Carmen R Vargas

Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa), Caçapava, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (82)205.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence suggesting that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of many chronic and degenerative conditions such as diabetic encephalopathy and depression. Considering that diabetic rats and mice present higher depressive-like behaviour when submitted to the forced swimming test and that treatment with insulin and/or clonazepam is able to reverse the behavioural changes of the diabetic rats, the present work investigated the antioxidant status, specifically total antioxidant reactivity and antioxidant potential of insulin and clonazepam, as well as the effect of this drugs upon protein oxidative damage and reactive species formation in cortex, hippocampus and striatum from diabetic rats submitted to forced swimming test. It was verified that longer immobility time in diabetic rats and insulin plus clonazepam treatment reversed this depressive-like behaviour. Moreover, data obtained in this study allowed to demonstrate through different parameters such as protein carbonyl content, 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein oxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase assay, total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity that there is oxidative stress in cortex, hippocampus and striatum from diabetic rats under depressive-like behaviour and highlight the insulin and/or clonazepam effect in these different brain areas, restoring antioxidant status and protein damage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 11/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The present findings may contribute to clarify the pathogenesis of the cerebellar alterations observed in patients affected by ZS and some peroxisomal disorders in which Prist is accumulated.
    The Cerebellum 08/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the plasmatic iron content and evaluate the oxidative stress (OS) markers in subjects receiving blood therapy.
    World journal of experimental medicine. 08/2014; 4(3):38-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity that leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine (Leu), isoleucine, and valine and their respective α-keto-acids, α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), α keto-β-methylvaleric acid, and α-ketoisovaleric acid. The major clinical features presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, failure to thrive, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation; however, the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly understood. MSUD treatment consists of a low protein diet supplemented with a mixture containing micronutrients and essential amino acids but excluding BCAAs. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in the neuropathology of MSUD, with the existence of lipid and protein oxidative damage in affected patients. In recent years, studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of l-carnitine (l-Car), which plays a central function in cellular energy metabolism and for which MSUD patients have a deficiency. In this work, we investigated the in vitro effect of Leu and KIC in the presence or absence of l-Car on DNA damage in peripheral whole blood leukocytes using the alkaline comet assay with silver staining and visual scoring. Leu and KIC resulted in a DNA damage index that was significantly higher than that of the control group, and l-Car was able to significantly prevent this damage, mainly that due to KIC.
    Gene 07/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test whether macromolecule oxidative damage and altered enzymatic antioxidative defenses occur in patients with medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of in vivo parameters of lipid and protein oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in asymptomatic, nonstressed, MCAD-deficient patients and healthy controls. Patients were subdivided into three groups based on therapy: patients without prescribed supplementation, patients with carnitine supplementation, and patients with carnitine plus riboflavin supplementation. Compared with healthy controls, nonsupplemented MCAD-deficient patients and patients receiving carnitine supplementation displayed decreased plasma sulfhydryl content (indicating protein oxidative damage). Increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in patients receiving carnitine supplementation probably reflects a compensatory mechanism for scavenging reactive species formation. The combination of carnitine plus riboflavin was not associated with oxidative damage. These are the first indications that MCAD-deficient patients experience protein oxidative damage and that combined supplementation of carnitine and riboflavin may prevent these biochemical alterations. Results suggest involvement of free radicals in the pathophysiology of MCAD deficiency. The underlying mechanisms behind the increased SOD activity upon carnitine supplementation need to be determined. Further studies are necessary to determine the clinical relevance of oxidative stress, including the possibility of antioxidant therapy.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 03/2014; · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High blood levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are found in patients affected by homocystinuria, a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activity, as well as in nutritional deficiencies (vitamin B12 or folate) and in abnormal renal function. We previously demonstrated that lipid and protein oxidative damage is increased and the antioxidant defenses diminished in plasma of CBS-deficient patients, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of this disease. In the present work, we extended these investigations by evaluating DNA damage through the comet assay in peripheral leukocytes from CBS-deficient patients, as well as by analyzing of the in vitro effect of Hcy on DNA damage in white blood cells. We verified that DNA damage was significantly higher in the CBS-deficient patients under treatment based on a protein-restricted diet and pyridoxine, folic acid, betaine and vitamin B12 supplementation, when compared to controls. Furthermore, the in vitro study showed a concentration-dependent effect of Hcy inducing DNA damage. Taken together, the present data indicate that DNA damage occurs in treated CBS-deficient patients, possibly due to high Hcy levels.
    Gene 02/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Thirty-free heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m +/- sd ages (43.9 +/- 10.2 versus 24.3 +/- 4.6), JOA (14.5 +/- 1.7 versus 16.6 +/- 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 +/- 7.9 versus 98.4 +/- 1.1) scores (p < 0.05). Both JOA (r = -0.68) and SSPROM (r = -0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p = 0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r = -0.47, p = 0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 +/- 7 and 7.2 +/- 7 ng/ml, p = 0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2014; 9(1):6. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to the accumulation of branched-chain keto acids and their corresponding branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients. Treatment involves protein-restricted diet and the supplementation with a specific formula containing essential amino acids (except BCAA) and micronutrients, in order to avoid the appearance of neurological symptoms. Although the accumulation of toxic metabolites is associated to appearance of symptoms, the mechanisms underlying the brain damage in MSUD remain unclear, and new evidence has emerged indicating that oxidative stress contributes to this damage. In this context, this review addresses some of the recent findings obtained from cells lines, animal studies, and from patients indicating that oxidative stress is an important determinant of the pathophysiology of MSUD. Recent works have shown that the metabolites accumulated in the disease induce morphological alterations in C6 glioma cells through nitrogen reactive species generation. In addition, several works demonstrated that the levels of important antioxidants decrease in animal models and also in MSUD patients (what have been attributed to protein-restricted diets). Also, markers of lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage have been reported in MSUD, probably secondary to the high production of free radicals. Considering these findings, it is well-established that oxidative stress contributes to brain damage in MSUD, and this review offers new perspectives for the prevention of the neurological damage in MSUD, which may include the use of appropriate antioxidants as a novel adjuvant therapy for patients.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 11/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Graziela S Ribas, Carmen R Vargas, Moacir Wajner
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years increasing evidence has emerged suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. However the clinical use of classical antioxidants in these diseases has been poorly evaluated and so far no benefit has been demonstrated. L-carnitine is an endogenous substance that acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane necessary for subsequent beta-oxidation and ATP production. Besides its important role in the metabolism of lipids, L-carnitine is also a potent antioxidant (free radical scavenger) and thus may protect tissues from oxidative damage. This review addresses recent findings obtained from patients with some inherited neurometabolic diseases showing that L-carnitine may be involved in the reduction of oxidative damage observed in these disorders. For some of these diseases, reduced concentrations of L-carnitine may occur due to the combination of this compound to the accumulating toxic metabolites, especially organic acids, or as a result of protein restricted diets. Thus, L-carnitine supplementation may be useful not only to prevent tissue deficiency of this element, but also to avoid oxidative damage secondary to increased production of reactive species in these diseases. Considering the ability of L-carnitine to easily cross the blood-brain barrier, L-carnitine supplementation may also be beneficial in preventing neurological damage derived from oxidative injury. However further studies are required to better explore this potential.
    Gene 10/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate serum levels of different biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients were prospectively evaluated in two separate instances: during acute mania and after remission of manic symptoms. All measurements were compared with those of healthy controls. Methods: The study included 30 patients with BD and 30 healthy controls, matched for gender and age. Biochemical parameters evaluated included homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, vitamin B12, ferritin, creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: Hcy levels were significantly higher in the BD patients, both during mania and after achieving euthymia. When Hcy was adjusted for body mass index, there was no significant difference between patients and controls. Ferritin was the only marker that showed a significant decrease during mania when compared to both euthymic patients and controls. There were no significant differences for folate, vitamin B12, CK and CRP. Conclusions: These findings do not show an association between alterations of markers of cardiovascular risk during manic episodes. Further studies are necessary to determine factors and mechanisms associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with BD.
    Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 04/2013; 35(2):157-60. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects on insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It has recently become clear that the central nervous system is not spared from the deleterious effects of diabetes, since diabetic encephalopathy was recognized as a complication of this heterogeneous metabolic disorder. There is a well recognized association between depression and diabetes, once prevalence of depression in diabetic patients is higher than in general population, and clonazepam is being used to treat this complication. Oxidative stress is widely accepted as playing a key mediatory role in the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. In this work we analyzed DNA damage by comet assay and lipid damage in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats submitted to the forced swimming test. It was verified that the diabetic group presented DNA and lipid damage in the brain areas evaluated, when compared to the control groups. Additionally, a significant reduction of the DNA and lipid damage in animals treated with insulin and/or clonazepam was observed. These data suggest that the association of these two drugs could protect against DNA and lipid damage in diabetic rats submitted to the forced swimming test, an animal model of depression.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 03/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: It is known that oxidative stress occurs in peripheral blood in an experimental animal model of diabetes and depression, and acute treatment with insulin and clonazepam (CNZ) has a protective effect on oxidative stress in this model. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of insulin plus CNZ on oxidative stress parameters in the liver of diabetic male rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ) and subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of STZ 60 mg/kg in male Wistar rats. Insulin (4 IU/kg) plus CNZ acute i.p. treatment (0.25 mg/kg) was administered 24, 5 and 1 h before the FST. Nondiabetic control rats received i.p. injections of saline (1 mL/kg). Protein oxidative damage was evaluated by carbonyl formation and the antioxidant redox parameters were analyzed by the measurements of enzymatic activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glyoxalase I (GLO). Glycemia levels also were determined. Results: Our present study has shown an increase in carbonyl content from diabetic rats subjected to FST (2.04 ± 0.55), while the activity of catalase (51.83 ± 19.02) and SOD (2.30 ± 1.23) were significantly decreased in liver from these animals, which were reverted by the treatment. Also, the activity of GLO (0.15 ± 0.02) in the liver of the animals was decreased. Discussion and conclusion: Our findings showed that insulin plus CNZ acute treatment ameliorate the antioxidant redox parameters and protect against protein oxidative damage in the liver of diabetic rats subjected to FST.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 02/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Baccharis trimera is a plant popularly used as a tea and to treat gastrointestinal diseases and inflammatory processes as well. The total phenolic content was determined and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six extracts (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, aqueous, saponin and phenolic) from B. trimera were evaluated. Using carrageenan-induced pleurisy as a model of acute inflammation, the phenolic extract at 15 mg/kg decreased significantly the analyzed parameters when compared to the carrageenan group ( p < 0.05), thus showing potential anti-inflammatory activity. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteau and DPPH methods, respectively. Phenolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented higher antioxidant activity ( p < 0.05) than ascorbic acid. The phenolic extract also showed the highest antioxidant potential in relation to the other extracts, thus suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were due to the presence of phenolic compounds.
    Molecules 12/2012; 17(1):1113-23. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Refsum disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of peroxisomal metabolism biochemically characterized by highly elevated concentrations of phytanic acid (Phyt) in a variety of tissues including the cerebellum. Reduction of plasma Phyt levels by dietary restriction intake ameliorates ataxia, a common clinical manifestation of this disorder, suggesting a neurotoxic role for this branched-chain fatty acid. Therefore, considering that the underlying mechanisms of cerebellum damage in Refsum disease are poorly known, in the present study we tested the effects of Phyt on important parameters of bioenergetics, such as the activities of the respiratory chain complexes I to IV, creatine kinase and Na(+), K(+)- ATPase in cerebellum preparations from young rats. The activities of complexes I, II, I-III and II-III and Na(+), K(+)- ATPase were markedly inhibited (65-85 %) in a dose-dependent manner by Phyt. In contrast, creatine kinase and complex IV activities were not altered by this fatty acid. Therefore, it is presumed that impairment of the electron flow through the respiratory chain and inhibition of Na(+), K(+)- ATPase that is crucial for synaptic function may be involved in the pathophysiology of the cerebellar abnormalities manifested as ataxia in Refsum disease and in other peroxisomal disorders in which brain Phyt accumulates.
    Journal of Bioenergetics 11/2012; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism biochemically characterized by elevated levels of the branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, valine and the corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. L-carnitine (L-Car) plays a central role in the cellular energy metabolism because it transports long-chain fatty acids for oxidation and ATP generation. In recent years many studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of this compound. In this work, we investigated the effect of BCAA-restricted diet supplemented or not with L-Car on lipid peroxidation and in protein oxidation in MSUD patients. We found a significant increase of malondialdehyde and of carbonyl content in plasma of MSUD patients under BCAA-restricted diet compared to controls. Furthermore, patients under BCAA-restricted diet plus L-Car supplementation presented a marked reduction of malondialdehyde content in relation to controls, reducing the lipid peroxidation. In addition, free L-Car concentrations were negatively correlated with malondialdehyde levels. Our data show that L-Car may have an antioxidant effect, protecting against the lipid peroxidation and this could represent an additional therapeutic approach to the patients affected by MSUD.
    International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 11/2012; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phytanic acid (Phyt) brain concentrations are highly increased in Refsum disease, a peroxisomal disorder clinically characterized by neurological features, cardiac abnormalities, and retinitis pigmentosa. Considering that the pathogenesis of cerebellar ataxia, a common finding in this disease, is still unknown, in the present work we investigated the in vitro effects of Phyt at concentrations similar to those found in affected patients on important parameters of mitochondrial homeostasis in cerebellum from young rats. The respiratory parameters states 3 and 4 and respiratory control ratio (RCR) determined by oxygen consumption, membrane potential (∆Ψm), NAD(P)H pool content, and swelling were evaluated in mitochondrial preparations from this cerebral structure. Phyt markedly increased state 4 respiration, whereas state 3 respiration, the RCR, the mitochondrial matrix NAD(P)H content, and ∆Ψm were decreased by this fatty acid, being the latter effect partially prevented by N-acetylcysteine. These data indicate that Phyt behaves as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation and as a metabolic inhibitor disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis in cerebellum. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms may contribute at least in part to the cerebellar alterations found in Refsum disease.
    The Cerebellum 10/2012; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in TP53 are the underlying defect of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) Syndrome, autosomal dominant disorders characterized by predisposition to multiple early onset cancers. In Brazil, a variant form of LFS/LFL is commonly detected because of the high prevalence of a founder mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (p.R337H). The p53 protein exerts multiple roles in the regulation of oxidative metabolism and cellular anti-oxidant defense systems. Herein, we analyzed the redox parameters in blood samples from p.R337H mutation carriers (C, n = 17) and non-carriers (NC, n = 17). We identified a significant increase in erythrocyte GPx activity and in plasma carbonyl content,an indicator of protein oxidative damage, in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers (P = 0.048 and P = 0.035, respectively). Mutation carriers also showed a four-fold increase in plasma malondialdehyde levels, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (NC = 40.20±0.71, C = 160.5±0.88, P<0.0001). Finally, carriers showed increased total antioxidant status but a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid content. The observed imbalance could be associated with deregulated cell bioenergetics and/or with increased inflammatory stress, two effects that may result from loss of wild-type p53 function. These findings provide the first evidence that oxidative damage occurs in carriers of a germline TP53 mutation, and these may have important implications regarding our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for germline TP53 p.R337H mutation-associated carcinogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e47010. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder biochemically characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomes and lysosomes of the affected patients. N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin is the only approved drug for patients with NPC disease. It inhibits glycosphingolipid synthesis, therefore reducing intracellular lipid storage. Although the mechanisms underlying the neurologic damage in the NPC disease are not yet well established, in vitro and in vivo studies suggest an involvement of reactive species in the pathophysiology of this disease. In this work we aimed to evaluate parameters of lipid and protein oxidation, measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBA-RS) and protein carbonyl formation, respectively, as well as the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in plasma, erythrocytes and fibroblasts from NPC1 patients, at diagnosis and during treatment with N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin. We found a significant increase of TBA-RS in plasma and fibroblasts, as well as increased protein carbonyl formation and decreased total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma of untreated NPC1 patients as compared to the control group. In addition, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was increased, whereas CAT and SOD activities were normal in these patients. We also observed that patients treated with N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin normalized plasma TBA-RS and TAS, as well as erythrocyte GSH-Px activity. Taken together, the present data indicate that oxidative stress is increased in patients with NPC1 disease and that treatment with N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin is able to confer protection against this pathological process.
    International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 07/2012; 30(6):439-44. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperornithinemia is the biochemical hallmark of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome, an inherited metabolic disease clinically characterized by mental retardation whose pathogenesis is still poorly known. In the present work, we produced a chemical animal model of hyperornithinemia induced by a subcutaneous injection of saline-buffered Orn (2-5 μmol/g body weight) to rats. High brain Orn concentrations were achieved, indicating that Orn is permeable to the blood brain barrier. We then investigated the effect of early chronic postnatal administration of Orn on physical development and on the performance of adult rats in the open field, the Morris water maze and in the step down inhibitory avoidance tasks. Chronic Orn treatment had no effect on the appearance of coat, eye opening or upper incisor eruption, nor on the free-fall righting reflex and on the adult rat performance in the Morris water maze and in the inhibitory avoidance tasks, suggesting that physical development, aversive and spatial localization were not changed by Orn. However, Orn-treated rats did not habituate to the open field apparatus, implying a deficit of learning/memory. Motor activity was the same for Orn- and saline- injected animals. We also verified that Orn subcutaneous injections provoked lipid peroxidation in the brain, as determined by a significant increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. Our results indicate that chronic early postnatal hyperornithinemia may impair the central nervous system, causing minor disabilities which result in specific learning deficiencies.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 06/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). In the present work, we evaluated lipid (malondialdehyde [MDA] content) and protein (sulfhydryl and carbonyl contents) oxidative damage parameters in plasma from X-ALD patients before and after bone marrow transplant (BMT), in order to verify if this treatment is capable to alter the oxidative parameters studied. We also evaluated the plasma concentration of hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) from X-ALD patients and correlated it with the oxidative damage parameters investigated. We observed that MDA content was significantly increased in plasma of X-ALD patients before BMT and after BMT when compared to controls, and that it was significantly reduced in plasma of X-ALD after BMT when compared to the before BMT group. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation is stimulated in X-ALD patients but there is a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation after BMT. Next, we observed a significant reduction of sulfhydryl content in plasma of X-ALD patients before BMT compared to controls indicating protein oxidative damage and that this measurement was increased in these patients after BMT as compared to before BMT. We found no significant differences in plasma carbonyl content in X-ALD patients before and after BMT as compared to controls. However, we observed a significant reduction in this parameter in X-ALD patients after BMT compared to before BMT. Finally, C26:0 plasma concentration was significantly reduced in X-ALD patients after BMT when compared to before BMT. We found no significant correlations between MDA and carbonyl values with C26:0 levels of the patients before BMT and after BMT, but a significant inverse correlation between sulfhydryl content and C26:0 levels was detected. In conclusion, the present study reinforces the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation and protein damage are induced in plasma of X-ALD patients and, in addition, demonstrates that BMT treatment is capable to reduce this pathogenic process. Taken together, the data obtained from plasma of X-ALD patients before and after BMT showing induction and protection, respectively, of oxidative stress, allowed to suggest that BMT, when well succeeded and under the recommendations, is effective to reduce C26:0 plasma levels and the increased lipid and protein oxidative damage in X-ALD.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 04/2012; 106(2):231-6. · 2.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

764 Citations
205.71 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa)
      Caçapava, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2003–2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Departamento de Bioquímica
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1999–2013
    • Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Santa Casa de Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2010
    • Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC)
      Cresciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil
  • 2009
    • Universidade Luterana do Brasil
      Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1998
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil