Carmen R Vargas

Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Are you Carmen R Vargas?

Claim your profile

Publications (107)283.81 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The understanding of the consequences of chronic treatment with methylphenidate is very important since this psychostimulant is extensively prescribed to preschool age children, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying the persistent changes in behavior and neuronal function related with the use of methylphenidate. In this study, we initially investigate the effect of early chronic treatment with methylphenidate on amino acids profile in cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex of juvenile rats, as well as on glutamatergic homeostasis, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function, and balance redox in prefrontal cortex of rats. Wistar rats at early age received intraperitoneal injections of methylphenidate (2.0 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of 0.9 % saline solution (controls), once a day, from the 15th to the 45th day of age. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, the animals were decapitated and the cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex were obtained. Results showed that methylphenidate altered amino acid profile in cerebrospinal fluid, increasing the levels of glutamate. Glutamate uptake was decreased by methylphenidate administration, but GLAST and GLT-1 were not altered by this treatment. In addition, the astrocyte marker GFAP was not altered by MPH. The activity and immunocontent of catalytic subunits (α1, α2, and α3) of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats subjected to methylphenidate treatment, as well as changes in α1 and α2 gene expression of catalytic α subunits of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were also observed. CAT activity was increased and SOD/CAT ratio and sulfhydryl content were decreased in rat prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our results suggest that chronic treatment with methylphenidate at early age induces excitotoxicity, at least in part, due to inhibition of glutamate uptake probably caused by disturbances in the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function and/or in protein damage observed in the prefrontal cortex.
    Molecular Neurobiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9219-x · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder caused by severe deficient activity of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex involved in the degradation pathway of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their α-ketoacid derivatives. MSUD patients generally present ketoacidosis, poor feeding, ataxia, coma, psychomotor delay, mental retardation and brain abnormalites. Treatment consists of dietary restriction of the BCAA (low protein intake) supplemented by a BCAA-free amino acid mixture. Although the mechanisms of brain damage in MSUD are poorly known, previous studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in the neuropathology of this disorder. In this regard, it was recently reported that MSUD patients have deficiency of l-carnitine (l-car), a compound with antioxidant properties that is used as adjuvant therapy in various inborn errors of metabolism. In this work, we investigated DNA damage determined by the alkaline comet assay in peripheral whole blood leukocytes of MSUD patients submitted to a BCAA-restricted diet supplemented or not with l-car. We observed a significant increase of DNA damage index (DI) in leukocytes from MSUD patients under BCAA-restricted diet as compared to controls and that l-car supplementation significantly decreased DNA DI levels. It was also found a positive correlation between DI and MDA content, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and an inverse correlation between DI and l-car levels. Taken together, our present results suggest a role for reactive species and the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage in this disorder. Since l-car reduced DNA damage, it is presumed that dietary supplementation of this compound may serve as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy for MSUD patients in addition to other therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    03/2015; 775. DOI:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2015.03.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the main cause of homocystinuria. Homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, and other metabolites of Hcy accumulate in the body of affected patients. Despite the fact that thromboembolism represents the major cause of morbidity in CBS-deficient patients, the mechanisms of cardiovascular alterations found in homocystinuria remain unclear. In this work, we evaluated the lipid and inflammatory profile, oxidative protein damage, and the activities of the enzymes paraoxonase (PON1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in plasma of CBS-deficient patients at diagnosis and during the treatment (protein-restricted diet supplemented with pyridoxine, folic acid, betaine, and vitamin B12). We also investigated the effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 on these parameters. We found a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1) levels, as well as in PON1 activity in both untreated and treated CBS-deficient patients when compared to controls. BuChE activity and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in not treated patients. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between PON1 activity and sulphydryl groups and between IL-6 levels and carbonyl content were verified. Moreover, vitamin B12 was positively correlated with PON1 and ApoA-1 levels, while folic acid was inversely correlated with total Hcy concentration, demonstrating the importance of this treatment. Our results also demonstrated that CBS-deficient patients presented important alterations in biochemical parameters, possibly caused by the metabolites of Hcy, as well as by oxidative stress, and that the adequate adherence to the treatment is essential to revert or prevent these alterations.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10571-015-0185-7 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a defect in the transport of ornithine (Orn) into mitochondrial matrix leading to accumulation of Orn, homocitrulline (Hcit), and ammonia. Affected patients present a variable clinical symptomatology, frequently associated with cerebellar symptoms whose pathogenesis is poorly known. Although in vitro studies reported induction of oxidative stress by the metabolites accumulating in HHH syndrome, so far no report evaluated the in vivo effects of these compounds on redox homeostasis in cerebellum. Therefore, the present work was carried out to investigate the in vivo effects of intracerebellar administration of Orn and Hcit on antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione concentrations and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde concentrations), as well as on the activity of synaptic Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, an enzyme highly vulnerable to free radical attack, in the cerebellum of adolescent rats. Orn significantly increased malondialdehyde levels and the activities of all antioxidant enzymes, and reduced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. In contrast, glutathione concentrations were not changed by Orn treatment. Furthermore, intracerebellar administration of Hcit was not able to alter any of these parameters. The present data show for the first time that Orn provokes in vivo lipid oxidative damage, activation of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, and reduction of the activity of a crucial enzyme involved in neurotransmission. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute at least partly to explain the neuropathology of cerebellum abnormalities and the ataxia observed in patients with HHH syndrome.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10571-015-0173-y · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toxic metabolites accumulation and oxidative stress have been associated to the pathophysiology of X-linked adrenoleukodistrophy (X-ALD), an inborn error of peroxisome metabolism. Parameters of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in X-ALD patients were already described in literature; however, DNA injuries were not studied yet. Considering that, the aims were to investigate DNA damage by comet assay in heterozygotes and symptomatic X-ALD patients, to look for associations between DNA damage and lipid peroxidation as measured by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane; and to evaluate the in vitro effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), trolox (TRO) and rosuvastatin (RSV) on DNA damage in leukocytes from symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients presented higher DNA damage levels than those found in heterozygotes and controls; heterozygotes and controls showed similar results. In order to investigate the in vitro antioxidant effect on DNA damage, whole blood cells from symptomatic patients were incubated with NAC (1 and 2.5mM), TRO (25 and 75μM) and RSV (0.5, 2 and 5μM) before DNA damage analysis. NAC, TRO and RSV, at all tested concentrations, were all capable to reduce DNA damage in symptomatic X-ALD patients until control levels. Finally, DNA damage correlated with urinary isoprostanes and plasmatic levels of TBA-RS and DCFH-DA, allowing to hypothesize that DNA damage might be induced by lipid peroxidation in symptomatic patients. The present work yields experimental evidence that NAC, TRO and RSV reduce the in vitro DNA injury in symptomatic X-ALD patients, what may suggest that the administration of these antioxidants might be considered as an adjuvant therapy for X-ALD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 03/2015; 43. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.03.004 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is an inborn error of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) catabolism due to the deficient activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase that leads to accumulation of the keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in body fluids and in lysosomes. The pathophysiology of this lysosomal storage disorder is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokine and GAGs levels in MPS IVA patients. We analyzed urine and blood samples from patients under ERT (n=17) and healthy age-matched controls (n=10-15). Patients presented a reduction of antioxidant defenses levels, assessed by a decrease in glutathione content and by an increase in superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Concerning to lipids and proteins damage, it was verified increased urine isoprostanes and di-tyrosine levels and decreased plasma sulfhydryl groups in MPS IVA patients compared to controls. MPS IVA patients showed higher DNA damage than control group and this damage had an oxidative origin in both pyrimidines and purines bases. Interleukin 6 was increased in patients and presented an inverse correlation with GSH levels, showing a possible link between inflammation and oxidative stress in MPS IVA disease. The data presented suggest that pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant states occur in MPS IVA patients even under ERT. Taking these results into account, supplementation of antioxidants in combination with ERT can be a tentative therapeutic approach with the purpose of improving the patient's quality life. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study relating MPS IVA patients with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 02/2015; 1852(5). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.02.004 · 5.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The defect in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity leads to an accumulation of these compounds and their corresponding α-keto-acids and α-hydroxy-acids. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. l-carnitine (l-car), which has demonstrated an important role as antioxidant by reducing and scavenging free radicals formation and by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, have been used in the treatment of some metabolic rare disorders. This study evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, di-tyrosine, isoprostanes and antioxidant capacity, in urine of MSUD patients under protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with l-car capsules at a dose of 50mgkg(-1) day(-1). It was also determined urinary α-keto isocaproic acid levels as well as blood free l-car concentrations in blood. It was found a deficiency of carnitine in patients before the l-car supplementation. Significant increases of di-tyrosine and isoprostanes, as well as reduced antioxidant capacity, were observed before the treatment with l-car. The l-car supplementation induced beneficial effects on these parameters reducing the di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels and increasing the antioxidant capacity. It was also showed a significant increase in urinary of α-ketoisocaproic acid after 2 months of l-car treatment, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that l-car may have beneficial effects in the treatment of MSUD by preventing oxidative damage to the cells and that urine can be used to monitorize oxidative damage in patients affected by this disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 02/2015; 42. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.02.003 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis and the progression of phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism, have been associated with oxidative damage. Moreover, it has been increasingly postulated the antioxidant properties of L-Carnitine (LC). The aim of this study was to verify the effect of LC on Phe-induced DNA damage. The in vitro effect of different concentrations of LC (15, 30, 120 and 150 μM) on DNA damage-induced by high phenylalanine levels (1000 and 2500 μM) was examined in white blood cells from normal individuals using the comet assay. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, and plasmatic sulfhydryl content were measured in eight patients with classical PKU, under therapy with protein restriction and supplemented with a special formula containing LC, and in controls individuals. Both in vitro tested Phe concentrations (1000 and 2500 μM) have resulted in DNA damage index significantly higher than control group. The in vitro co-treatment with Phe and LC reduced significantly DNA damage index when compared to Phe group. The urinary excretion of 8-OHdG and plasmatic sulfhydryl content presented similar levels in both groups analyzed (controls and treated PKU patients). In treated PKU patients, urinary 8-OHdG levels were positively correlated with blood Phe levels and negatively correlated with blood LC concentration and plasmatic sulfhydryl content. The present work yields experimental evidence that LC can reduce the in vitro DNA injury induced by high concentrations of phenylalanine, as well as, allow to hypothesize that LC protect against DNA damage in patients with PKU.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11011-015-9649-1 · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria (HMGA; OMIM 246450) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, caused by the deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (4.1.3.4), which results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (HMG) and 3-methylglutaric (MGA) acids in tissues and biological fluids of affected individuals. Recent in vivo and in vitro animal studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of these metabolites can disturb the cellular redox homeostasis, which can contribute to the neurological manifestations presented by the patients. So, in the present work, we investigated oxidative stress parameters in plasma and urine samples from HMGA patients, obtained at the moment of diagnosis of this disorder and during therapy with low-protein diet and L-carnitine supplementation. It was verified that untreated HMGA patients presented higher levels of urinary di-tyrosine and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), which are markers of protein and lipid oxidative damage, respectively, as well as a reduction of the urinary antioxidant capacity. Treated HMGA patients also presented an increased protein oxidative damage, as demonstrated by their higher concentrations of plasma protein carbonyl groups and urinary di-tyrosine, as well as by the reduction of total sulfhydryl groups in plasma, in relation to controls. On the other hand, HMGA patients under therapy presented normal levels of TBA-RS and urinary antioxidant capacity, which can be related, at least in part, to the antioxidant and antiperoxidative effects exerted by L-carnitine. The results of this work are the first report showing that a redox imbalance occurs in patients with HMGA what reinforces the importance of the antioxidant therapy in this disorder.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2015; 402(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s11010-014-2322-x · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence suggesting that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of many chronic and degenerative conditions such as diabetic encephalopathy and depression. Considering that diabetic rats and mice present higher depressive-like behaviour when submitted to the forced swimming test and that treatment with insulin and/or clonazepam is able to reverse the behavioural changes of the diabetic rats, the present work investigated the antioxidant status, specifically total antioxidant reactivity and antioxidant potential of insulin and clonazepam, as well as the effect of this drugs upon protein oxidative damage and reactive species formation in cortex, hippocampus and striatum from diabetic rats submitted to forced swimming test. It was verified that longer immobility time in diabetic rats and insulin plus clonazepam treatment reversed this depressive-like behaviour. Moreover, data obtained in this study allowed to demonstrate through different parameters such as protein carbonyl content, 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein oxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase assay, total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity that there is oxidative stress in cortex, hippocampus and striatum from diabetic rats under depressive-like behaviour and highlight the insulin and/or clonazepam effect in these different brain areas, restoring antioxidant status and protein damage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 12/2014; 32(8). DOI:10.1002/cbf.3076 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The present findings may contribute to clarify the pathogenesis of the cerebellar alterations observed in patients affected by ZS and some peroxisomal disorders in which Prist is accumulated.
    The Cerebellum 08/2014; 13(6). DOI:10.1007/s12311-014-0593-0 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the plasmatic iron content and evaluate the oxidative stress (OS) markers in subjects receiving blood therapy.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity that leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine (Leu), isoleucine, and valine and their respective α-keto-acids, α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), α keto-β-methylvaleric acid, and α-ketoisovaleric acid. The major clinical features presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, failure to thrive, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation; however, the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly understood. MSUD treatment consists of a low protein diet supplemented with a mixture containing micronutrients and essential amino acids but excluding BCAAs. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in the neuropathology of MSUD, with the existence of lipid and protein oxidative damage in affected patients. In recent years, studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of l-carnitine (l-Car), which plays a central function in cellular energy metabolism and for which MSUD patients have a deficiency. In this work, we investigated the in vitro effect of Leu and KIC in the presence or absence of l-Car on DNA damage in peripheral whole blood leukocytes using the alkaline comet assay with silver staining and visual scoring. Leu and KIC resulted in a DNA damage index that was significantly higher than that of the control group, and l-Car was able to significantly prevent this damage, mainly that due to KIC.
    Gene 07/2014; 548(2). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2014.07.051 · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Cell Biology and Toxicology 07/2014; 30(4). DOI:10.1007/s10565-014-9284-3 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test whether macromolecule oxidative damage and altered enzymatic antioxidative defenses occur in patients with medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of in vivo parameters of lipid and protein oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in asymptomatic, nonstressed, MCAD-deficient patients and healthy controls. Patients were subdivided into three groups based on therapy: patients without prescribed supplementation, patients with carnitine supplementation, and patients with carnitine plus riboflavin supplementation. Compared with healthy controls, nonsupplemented MCAD-deficient patients and patients receiving carnitine supplementation displayed decreased plasma sulfhydryl content (indicating protein oxidative damage). Increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in patients receiving carnitine supplementation probably reflects a compensatory mechanism for scavenging reactive species formation. The combination of carnitine plus riboflavin was not associated with oxidative damage. These are the first indications that MCAD-deficient patients experience protein oxidative damage and that combined supplementation of carnitine and riboflavin may prevent these biochemical alterations. Results suggest involvement of free radicals in the pathophysiology of MCAD deficiency. The underlying mechanisms behind the increased SOD activity upon carnitine supplementation need to be determined. Further studies are necessary to determine the clinical relevance of oxidative stress, including the possibility of antioxidant therapy.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 03/2014; 37(5). DOI:10.1007/s10545-014-9700-0 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High blood levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are found in patients affected by homocystinuria, a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activity, as well as in nutritional deficiencies (vitamin B12 or folate) and in abnormal renal function. We previously demonstrated that lipid and protein oxidative damage is increased and the antioxidant defenses diminished in plasma of CBS-deficient patients, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of this disease. In the present work, we extended these investigations by evaluating DNA damage through the comet assay in peripheral leukocytes from CBS-deficient patients, as well as by analyzing of the in vitro effect of Hcy on DNA damage in white blood cells. We verified that DNA damage was significantly higher in the CBS-deficient patients under treatment based on a protein-restricted diet and pyridoxine, folic acid, betaine and vitamin B12 supplementation, when compared to controls. Furthermore, the in vitro study showed a concentration-dependent effect of Hcy inducing DNA damage. Taken together, the present data indicate that DNA damage occurs in treated CBS-deficient patients, possibly due to high Hcy levels.
    Gene 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2014.02.015 · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Thirty-free heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m +/- sd ages (43.9 +/- 10.2 versus 24.3 +/- 4.6), JOA (14.5 +/- 1.7 versus 16.6 +/- 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 +/- 7.9 versus 98.4 +/- 1.1) scores (p < 0.05). Both JOA (r = -0.68) and SSPROM (r = -0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p = 0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r = -0.47, p = 0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 +/- 7 and 7.2 +/- 7 ng/ml, p = 0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2014; 9(1):6. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-9-6 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA is a lysosomal storage disorder leading to an increase in glycosaminoglycans storage. Genistein is an isoflavone capable to inhibit glycosaminoglycans production. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro effect of different concentrations of genistein on DNA injury in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA patients. The lower concentration tested (10μM) showed a significant increase on DNA injury in vitro, although higher concentrations (30μM and 50μM) showed higher DNA damage.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 12/2013; 111(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.11.011 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to the accumulation of branched-chain keto acids and their corresponding branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients. Treatment involves protein-restricted diet and the supplementation with a specific formula containing essential amino acids (except BCAA) and micronutrients, in order to avoid the appearance of neurological symptoms. Although the accumulation of toxic metabolites is associated to appearance of symptoms, the mechanisms underlying the brain damage in MSUD remain unclear, and new evidence has emerged indicating that oxidative stress contributes to this damage. In this context, this review addresses some of the recent findings obtained from cells lines, animal studies, and from patients indicating that oxidative stress is an important determinant of the pathophysiology of MSUD. Recent works have shown that the metabolites accumulated in the disease induce morphological alterations in C6 glioma cells through nitrogen reactive species generation. In addition, several works demonstrated that the levels of important antioxidants decrease in animal models and also in MSUD patients (what have been attributed to protein-restricted diets). Also, markers of lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage have been reported in MSUD, probably secondary to the high production of free radicals. Considering these findings, it is well-established that oxidative stress contributes to brain damage in MSUD, and this review offers new perspectives for the prevention of the neurological damage in MSUD, which may include the use of appropriate antioxidants as a novel adjuvant therapy for patients.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10571-013-0002-0 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Graziela S Ribas, Carmen R Vargas, Moacir Wajner
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years increasing evidence has emerged suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. However the clinical use of classical antioxidants in these diseases has been poorly evaluated and so far no benefit has been demonstrated. L-carnitine is an endogenous substance that acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane necessary for subsequent beta-oxidation and ATP production. Besides its important role in the metabolism of lipids, L-carnitine is also a potent antioxidant (free radical scavenger) and thus may protect tissues from oxidative damage. This review addresses recent findings obtained from patients with some inherited neurometabolic diseases showing that L-carnitine may be involved in the reduction of oxidative damage observed in these disorders. For some of these diseases, reduced concentrations of L-carnitine may occur due to the combination of this compound to the accumulating toxic metabolites, especially organic acids, or as a result of protein restricted diets. Thus, L-carnitine supplementation may be useful not only to prevent tissue deficiency of this element, but also to avoid oxidative damage secondary to increased production of reactive species in these diseases. Considering the ability of L-carnitine to easily cross the blood-brain barrier, L-carnitine supplementation may also be beneficial in preventing neurological damage derived from oxidative injury. However further studies are required to better explore this potential.
    Gene 10/2013; 533(2). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2013.10.017 · 2.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
283.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2015
    • Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2014
    • Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa)
      Caçapava, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2005–2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      • • Institute of Basic Sciences and Health
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2009
    • Universidade Luterana do Brasil
      Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2008
    • CEP America
      Емеривил, California, United States
  • 1998
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      • Departamento de Bioquímica
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil