Loïc Van Den Berghe

Institut de France, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (20)96.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic drugs slow tumor progression and dissemination. However, an important difficulty is that tumor reacts and compensates to obtain the blood supply needed for tumor growth and lymphatic vessels to escape to distant loci. Therefore, there is a growing consensus on the requirement of multiple anti-(lymph)angiogenic molecules to stop cell invasion efficiently. Here we studied the cooperation between endogenous anti-angiogenic molecules, endostatin and fibstatin, and a chemokine, the Platelet Factor-4 variant 1, CXCL4L1. Anti-angiogenic factors were co-expressed by IRES-based bicistronic vectors and their cooperation was analyzed either by local delivery following transduction of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells with lentivectors, or by distant delivery resulting from intramuscular administration in vivo of adeno-associated virus derived vectors followed by tumor subcutaneous injection. In this study, fibstatin and CXCL4L1 cooperate to inhibit endothelial cells proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis in vitro. No synergistic effect was found for fibstatin-endostatin combination. Importantly, we demonstrated for the first time that fibstatin and CXCL4L1 not only inhibit in vivo angiogenesis, but also lymphangiogenesis and tumor spread to the lymph nodes, whereas no beneficial effect was found on tumor growth inhibition using molecules combinations compared to molecule alone. These data reveal the synergy of CXCL4L1 and fibstatin in inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis and highlight the potential of IRES-based vectors to develop anti-metastasis combined gene therapies.
    Microvascular Research 06/2013; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tumour suppressor p53, involved in DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, also inhibits blood vessel formation, that is, angiogenesis, a process strongly contributing to tumour development. The p53 gene expresses 12 different proteins (isoforms), including TAp53 (p53 (or p53α), p53β and p53γ) and Δ133p53 isoforms (Δ133p53α, Δ133p53β and Δ133p53γ). The Δ133p53α isoform was shown to modulate p53 transcriptional activity and is overexpressed in various human tumours. However, its role in tumour progression is still unexplored. In the present study, we examined the involvement of Δ133p53 isoforms in tumoural angiogenesis and tumour growth in the highly angiogenic human glioblastoma U87. Our data show that conditioned media from U87 cells depleted for Δ133p53 isoforms block endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis without affecting endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. The Δ133p53 depletion in U2OS osteosarcoma cells resulted in a similar angiogenesis blockade. Furthermore, using conditioned media from U87 cells ectopically expressing each Δ133p53 isoform, we determined that Δ133p53α and Δ133p53γ but not Δ133p53β, stimulate angiogenesis. Our in vivo data using the chicken chorio-allantoic membrane and mice xenografts establish that angiogenesis and growth of glioblastoma U87 tumours are inhibited upon depletion of Δ133p53 isoforms. By TaqMan low-density array, we show that alteration of expression ratio of Δ133p53 and TAp53 isoforms differentially regulates angiogenic gene expression with Δ133p53 isoforms inducing pro-angiogenic gene expression and repressing anti-angiogenic gene expression.Oncogene advance online publication, 25 June 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.242.
    Oncogene 06/2012; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of an adequate conventional therapy against lower limb ischemia, gene transfer for therapeutic angiogenesis is seen as an attractive alternative. However, the possibility of side effects, due to the expression of large amounts of angiogenic factors, justifies the design of devices that express synergistic molecules in low controlled doses. We have developed an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-based bicistronic vector expressing two angiogenic molecules, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and Cyr61. Through electrotransfer into the ApoE(-/-) mice hindlimb ischemic muscle model, we show that the IRES-based vector gives more stable expression than either monocistronic plasmid. Furthermore, laser Doppler analysis, arteriography, and immunochemistry clearly show that the bicistronic vector promotes a more abundant and functional revascularization than the monocistronic vectors, despite the fact that the bicistronic system produces 5-10 times less of each angiogenic molecule. Furthermore, although the monocistronic Cyr61 vector accelerates B16 melanoma growth in mice, the bicistronic vector is devoid of such side effects. Our results show an active cooperation of FGF2 and Cyr61 in therapeutic angiogenesis of hindlimb ischemia, and validate the use of IRES-based bicistronic vectors for the coexpression of controlled low doses of therapeutic molecules, providing perspectives for a safer gene therapy of lower limb ischemia.
    Molecular Therapy 10/2009; 17(12):2010-9. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IRESs (internal ribosome entry sites) are RNA elements behaving as translational enhancers in conditions of global translation blockade. IRESs are also useful in biotechnological applications as they allow expression of several genes from a single mRNA. Up to now, most IRES-containing vectors use the IRES from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), highly active in transiently transfected cells but long and not flexible in its positioning relative to the gene of interest. In contrast, several IRESs identified in cellular mRNAs are short and flexible and may therefore be advantageous in gene transfer vectors such as those derived from the adeno-associated virus (AAV), where the size of the transgene expression cassette is limited. Here, we have tested bicistronic AAV-derived vectors expressing two luciferase genes separated by the EMCV- or fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) IRES. We demonstrate that the AAV vector with the FGF-1 IRES, when administrated into the mouse muscle, leads to efficient expression of both transgenes with a stable stoechiometry, for at least 120 days. Interestingly, the bicistronic mRNA containing the FGF-1 IRES leads to transgene expression 10 times superior to that observed with EMCV, in vivo. AAV vectors featuring the FGF-1 IRES may thus be advantageous for gene therapy approaches in skeletal muscle involving coexpression of genes of interest.
    Gene therapy 09/2008; 15(15):1090-8. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrotransfer of plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the delivery of therapeutic molecules targeting various muscular diseases, cancer and lower-limb ischemia. Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESs) allow co-expression of proteins of interest from a single transcriptional unit. IRESs are RNA elements that have been found in viral RNAs as well as a variety of cellular mRNAs with long 5' untranslated regions. While the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRES is often used in expression vectors, we have shown that the FGF-1 IRES is equally active to drive short term transgene expression in mouse muscle. To compare the ability of the FGF-1 IRES to drive long term expression against the EMCV and FGF-2 IRESs, we performed analyses of expression kinetics using bicistronic vectors that express the bioluminescent renilla and firefly luciferase reporter genes. Long term expression of bicistronic vectors was also compared to that of monocistronic vectors. Bioluminescence was quantified ex vivo using a luminometer and in vivo using a CCD camera that monitors luminescence within live animals. Our data demonstrate that the efficiency of the FGF-1 IRES is comparable to that of the EMCV IRES for long term expression of bicistronic transgenes in mouse muscle, whereas the FGF-2 IRES has a very poor activity. Interestingly, we show that despite the global decrease of vector expression over time, the ratio of firefly to renilla luciferase remains stable with bicistronic vectors containing the FGF-1 or FGF-2 IRES and is slightly affected with the EMCV IRES, whereas it is clearly unstable for mixed monocistronic vectors. In addition, long term expression more drastically decreases with monocistronic vectors, and is different for single or mixed vector injection. These data validate the use of bicistronic vectors rather than mixed monocistronic vectors for long term expression, and support the use of the FGF-1 IRES. The use of a cellular IRES over one of viral origin is of particular interest in the goal of eliminating viral sequences from transgenic vectors. In addition, the FGF-1 IRES, compared to the EMCV IRES, has a more stable activity, is shorter in length and more flexible in terms of downstream cloning of second cistrons. Finally, the FGF-1 IRES is very attractive to develop multicistronic expression cassettes for gene transfer in mouse muscle.
    BMC Biotechnology 02/2007; 7:74. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By using the two-hybrid system with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) as bait, we isolated and characterized fibstatin, an endogenous M(r) 29,000 human basement membrane-derived inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Fibstatin, a fragment containing the type III domains 12-14 of fibronectin, was produced as a recombinant protein and was shown to inhibit the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells in vitro. Antiangiogenic activity of fibstatin was confirmed in a Matrigel angiogenesis assay in vivo, and electrotransfer of the fibstatin gene into muscle tissue resulted in reduced B16F10 tumor growth. Taken together, these results suggest that fibstatin could act as a powerful molecule for antiangiogenic therapy.
    Cancer Research 11/2004; 64(20):7507-12. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify proteins secreted by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and to analyze their cellular distribution in normal and pathologic rat retinas at various stages of eye development. A cDNA library was constructed with RNA isolated from porcine RPE sheets and screened by using the yeast signal sequence trap system. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis were performed on rat retinas. The cDNA encoding prosaposin was isolated. This is the first time this gene has been shown to be expressed in the retina. Prosaposin mRNA was detected in the rat RPE cell monolayer and in ganglion cells 14, 21, and 45 days after birth. The amount of prosaposin mRNA increased between days 14 and 45 after birth in normal retinas (rdy+), but not in the pathologic retinas (rdy-) of RCS rats. Several techniques were used to determine the localization of prosaposin in rat retinas. The increase in the amount of prosaposin mRNA in normal retinas coincided with the maturation of photoreceptor cells and the beginning of the phagocytosis process. In addition, the RCS rdy- RPE cells, characterized by the abrogation of the ingestion phase of the photoreceptor outer segments, are deficient in prosaposin expression.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 06/2004; 45(5):1297-305. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to understand the development of the normal retinal vascular system, because it may provide clues for understanding the mechanisms underlying the neovascularization associated with several retinopathies of infancy and adulthood. However, little is known about normal human ocular vascularization. VEGF is a key growth factor during vascular development and one of its receptors, KDR, plays a pivotal role in endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to analyze VEGF and KDR gene expression patterns during the development of the human eye during the embryonic and fetal stages. The gene expression of VEGF and KDR was analyzed by in situ hybridization in 7-week-old embryos and in 10- and 18-week-old fetuses. In addition, we performed VEGF and KDR immunohistochemistry experiments on 18-week-old fetus tissue sections. These results clearly demonstrated that the levels of VEGF and KDR transcripts are correlated during the normal development of the ocular vasculature in humans. The complementarity between the patterns of VEGF and KDR during the early stages of development suggests that VEGF-KDR interactions play a major role in the formation and regression of the hyaloid vascular system (HVS) and in the development of the choriocapillaris. In later stages (i.e., 18-weeks-old fetuses), the expression of KDR seems to be linked to the development of the retinal vascular system. VEGF and KDR transcripts were unexpectedly detected in some nonvascular tissues-that is, in the cornea and in the retina before the development of the retinal vascular system. The expression of VEGF and KDR correlates highly with the normal ocular vascularization in humans, but VEGF may also be necessary for nonvascular retinal developmental functions, especially for the coordination of neural retinal development and the preliminary steps of the establishment of the definitive stable retinal vasculature.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 02/2004; 45(1):7-14. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity are among the leading causes of vision impairment throughout the world. Both diseases are characterized by pathological angiogenesis, which severely impairs vision. Extracellular proteinases play important roles in endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis. Amino-terminal fragment (ATF) is an angiostatic molecule that targets the uPA/uPAR system and inhibits endothelial cell migration. The angiostatic effect of ATF has been demonstrated in models of cancer, but has never been assessed in pathological retinal neovascularization. Endostatin also has angiostatic effects on tumor growth and retinal neovascularization. We used an adenoviral vector carrying the murine ATF (AdATFHSA) or endostatin gene coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) (AdEndoHSA) to increase the half-life of the therapeutic protein in the circulation. We induced retinopathy by exposing 7-day-old mice to high levels of oxygen. They were intravitreally injected with the vectors. Local injection of AdATFHSA or AdEndoHSA reduced retinal neovascularization by 78.1 and 79.2%, respectively. Thus, the adenovirus-mediated delivery of ATFHSA or EndoHSA reduces retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced neovascularization.
    Gene Therapy 01/2004; 10(25):2098-103. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shed photoreceptor outer segments (POS) are phagocytosed by RPE cells in a circadian manner. The homozygous deletion of the c-mer gene abolishes the ingestion phase of this phagocytosis in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat strain, which in turn leads to the death of photoreceptor cells. We identified RPE transcripts for which the expression is modulated by the abrogation of POS phagocytosis. A microarray approach and the differential display (DDRT-PCR) technique revealed 116 modulated known genes, 4 modulated unknown genes, and 15 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) corresponding to unknown genes. The microarray and DDRT-PCR analyses detected alterations in signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway and the DLK/JNK/SAPK pathway. The abrogation of POS phagocytosis caused a decrease in endomembrane biogenesis and altered endocytosis, exocytosis, transcytosis, and several metabolic and signaling pathways in RCS RPE cells. We also found differential levels of transcripts encoding proteins involved in phagocytosis, vesicle trafficking, the cytoskeleton, retinoic acid, and general metabolism.
    Neurobiology of Disease 11/2003; 14(2):166-80. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) exerts its pleiotropic activities both as an exogenous and an intracellular factor. FGF-1 and FGF-2 are prototypes for this dual signalling, but the mechanisms of their intracellular actions remain unknown. Here we show that Translokin, a cytoplasmic protein of relative molecular mass 55,000 (M(r) 55K), interacts specifically with the 18K form of FGF-2. Translokin is ubiquitously expressed and colocalizes with the microtubular network. As Translokin does not interact with FGF-1, we used a strategy based on FGF-1-FGF-2 chimaeras to map the interacting regions in FGF-2 and to generate Nb1a2, a non-interacting variant of FGF-2. Although most of the FGF-2 properties are preserved in Nb1a2, this variant is defective in intracellular translocation and in stimulating proliferation. The fusion of a nuclear localization signal to Nb1a2 restores its mitogenic activity and its nuclear association. Inhibiting Translokin expression by RNA interference reduces the translocation of FGF-2 without affecting the intracellular trafficking of FGF-1. Our data show that the nuclear association of internalized FGF-2 is essential for its mitogenic activity and that Translokin is important in this translocation pathway.
    Nature Cell Biology 06/2003; 5(5):433-9. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of neonatal congenital lactic acidosis associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase E3-binding protein deficiency in a newborn girl. She had a severe encephalopathy, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed large subependymal cysts and no basal ganglia lesions. She died 35 days after birth. We detected a novel homozygous deletion (620delC) in the PDX1 gene, which encodes for the E3BP subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
    Annals of Neurology 03/2003; 53(2):273-7. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins are a family of cell surface molecules that mediate the attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM). These alphabeta heterodimers are involved in many biological processes. We used northern blotting and in situ hybridization to study the pattern of beta3 integrin gene expression during mouse embryogenesis. Northern blotting detected two species of beta3 mRNA from 7 to 17 days post coitum (dpc). These transcripts were abundant in the adult testis, kidney, liver, spleen, and heart. In situ hybridization experiments detected high levels of beta3 in the major haematopoietic and lymphoid organs: yolk sac, liver, and thymus. Moreover, beta3 transcripts were also detected in the vascular system, where beta3 integrin probably plays a key role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We also detected a hybridization signal in the gut, the bronchioles of the lungs, and the bladder wall. beta3 transcripts were also present in the medullary regions of the adrenal glands and in the developing skeleton. Our study shows that beta3 gene expression is not restricted to the liver and gut during mouse development. We also detected beta3 integrin mRNA in the yolk sac, vessels, lung, bladder, and developing bones. Our data suggest that beta3 integrin plays a key role in many important physiological processes like haematopoiesis, angiogenesis, phagocytosis, and bone resorption.
    Cell Communication & Adhesion 01/2003; 10(3):129-40. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The alpha v beta (alpha(v)beta5) heterodimer has been implicated in many biological functions, including angiogenesis. We report the beta5 gene expression pattern in embryonic and foetal mouse tissues as determined by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. During the earliest stages, beta5 mRNA is widespread in the mesoderm. During later developmental stages, it remains mostly confined to tissues of mesodermal origin, although probable inductive effects trigger shifts of beta5 gene expression from some mesenchymatous to epithelial structures. This was observed in the teeth, skin, kidneys, and gut. Of physiological importance is the beta5 labeling in the developing cardiovascular and respiratory systems and cartilages. Furthermore, early beta5 gene expression was observed within the intra- and extraembryonic sites of hematopoiesis. This suggests a major role for beta5 in the hematopoietic and angiogenic stem cells and thus in the development of the vascular system. Later, the beta5 gene was expressed in endothelial cells of the vessels developing both by angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the lung, heart, and kidneys. Moreover, the beta5 hybridization signal was detected in developing cartilages but not in ossified or ossifying bones. beta5-Integrin is a key integrin involved in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, hematopoiesis, and bone formation.
    Cell Communication & Adhesion 02/2001; 8(3):99-112. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous evidence indicates that some of the activities of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) depend on an intracrine mode of action. Recently, we showed that three high molecular mass (HMM) nuclear forms of FGF-2 are part of a 320-kDa protein complex while the cytoplasmic AUG-initiated form is included in a 130-kDa complex. Consequently, the characterization of FGF endogenous targets has become crucial to allow the elucidation of their endogenous activities. Through the screening of GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid expression libraries, we have isolated a gene encoding a nuclear protein of 55 kDa, FIF (FGF-2-interacting-factor), which interacts specifically with FGF-2 but not with FGF-1, FGF-3, or FGF-6. In this system, FIF interacts equally well with the NH2-extended 24-kDa FGF form as with the 18-kDa form, indicating that the FIF-binding motif is located in the last 155 amino acids of FGF-2. Nevertheless, coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed an exclusive association with HMM FGF-2. The predicted protein contains a canonical leucine zipper domain and three overlapping hydrophobic heptad repeats. The region spanning these repeats is, together with a region located in the N-terminal part of the FIF protein, implicated in the binding to FGF-2. In contrast to the full-length FIF protein, several deletion constructs were able to transactivate a lac-Z reporter gene. Furthermore, the COOH-terminal part, but not the full-length FIF protein, has previously been shown to exhibit antiapoptotic properties. Thus we discuss the possibility that these activities could reflect a physiological function of FIF through its interaction with FGF-2.
    Molecular Endocrinology 12/2000; 14(11):1709-24. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the K8/JTS-1-mediated transfection technique, we developed an in vivo protocol for an efficient transfer of plasmid DNA to ocular cells. As determined with condensed plasmids containing reporter genes for either beta-galactosidase (pcDNA-lacZ) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (pREP-EGFP), the immortalized human retinal epithelial cells RPE D407 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells can be transfected with typical efficiencies of 11 and 19%, respectively. Unlike 293 cells, RPE D407 cells had a reduced viability on transfection with both plasmids. In vivo, subretinal injections of DNA-K8/JTS-1 complexes revealed reporter gene expression in choroidal and RPE cells of normal pink-eyed Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. The validity of this transfection technique in terms of retinal cell survival in RCS rats was then examined by using pREP-hFGF2 plasmid, which encodes the human basic fibroblast growth factor isoforms (hFGF2). Subretinal injection of pREP-hFGF2-K8/JTS-1 complexes into 3-week-old dystrophic RCS rat eyes reveals a delayed photoreceptor cell degeneration 60 days postinjection. In this case, the average analyzed field points with delayed cell dystrophy represent 14 to 17% of the retinal surface as compared with 2.6 and 4% in pREP5beta and vehicle-injected eyes, respectively. Peptide-mediated in oculo transfection thus appears to be a promising technique for the treatment of retinal cell and photoreceptor degenerations.
    Human Gene Therapy 10/2000; 11(13):1875-90. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    Molecular Endocrinology - MOL ENDOCRINOL. 01/2000; 14(11):1709-1724.
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    ABSTRACT: Dimerization is a prerequisite for many growth factors in their receptor activation leading to cellular response. FGF-1 and FGF-2, members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family, were shown to form non-covalent dimers and oligomers in vitro. Using the two-hybrid system as an in vivo binding assay we show here that of three representative members of the FGF family, only FGF-2 is able to homodimerize. Moreover the FGF-2 isoforms could heterodimerize. Two single-point mutants (T121F and W123R), defective in their dimerization capability, were isolated through random mutagenesis and were used to study the role of FGF-2 dimerization with regard to its biological activity. Remarkably, these mutant proteins were still able to induce cell differentiation, but were strongly affected in their capacity to promote cell proliferation. This study thus highlights the uncoupling between proliferation and differentiation FGF-2 signaling pathways and the crucial role of FGF-2 dimerization in the mitogenic activity of this factor.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/1998; 252(2):420-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

243 Citations
96.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000
    • Institut de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      • Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire Eucaryote - UMR 5099 - LBME
      Toulouse, Midi-Pyrenees, France