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III, Magnetic Resonance and REcanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy (MR RESCUE), and SYNTHESIS EXPANSION trials are expected to affect the practice of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this report is to review the components of the designs and methods of these trials and to describe the influence of those components on the interpretation of trial results.
Journal of vascular and interventional neurology 05/2014; 7(1):56-75.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enrollment of subjects in acute stroke trials is often hindered by narrow timeframes, because a large proportion of patients arrive via transfers from outside facilities rather than primary arrival at the enrolling hospital.
Telemedicine networks have been increasingly utilized for provision of care for acute stroke patients at facilities outside of major academic centers. Treatment decisions made through Telemedicine networks in patients with acute ischemic stroke have been shown to be safe, reliable, and effective. With the expanding use of this technology and the impediments to enrolling subjects into clinical trials, this approach can be applied successfully to the field of clinical research.
The antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage II trial is a phase III randomized multicenter trial that has developed a protocol in collaboration with participating sites to implement the use of Telemedicine networks for the enrollment of research subjects. The protocol describes the operating procedures and legal and Institutional Review Board perspectives for its implementation.
Journal of vascular and interventional neurology 06/2013; 6(1):1-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of prematurely terminated stenting and aggressive medical management for preventing recurrent stroke in intracranial stenosis (SAMMPRIS) due to excessively high rate of stroke and death in patients randomized to intracranial stent placement is expected to affect the practice of endovascular therapy for intracranial atherosclerotic disease. The purpose of this report is to review the components of the designs and methods SAMMPRIS trial and to describe the influence of those components on the interpretation of trial results.
A critical review of the patient population included in SAMMPRIS is conducted with emphasis on "generalizability of results" and "bias due to cherry picking phenomenon." The technical aspects of endovascular treatment protocol consisting of intracranial angioplasty and stent placement using the Gateway balloon and Wingspan self-expanding nitinol stent and credentialing criteria of trial interventionalists are reviewed. The influence of each component is estimated based on previous literature including multicenter clinical trials reporting on intracranial angioplasty and stent placement.
The inclusion criteria used in the trial ensured that patients with adverse clinical or angiographic characteristics were excluded. Self-expanding stent as the sole stent, technique of prestent angioplasty, periprocedural antiplatelet treatment, and intraprocedural anticoagulation are unlikely to adversely influence the results of intracranial stent placement. A more permissive policy toward primary angioplasty as an acceptable treatment option may have reduced the overall periprocedural complication rates by providing a safer option in technically challenging lesions. The expected impact of a more rigorous credentialing process on periprocedural stroke and/or death rate following intracranial stent placement in SAMMPRIS such as the one used in carotid revascularization endarterectomy versus stenting trial remains unknown.
The need for developing new and effective treatments for patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis cannot be undermined. The data support modification but not discontinuation of our approach to intracranial angioplasty and/or stent placement for intracranial stenosis. There are potential patients in whom angioplasty and/or stent placement might be the best approach, and a new trial with appropriate modifications in patient selection and design may be warranted.
Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 01/2012; 22(1):1-13. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE
Tenecteplase (TNK) is a third-generation thrombolytic agent. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of intra-arterial (IA) administration of TNK in patients with acute ischemic stroke.METHODS
Patients who received endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke were identified from prospectively collected databases at three university hospitals. We compared clinical and radiological outcomes of patients treated with TNK to those treated with other IA thrombolytics or mechanical thrombectomy alone. Primary outcome measures were favorable functional outcome at 30 days (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2), and rate of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Early neurological improvement, angiographic recanalization, time to recanalization, and mortality at 30 days were additional outcome measures.RESULTSWe identified 114 patients (mean age 67 ± 15 years, 54 were women). Thirty-three patients received IA TNK, 48 received alteplase (n = 11) or reteplase (n = 37), and 33 patients had mechanical thrombectomy alone. Stroke severity was similar among the three groups. No difference between the groups was found in the secondary outcome measures and ICH. Borderline statistical significance was seen toward favorable functional outcome at 1 month in the TNK-treated patients [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) .96-8.1, P = .063 vs. other thrombolytics, and OR = 3.0, 95% CI .97-9.5, P = .06 vs. mechanical thrombectomy alone].CONCLUSION
Our study demonstrates that administration of IA TNK in acute stroke is safe and results in rates of favorable outcomes that are comparable to those observed with currently used drugs. Additional studies are needed to further determine the safety and efficacy of IA TNK in acute stroke treatment. J Neuroimaging 2011;XX:1-6.
Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 08/2011; · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION: Patients presenting with posterior circulation acute ischemic events are occasionally noted to have occlusion of bilateral vertebral arteries with basilar artery blood flow entirely dependent from the anterior circulation. There is limited data about prognosis of such patients in literature.
Patients with acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke and bilateral vertebral artery occlusion (including contra-lateral hypoplastic vertebral artery without contribution to the basilar artery system) were identified prospectively from two academic centers. Data including clinical presentation, medical management, angiographic findings, recurrent events and outcome were collected and reported.
A total of 4 patients presenting with acute ischemic events in the posterior circulation were identified to have bilateral vertebral artery occlusion at our center. One additional patient had a vertebral artery occlusion and a contra-lateral hypoplastic vertebral artery. In the functional evaluation of the blood flow with catheter angiography, the basilar artery was filling from the anterior circulation, with no antegrade flow from bilateral vertebral arteries injection in all 5 patients. Patients were treated with anti-platelets (n=4) or started on anti-coagulation after failing anti-platelet therapy (n=2). All patients had recurrent ischemic stroke with new ischemic lesions proven by diffusion weighted images on MRI within 2 to 70 days after the initial event.
Patients with acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke and bilateral vertebral artery occlusion are at high risk of having early recurrent ischemic events. Reestablishment of the antegrade vertebro-basilar blood flow through endovascular re-canalization might be an option to decrease stroke recurrence in selected patients with acute posterior circulation stroke and bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.
Journal of vascular and interventional neurology 07/2011; 4(2):9-14.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen (rt-PA) and intraarterial (IA) interventions are often combined. However, the optimal dose of IV rt-PA preceding endovascular treatment has not been established.
Studies that used combined IV and IA thrombolysis were identified from a search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. We compared the rates of angiographic recanalization, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), and favorable functional outcome between patients who had been treated with .6 mg/kg IV rt-PA and those who had received .9 mg/kg rt-PA.
Eleven studies met our criteria. In 7 studies, .6 mg/kg IV rt-PA had been administered to 317 patients, whereas 140 patients in 4 studies had received .9 mg/kg of IV rt-PA. The weighted mean of median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at presentation was 18.3 in the .6 mg/kg group (median range 9-34), and 17.3 in the .9 mg/kg group (median range 4-39). Patients in the .9 mg/kg group had higher rates of favorable outcome [odds ratio (OR)=1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(1.07-2.40), P=.022] and similar rates of sICH [OR=.86 (95% CI .41-1.83), P=.70]. Depending on the statistics used, the higher angiographic recanalization rate among patients treated with .9 mg/kg was significant (P=.03, events/trial syntax logistic regression) or borderline significant (P=.07, random effects model).
Our analysis suggests that using .9 mg/kg IV rt-PA prior to IA thrombolysis is safe and may be associated with higher recanalization rates and better functional outcome at 3 months.
Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 11/2009; 21(2):113-20. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether measurement of D-dimer (DD) would improve risk stratification after transient ischemic attack (TIA).
We enrolled 167 patients with acute TIA in a prospective observational study. DD was measured using rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary outcome measure was a composite end point consisting of stroke or death within 90 days or the identification of a high-risk stroke mechanism requiring specific early intervention (defined as > or =50% stenosis in a vessel referable to symptoms or a cardioembolic source warranting anticoagulation).
The composite end point occurred in 41 patients (25%). A 50% or greater stenosis was found in 25 patients (15%), a cardioembolic source in 14 (8%), and clinical events in 8 (5 strokes, 3 deaths), 6 of whom also had a high-risk cause of TIA. ABCD(2) score was associated with outcome (P for trend = .017, c-statistic 0.63). DD levels did not differ based on outcome status (geometric mean 0.75 v 0.82 microg fibrinogen equivalent unit/mL, P = .56), and DD had little use for predicting outcome (c-statistic 0.57), even when combined with ABCD(2) score. Of 96 patients with early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 23% had diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities, and MRI DWI was predictive of outcome (c-statistic 0.76). The addition of MRI DWI to ABCD(2) improved predictive accuracy (c-statistic 0.83) compared with either alone.
Many patients with TIA have a high-risk mechanism (large vessel stenosis or cardioembolism) or will experience stroke/death within 90 days. Increasing ABCD(2) scores were associated with this composite end point. Measurement of DD did not provide additional prognostic information.
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 09/2009; 18(5):367-73. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large vein of Galen was diagnosed in a 9-month-old boy. This was not treated at birth, as there was no associated congestive heart failure. The patient was followed conservatively and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed increase in the size of the vein of Galen malformation. Subsequent cerebral angiogram demonstrated hypertrophied but thrombosed right posterior choroidal artery, suggesting spontaneous thrombosis of the arterial feeder and thus the embolization was not pursued.
Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 07/2009; 21(1):87-8. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is a marker of unstable atherosclerotic plaque, and is predictive of both primary and secondary stroke in population-based studies.
We conducted a prospective study of patients with acute TIA who presented to the ED. Clinical risk scoring using the ABCD(2) score was determined and Lp-PLA(2) mass (LpPLA(2)-M) and activity (LpPLA(2)-A) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The primary outcome measure was a composite end point consisting of stroke or death within 90 days or identification of a high-risk stroke mechanism requiring specific early intervention (defined as >or=50% stenosis in a vessel referable to symptoms or a cardioembolic source warranting anticoagulation).
The composite outcome end point occurred in 41/167 (25%) patients. LpPLA(2)-M levels were higher in end point-positive compared to -negative patients (mean, 192+/-48 ng/mL versus 175+/-44 ng/mL, P=0.04). LpPLA(2)-A levels showed similar results (geometric mean, 132 nmol/min/mL, 95% CI 119 to 146 versus 114 nmol/min/mL, 95% CI 108 to 121, P=0.01). There was no relationship between CRP and outcome (P=0.82). Subgroup analysis showed that both LpPLA(2)-M (P=0.04) and LpPLA(2)-A (P=0.06) but not CRP (P=0.36) were elevated in patients with >50% stenosis. In multivariate analysis using cut-off points defined by the top quartile of each marker, predictors of outcome included LpPLA(2)-A (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.58 to 8.86, P=0.003) and ABCD(2) score (OR 1.30 per point, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.75, P=0.08).
Many patients with TIA have a high-risk mechanism (large vessel stenosis or cardioembolism) or will experience stroke/death within 90 days. In contrast to CRP, both Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were associated with this composite end point, and LpPLA(2)-A appears to provide additional prognostic information beyond the ABCD(2) clinical risk score alone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Symptomatic occlusive lesions at the origins of the supra-aortic vessels pose challenges for treatment. Endovascular angioplasty and stent placement via the transfemoral approach is possible, but obtaining a stable position for the guide catheter via this approach is technically difficult. The authors describe the case of a 56-year-old man presenting with symptomatic occlusion of a previously placed stent at the origin of the left common carotid artery (CCA). An endovascular revascularization of the left CCA was planned. However, the absence of a lumen proximal to the stent prevented stable placement of a guide catheter via the transfemoral route. Consequently, the authors used a combined surgical and endovascular approach to gain access to the lesion. The left CCA was exposed surgically distal to the occlusion and clamped just proximal to its bifurcation to preserve flow from the external to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and to prevent embolism into the ICA. A wire was passed retrograde through the occlusive lesion and then was subsequently advanced proximally into the femoral sheath. This allowed transfemoral advancement of the appropriate endovascular devices to perform an angioplasty and placement of a stent. The patient remained neurologically stable, and postoperative studies showed improvement in cerebral perfusion. This case demonstrates the feasibility of distal-to-proximal stent delivery with a combined endovascular and surgical approach.
Journal of Neurosurgery 05/2009; 110(5):935-8. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Diffuse correlation spectroscopy" (DCS) is a technology for non-invasive transcranial measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) that can be hybridized with "near-infrared spectroscopy" (NIRS). Taken together these methods hold potential for monitoring hemodynamics in stroke patients. We explore the utility of DCS and NIRS to measure effects of head-of-bed (HOB) positioning at 30 degrees , 15 degrees , 0 degrees , -5 degrees and 0 degrees angles in patients with acute ischemic stroke affecting frontal cortex and in controls. HOB positioning significantly altered CBF, oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2)) and total-hemoglobin (THC) concentrations. Moreover, the presence of an ipsilateral infarct was a significant effect for all parameters. Results are consistent with the notion of impaired CBF autoregulation in the infarcted hemisphere.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute carotid artery occlusion carries a high morbidity and mortality. Acute angioplasty and stenting is a feasible option with little known about the long term outcome. Limiting factor for this approach is hyperperfusion syndrome or hemorrhagic infarction. Spontaneous early or late recanalization for extracranial vessel is in the range of 5% -30%, with no well defined clinical outcome data. We describe a case of spontaneous common carotid recanalization.
An 88 year old man presented with right sided weakness, global aphasia and visual field loss and was discovered to have common carotid occlusion at its origin. Within 12 hours of symptom onset patient improved neurologically to his baseline exam and repeat imaging demonstrated spontaneous recanalization. This was followed symptomatic occlusion of left middle cerebral artery The patient was treated with multimodality approach resulting in complete revascularization of the middle cerebral artery and angioplasty and stent placement of the internal carotid artery. Patient had a good neurological outcome at 3 months followup.
The present case report demonstrates the risk of spontaneous recanalization acutely in patients presenting with common carotid artery occlusion and associated risk of embolic strokes. In such a patient, concomitant treatment for intracranial occlusion and extracranial high grade stenosis may be performed safely after 30 hours from the initial symptom onset.
Journal of vascular and interventional neurology 01/2009; 2(1):147-51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ObjectivesTo determine the safety and tolerability of super-selective intra-arterial magnesium sulfate in combination with intra-arterial
nicardipine in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
MethodsPatients were treated in a prospective protocol at two teaching medical centers. Emergent cerebral angiography was performed
if there was either clinical, ultrasound, and/or computed tomographic (CT) perfusion deficits suggestive of cerebral vasospasm.
Intra-arterial magnesium sulfate (0.25–1g) was administered via a microcatheter in the affected vessels in combination with
nicardipine (2.5–20.0mg). Mean arterial pressures (MAP) and intracranial pressures (ICP) were monitored during the infusion.
Immediate and sustained angiographic and clinical improvement was determined from post-treatment angiograms and clinical follow-up.
Angiographic and clinical outcomes were compared to two published case series that has used nicardipine alone.
ResultsA total of 58 vessels were treated in 14 patients (mean age 42years; 11 women) with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. The treatment
was either intra-arterial nicardipine and magnesium sulfate alone or in conjunction with primary angioplasty. Forty vessels
(69%) had immediate angiographic improvement with intra-arterial nicardipine and magnesium sulfate alone and 18 vessels (31%)
required concomitant balloon angioplasty with complete reversal of the vasospasm. Retreatment was required in 13 vessels (22%)
and the median time for retreatment was 2days (range 1–13days). Nicardipine treatment resulted in the reduction of MAP (12.3mmHg,
standard error [SE] 1.34, P-value <0.0001) without any significant change in ICP. Magnesium sulfate infusion was not associated with change in MAP or
ICP. Among 31 procedures, immediate neurological improvement was observed in 22 (71%) procedures. In 12 (86%) patients, there
were no infarctions in the follow-up CT scan acquired between 24 and 48 h. No statistical significant difference was observed
in angiographic and clinical outcome of patients treated with the combination therapy in comparison with historical controls
treated with nicardipine alone.
ConclusionAdministration of intra-arterial magnesium sulfate in combination with nicardipine was well tolerated in patients with subarachnoid
hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm without a significant change in MAP and ICP. The efficacy of this combination therapy should
be evaluated in a larger, controlled setting.
Neurocritical Care 01/2009; 11(2):190-198. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins have been shown to have lipid-independent (pleiotropic) effects that may be beneficial in the management of vascular disease. We evaluated the effect of premorbid statin use on recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular treatment.
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who had undergone endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke at our institution. Computed tomography scans obtained after treatment were assessed for the presence of hemorrhagic transformation by an independent reviewer. The primary endpoint was partial or complete recanalization (at least 1 grade improvement in the Qureshi scale). Secondary endpoints were hemorrhagic transformation and neurological improvement. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of premorbid statin use after adjusting for potential confounders.
Seventy-seven patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria (mean age 66 +/- 14, 38 were men) and among them 12 were on statins. The patients who were on statins had a higher recanalization rate (11/12 vs. 33/65, P= .02). This finding was confirmed by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 17.25, 95% confidence interval 1.67-177.43). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding neurological improvement and hemorrhagic transformation.
This study demonstrates that patients on statins have higher recanalization rates when they undergo endovascular procedures for acute ischemic stroke.
Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 12/2008; 19(1):19-22. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intractable epistaxis is treated by ipsilateral trans-arterial embolization of the internal maxillary artery, but there is 13-26% recurrence of bleeding. Preemptive embolization of both internal maxillary arteries along with the ipsilateral facial artery could provide maximal protection against recurrent epistaxis. We report our experience with 8 patients treated with bilateral tri-arterial embolization.
We performed a retrospective review of the patients who were treated with bilateral internal maxillary artery and ipsilateral facial artery embolization from January 2005 to January 2007. All patients had bleeding that was refractory to nasal packing.
Eight patients were treated with bilateral tri-arterial embolization. The median age was 65 years (range, 35-90 years). Risk factors included hypertension (n=4), smoking (n=2), alcohol (n=2), and use of anticoagulation (n=2). All but 2 of the patients were treated under local anesthesia. All patients had complete obliteration of bleeding during the procedure, with no residual vascular blush. No major peri- or post-procedural complications were noted. Patients stayed in the hospital for 2-4 days (average 2.6 days). One patient developed ipsilateral temporofacial pain which resolved during hospitalization. Another patient had minor recurrent epistaxis on post operative day 2 which resolved with temporary repacking and the patient was discharged the next day.
In our experience with 8 cases, bilateral internal maxillary artery and/or ipsilateral facial artery embolization was achieved without complication and was associated with complete obliteration of vascular blush and no significant recurrent epistaxis.
Journal of vascular and interventional neurology 10/2008; 1(4):102-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 20-30% of the patients with acute ischemic stroke do not have any occlusion demonstrated on initial digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We sought to determine the risk and rates of cerebral infarction and favorable neurological outcome in this group of acute ischemic stroke patients.
Patients were identified from a prospectively maintained stroke database and from literature search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. All patients had initial neurological assessment on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Patients then underwent DSA after initial head computed tomography (CT) scans. Follow-up radiological assessment at 24-72 h was performed with CT and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Association of stroke risk factors with clinical and radiological outcomes was estimated.
A total of 81 patients was analyzed (mean age 63 years; 28 were women). The median NIHSS score was 8 (range 2-25). None of the patients received either intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolytic. Cerebral infarction was detected in 62 (76%) of the 81 patients. Twenty-four to 48-h NIHSS was available for 51 patients only. Neurological improvement was observed in 22 (43%) of the 51 patients. Favorable outcome ascertained at 3-month follow-up was seen in 48 (59%) of the 81 patients. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline NIHSS, male patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.5 (1.4-14.3), p value = 0.01] and patients with age >or=65 [OR 4.3 (1.2-16.2), p value = 0.03] have a higher risk of cerebral infarcts on the follow-up imaging. Similarly, patients who presented with <10 NIHSS had a better 3-month outcome than those with >10 NIHSS [OR 0.21 (0.08-0.61), p value = 0.004].
Ischemic stroke patients without arterial occlusion on DSA have a higher risk of cerebral infarction and disability particularly in men, patients over 65 years of age and with NIHSS >or=10. The cause of infarction may have been arterial obstruction with spontaneous recanalization or small vessel occlusion not visible on DSA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report our initial experience in setting up a neuroendovascular service in a university-based comprehensive stroke center.
We determined the rates of referral path, procedural type, and independently adjudicated 1-month outcomes (actual rates) in first 150 procedures (120 patients) and subsequently compared with rates derived from pertinent clinical trials after adjustment for procedural type (predicted rates).
The patients were referred from the emergency department (n= 44), transferred from another hospital (n= 13), or admitted for elective procedures from the clinic (n= 63). The procedures included treatment of acute ischemic stroke (n= 12); extracranial carotid stent placement (n= 33); extracranial vertebral artery stent placement (n= 13); intracranial angioplasty and/or stent placement (n= 12); embolization for intracranial aneurysms (n= 35), arteriovenous malformations (n= 5), and tumors (n= 10); cerebral vasospasm treatment (n= 26); and others (n= 4). The technical success rate was 100% for intracranial aneurysm obliteration and extracranial carotid artery stent placement, and 95% for those undergoing intracranial or vertebral artery stent placements; and partial or complete recanalization was achieved in 72% of patients undergoing intra-arterial thrombolysis. After adjusting for procedural type, the actual adverse event rate of 3% compared favorably with the predicted rate of 7% based on the results of clinical trials.
We provide estimates of procedure volumes and outcomes observed in the initial phase of setting up a neuroendovascular service with an active training program.
Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 07/2008; 19(1):72-9. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To introduce a protocol for anticoagulation using bivalirudin in neuro-endovascular procedures.
Three different bivalirudin dosing protocols were used in four consecutive patients undergoing neuro-endovascular procedures. Activated clotting time (ACT) was closely monitored to assess the effect of bivalirudin on ACT. Target ACT was set at 300-350 seconds.
The first dosing protocol led to largely supra-therapeutic ACT values. With the second protocol, ACT remained sub-therapeutic for 25 minutes (33% of monitoring time). The third protocol was applied to two patients and it showed the best results with the ACT being in the therapeutic range for 72% of the combined monitoring time and never exceeding 366 seconds.
The dosing of bivalirudin needs to be adjusted for the use in neuro-endovascular procedures. We are proposing a protocol that seems to provide safe and effective anticoagulation. The safety and efficacy of bivalirudin in neuroendovascular procedures will need to be further validated in future studies.
Journal of vascular and interventional neurology 04/2008; 1(2):50-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of diffuse correlation/wave spectroscopy for non-invasive measurement of blood flow allowed measurement of cerebral autoregulation in acute ischemic stroke by comparing infarcted and healthy hemispheres.