[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computational models of cardiac electromechanics (EM) are increasingly being applied to clinical problems, with patient-specific models being generated from high fidelity imaging and used to simulate patient physiology, pathophysiology and response to treatment. Current structured meshes are limited in their ability to fully represent the detailed anatomical data available from clinical images and capture complex and varied anatomy with limited geometric accuracy. In this paper, we review the state of the art in image-based personalization of cardiac anatomy for biophysically detailed, strongly coupled EM modeling, and present our own tools for the automatic building of anatomically and structurally accurate patient-specific models. Our method relies on using high resolution unstructured meshes for discretizing both physics, electrophysiology and mechanics, in combination with efficient, strongly scalable solvers necessary to deal with the computational load imposed by the large number of degrees of freedom of these meshes. These tools permit automated anatomical model generation and strongly coupled EM simulations at an unprecedented level of anatomical and biophysical detail.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10439-015-1474-5 · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coarctation of the aorta (CoA), a local narrowing of the aortic arch, accounts for 7 % of all congenital heart defects. Stenting is a recommended therapy to reduce the pressure gradient. This procedure is associated with complications such as the development of adverse flow conditions. A computer-aided treatment planning based on flow simulations can help to predict possible complications. The virtual stent planning is an important, intermediate step in the treatment planning pipeline. We present a novel approach that automatically suggests a stent setup and provides a set of intuitive parameters that allow for an interactive adaption of the suggested stent placement and induced deformation.
A high-quality mesh and a centerline are automatically generated. The stent-induced deformation is realized through a deformation of the centerline and a vertex displacement with respect to the deformed centerline and additional stent parameters. The parameterization is automatically derived from the underlying data and can be optionally altered through a condensed set of clinically sound parameters.
The automatic deformation can be generated in about 25 s on a consumer system. The interactive adaption can be performed in real time. Compared with manual expert reconstructions of the stented vessel section, the mean difference of vessel path and diameter is below 1 mm.
Our approach enables a medical user to easily generate a plausibly deformed vessel mesh which is necessary as input for a simulation-based treatment planning of CoA.
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11548-015-1220-3 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The role of intracardiac blood flow behavior within the context of manifestation and interventional success in patients with mitral regurgitation is unknown to date. The present study aims to assess left ventricular blood flow behavior characterized by kinetic energy (KE) in patients with mitral regurgitation before and after mitral valve surgery.Methods
Patients with mitral regurgitation (mean age 56 ± 9 years) and the necessity for mitral valve repair (n = 6) or biological valve replacement (n = 4) received cardiac magnetic resonance before and after surgery and were compared with a group of healthy volunteers (n = 7; mean age 27 ± 7 years). Volumetric data and KE of the left ventricle were obtained for all subjects. KE normalized and nonnormalized to volume was calculated from four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging. Mean KE and KE peaks (systolic, early-diastolic and late diastolic), and end-systolic phase duration were considered.ResultsEnd-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volume were significantly higher in patients with mitral regurgitation than in healthy volunteers (P = 0.00, 0.01, and 0.00, respectively) and decreased significantly after surgery (P = 0.00, 0.01, and 0.00, respectively). A significant postoperative decrease of mean KE, systolic and early-diastolic KE peaks was observed (P = 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively). Late-diastolic KE peak remained high in postoperative patients (P = 0.58).Conclusion
Intracardiac blood flow as characterized by measurements of KE is altered in patients with mitral regurgitation. Physiological flow conditions appear to not fully be restored with mitral valve surgery. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24926 · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with CHD, cardiac MRI is often indicated for functional and anatomical assessment. With the recent introduction of MRI-conditional pacemaker systems, cardiac MRI has become accessible for patients with pacemakers. The present clinical study aims to evaluate safety, susceptibility artefacts, and image reading of cardiac MRI in patients with CHD and MRI-conditional pacemaker systems. Material and methods CHD patients with MRI-conditional pacemaker systems and a clinical need for cardiac MRI were examined with a 1.5-T MRI system. Lead function was tested before and after MRI. Artefacts and image readings were evaluated using a four-point grading scale.
A total of nine patients with CHD (mean age 34.0 years, range 19.5-53.6 years) received a total of 11 cardiac MRI examinations. Owing to clinical indications, seven patients had previously been converted from conventional to MRI-conditional pacemaker systems. All MRI examinations were completed without adverse effects. Device testing immediately after MRI and at follow-up showed no alteration of pacemaker device and lead function. Clinical questions could be addressed and answered in all patients.
Cardiac MRI can be performed safely with high certainty of diagnosis in CHD patients with MRI-conditional pacemaker systems. In case of clinically indicated lead and box changing, CHD patients with non-MRI-conditional pacemaker systems should be considered for complete conversion to MRI-conditional systems.
Cardiology in the Young 02/2015; -1:1-9. DOI:10.1017/S1047951115000190 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current models for real time study of the effects of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion have major limitations and confounders. Confounders include the surgical stresses of a thoracotomy and abnormal physiology of an open chest. The need to reposition the animal interferes with the study of the early changes associated with ischemia. Direct comparison of pre-ischemia and post-ischemia images is then difficult. We developed a novel “closed chest” model of ischemia/reperfusion to overcome these issues. Following thoracotomy, we sutured a balloon occluder to the left coronary artery of male Sprague–Dawley rats. We used both visual inspection and ECG to assess for successful occlusion and reperfusion of the coronary artery at the time of operation by brief inflation and deflation of the balloon. The tubing was then placed under the skin and the incision closed. Following a recovery period (5–10 days), the animals underwent MRI. We performed baseline assessment of left ventricle function, and repeated LV measurement during a 15-min coronary occlusion and again during a 60-min reperfusion period following reopening of the coronary artery. The occluder was successfully placed in 40 of 44 animals. Four developed intraoperative complications; two large myocardial infarction, two terminal bleeding. Six died in the week following surgery, [four sudden deaths (presumed arrhythmic), one anterior infarction, one sepsis]. Cine-MRI demonstrated localised hypokinesia in 31 of the remaining 34 animals. LV ejection fraction (EF) was reduced from 63 ± 7 % at baseline, to 49 ± 9 % during coronary occlusion. LV EF recovered to 61 ± 2 %. The area at risk on staining of the heart was 41.9 ± 15.8 %. This method allows the effects of ischemia/reperfusion to be studied before, during, and after coronary occlusion. Ischemia can be caused while the animal is in the MRI. This new and clinically relevant small animal model is a valuable tool to study the effects of single or repeated coronary occlusion/reperfusion in real-time.
The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 10/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1007/s10554-014-0539-0 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pressure drop associated with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) can be successfully treated surgically or by stent placement. However, a decreased life expectancy associated with altered aortic hemodynamics was found in long-term studies. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is intended to support particular diagnoses, to help in choosing between treatment options, and to improve performance of treatment procedures. This study aimed to prove the ability of CFD to improve aortic hemodynamics in CoA patients. In 13 patients (6 males, 7 females; mean age 25 ± 14 years), we compared pre- and post-treatment peak systole hemodynamics [pressure drops and wall shear stress (WSS)] vs. virtual treatment as proposed by biomedical engineers. Anatomy and flow data for CFD were based on MRI and angiography. Segmentation, geometry reconstruction and virtual treatment geometry were performed using the software ZIBAmira, whereas peak systole flow conditions were simulated with the software ANSYS(®) Fluent(®). Virtual treatment significantly reduced pressure drop compared to post-treatment values by a mean of 2.8 ± 3.15 mmHg, which significantly reduced mean WSS by 3.8 Pa. Thus, CFD has the potential to improve post-treatment hemodynamics associated with poor long-term prognosis of patients with coarctation of the aorta. MRI-based CFD has a huge potential to allow the slight reduction of post-treatment pressure drop, which causes significant improvement (reduction) of the WSS at the stenosis segment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared pressure fields by 4-dimensional (4D), velocity-encoded cine (VEC) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with pressures measured by the clinical gold standard catheterization. Thirteen patients (n = 7 male, n = 6 female) with coarctation were studied. The 4D-VEC-CMR pressure fields were computed by solving the Pressure-Poisson equation. The agreement between catheterization and CMR-based methods was determined at 5 different measurement sites along the aorta. For all sites, the correlation coefficients between measures varied between 0.86 and 0.97 (p < 0.001). The Bland-Altman test showed good agreement between peak systolic pressure gradients across the coarctation. The nonsignificant (p > 0.2) bias was +2.3 mm Hg (± 6.4 mm Hg, 2 SDs) for calibration with dynamic pressures and +1.5 mm Hg (± 4.6 mm Hg, 2 SDs) for calibration with static pressure. In a clinical setting of coarctation, pressure fields can be accurately computed from 4D-VEC-CMR–derived flows. In patients with coarctation, this noninvasive technique might evolve to an alternative to invasive catheterization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strongly evolving imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays provide a multitude of new complementary techniques for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue properties, function, and hemodynamics. The purpose of the presented work is to provide a research tool, which enables a quick validation of newly developed imaging techniques and supports the co-development of clinically usable analysis tools, which allow an integration with existing complementary examination methods. The concepts combined to this end consist of an integration with the open source research PACS OsiriX, an advanced heuristic DICOM classification and preprocessing as well as an integrative data model, which accumulates patient-specific image data, results and the data relations. Specific processing and analysis plugins can easily be integrated in such a way that they use the data integration and visualization infrastructure as well as results from other existing plugins. The presented example applications, such as the evaluation of slice orientations for cardiac function quantification or the integrated analysis of different types of image data for diagnosis of myocarditis show that the provided tool can be successfully used for a multitude of research applications in cardiovascular imaging.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 02/2014; 9039. DOI:10.1117/12.2043735 · 0.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unique feature of cardiac magnetic resonance is its ability to characterize myocardium. Proton relaxation times, T1, T2, and T2* are a reflection of the composition of individual tissues, and change in the presence of disease. Research into T1 mapping has largely been focused in the study of cardiomyopathies, but T1 mapping also shows huge potential in the study of ischaemic heart disease. In fact, the first cardiac T1 maps were used to characterize myocardial infarction. Robust high-resolution myocardial T1 mapping is now available for use as a clinical tool. This quantitative technique is simple to perform and analyse, minimally subjective, and highly reproducible. This review aims to summarize the present state of research on the topic, and to show the clinical potential of this method to aid the diagnosis and treatment of patients with ischaemic heart disease.