[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC ) XII is observed in certain human cancers. This bitopic membrane protein contains an N-terminal extracellular catalytic domain, a membrane-spanning alpha-helix, and a small intracellular C-terminal domain. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the extracellular catalytic domain of human CA XII by x-ray crystallographic methods at 1.55-A resolution. The structure reveals a prototypical CA fold; however, two CA XII domains associate to form an isologous dimer, an observation that is confirmed by studies of the enzyme in solution. The identification of signature GXXXG and GXXXS motifs in the transmembrane sequence that facilitate helix-helix association is additionally consistent with dimeric architecture. The dimer interface is situated so that the active site clefts of each monomer are clearly exposed on one face of the dimer, and the C termini are located together on the opposite face of the dimer to facilitate membrane interaction. The amino acid composition of the active-site cleft closely resembles that of the other CA isozymes in the immediate vicinity of the catalytic zinc ion, but differs in the region of the nearby alpha-helical "130's segment." The structure of the CA XII-acetazolamide complex is also reported at 1.50-A resolution, and prospects for the design of CA XII-specific inhibitors of possible chemotherapeutic value are discussed.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2001; 98(17):9545-50. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbonic anhydrase XII (CA XII) is a transmembrane glycoprotein with an active extracellular CA domain that is overexpressed on cell surfaces of certain cancers. Its expression has been linked to tumor invasiveness. To characterize its catalytic properties, we purified recombinant secretory forms of wild-type and mutant CA XIIs. The catalytic properties of these enzymes in the hydration of CO(2) were measured at steady state by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and at chemical equilibrium by the exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and water determined by mass spectrometry. The catalysis of CO(2) hydration by soluble CA XII has a maximal value of k(cat)/K(m) at 34 microM(-1) small middle dots(-1), which is similar to those of the membrane-associated CA IV and to soluble CA I. The pH profiles of this catalysis and the catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylacetate indicate that the pK(a) of the zinc-bound water in CA XII is 7.1. His64 in CA XII acts as a proton shuttle residue, as evidenced by the reduced rate constant for proton transfer in the mutants containing the replacements His64 --> Ala and His64 --> Arg, as well as by the selective inhibition of the proton transfer step by cupric ions in wild-type CA XII. The catalytic rate of CO(2) hydration by the soluble form of CA XII is identical with that of the membrane-bound enzyme. These observations suggest a role for CA XII in CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) homeostasis in cells in which it is normally expressed. They are also compatible with a role for CA XII in acidifying the microenvironment of cancer cells in which CA XII is overexpressed, providing a mechanism for CA XII to augment tumor invasiveness and suggesting CA XII as a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2000; 97(26):14212-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutation of the Arabidopsis thaliana tRNA (Trp)(CCA) anticodon or of the A73 discriminator base greatly diminishes in vitro aminoacylation with tryptophan, indicating the importance of these nucleotides for recognition by the plant tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Mutation of the tRNA (Trp)(CCA) anticodon to CUA so as to translate amber nonsense codons permits tRNA (Trp)(CCA) to be aminoacylated by A.thaliana lysyl-tRNA synthetase. Thus, translational suppression by tRNA (TRP)(CCA) observed in plant cells includes significant incorporation of lysine into protein.
Nucleic Acids Research 12/1998; 26(22):5139-41. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nuclear tRNA(Lys) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was cloned and mutated so as to express tRNAs with altered anticodons which bind to a UAG nonsense (amber) codon and to the Arg (AGG), Asn (AAC,AAT), Gln (CAG) or Glu (GAG) codons. Concomitantly, a codon in the firefly luciferase gene for a functionally important Lys was altered to an amber codon, or to Arg, Asn, Gln, Glu, Thr and Trp codons, so as to construct reporter genes reliant upon incorporation of Lys. The altered tRNA(Lys) and luciferase genes were introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and expression of the mutated tRNAs was verified by translational suppression of the mutant firefly luciferase genes. Expression of the amber suppressor tRNA(LysCUA) from non-replicative vectors promoted 10-40% suppression of the luciferase nonsense reporters while expression of the amber and missense tRNA(Lys) suppressor genes from a geminivirus vector capable of replication promoted 30-80% suppression of the luciferase nonsense reporter and up to 10% suppression of the luciferase missense reporters with Arg, Asn, Gln and Glu codons.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prokaryotic tet operator (tetO) sequence was inserted at positions upstream and downstream of sequences encoding the Arabidopsis thaliana tRNA(Lys)AUC or tRNA(Trp)AUC suppressor tRNAs, and tRNA expression in carrot protoplasts was measured by translational suppression of a nonsense codon in a luciferase reporter gene. Regulation of tRNA expression by the tetracycline repressor (tetR) occurred from genes with the tetO inserted at position -1 (for the tRNA(Trp)AUC gene), or at positions -2, -6 and -10 (for the tRNA(Lys)AUC gene), and repression reached 90%. The inducer tetracycline (Tc) restored tRNA expression. Similarly, carrot protoplasts transfected with human tRNA(Ser)AUC genes containing the lac operator (lacO) in their 5'-flanking sequence with or without the lac repressor (lacI) gene, conditionally expressed tRNAs which suppressed the luciferase reporter. Up to 30-fold repression occurred by the lactose repressor when lacO was located at position -1 of the tRNA(Ser)AUC coding sequence. In the presence of the inducer isopropyl-beta-thiogalactoside (IPTG), repression was relieved. These results demonstrate that sequences flanking tRNA genes can strongly influence tRNA expression in plants, and in a conditional fashion when bound by inducible proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have isolated the majority (seven) of the tRNA(Trp) genes of Arabidopsis and have studied the 5' and 3' flanking sequence requirements for their efficient expression in vivo by using an assay requiring translational suppression of the luciferase reporter gene. The expressed tRNA(Trp) genes contain no highly conserved 5' flanking sequences; however, these sequences are distinctly AT rich, contain several possible TATA elements, and are bound in vitro by recombinant plant TATA binding protein. Replacement of the natural 5' flanking sequences with three different sequences lacking TATA elements reduced expression in vivo up to 10-fold; the same effect was observed when the TATA elements of the natural 5' sequences were inactivated by point mutations. Introduction of a single TATA element from the adenovirus major late promoter into an artificial 5' flanking region of the tRNA(Trp) gene enhanced expression in vivo when the TATA element was placed at position -32 relative to the first nucleotide of the mature tRNA sequence, but not when it was placed at position -24. Primer extension analyses of in vitro transcripts revealed that the position of the TATA element helps dictate the start site of transcription. Efficient expression of the tRNA genes in vivo also required 3' flanking sequences capable of terminating transcription.
The Plant Cell 11/1995; 7(10):1723-34. · 9.25 Impact Factor