[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ebolaviruses are highly lethal filoviruses that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. With no approved treatments or preventatives, the development of an anti-ebolavirus therapy to protect against natural infections and potential weaponization is an urgent global health need. Here, we describe the design, biophysical characterization, and validation of peptide mimics of the ebolavirus N-trimer, a highly conserved region of the GP2 fusion protein, to be used as targets to develop broad-spectrum inhibitors of ebolavirus entry. The N-trimer region of GP2 is 90% identical across all ebolavirus species and forms a critical part of the prehairpin intermediate that is exposed during viral entry. Specifically, we fused designed coiled coils to the N-trimer to present it as a soluble trimeric coiled coil as it appears during membrane fusion. Circular dichroism, sedimentation equilibrium and x-ray crystallography analyses reveal the helical, trimeric structure of the designed N-trimer mimic targets. Surface plasmon resonance studies validate that the N-trimer mimic binds its native ligand, the C-peptide region of GP2. The longest N-trimer mimic also inhibits virus entry, thereby confirming binding of the C-peptide region during viral entry and the presence of a vulnerable prehairpin intermediate. Using phage display as a model system, we validate the suitability of the N-trimer mimics as drug screening targets. Finally, we describe the foundational work to use the N-trimer mimics as targets in mirror-image phage display, which will be used to identify D-peptide inhibitors of ebolavirus entry.
Protein Science 10/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1002/pro.2578 · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and lipolytic release of lipid second messengers. As fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Herein, we demonstrate yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP), is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation wherein Sfh3, and select other LD proteins, redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data report Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism, and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and phosphoinositide) biology that are invisible to contemporary haploid-centric cell biological, proteomic and functional genomics approaches.
Molecular biology of the cell 01/2014; 25(5). DOI:10.1091/mbc.E13-11-0634 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular ESCRT pathway drives membrane constriction toward the cytosol and effects membrane fission during cytokinesis, endosomal sorting, and the release of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. A component of this pathway, the AAA ATPase Vps4, provides energy for pathway progression. Although it is established that Vps4 functions as an oligomer, subunit stoichiometry and other fundamental features of the functional enzyme are unclear. Higher-order oligomers have thus far only been characterized for a Walker B mutant of Vps4 in the presence of ATP. Here, we report that although some mutant Vps4 proteins form dodecameric assemblies, active wild-type S. cerevisiae and S. solfataricus Vps4 enzymes can form hexamers in the presence of ATP and ADP, as assayed by size exclusion chromatography and equilibrium analytical ultracentifugation. The Vta1p activator binds hexameric yeast Vps4p without changing the oligomeric state of Vps4p, implying that the active Vta1p:Vps4p complex also contains a single hexameric ring. Additionally, we report crystal structures of two different archaeal Vps4 homologs, whose structures and lattice interactions suggest a conserved mode of oligomerization. Disruption of the proposed hexamerization interface by mutagenesis abolished the ATPase activity of archaeal Vps4 proteins and blocked Vps4p function in S. cerevisiae. These data challenge the prevailing model that active Vps4 is a double ring dodecamer, and argue that, like other type I AAA ATPases, Vps4 functions as a single ring with six subunits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial fission is mediated by the dynamin-related GTPases Dnm1/Drp1 (yeast/mammals), which form spirals around constricted sites on mitochondria. Additional membrane-associated adaptor proteins (Fis1, Mdv1, Mff, and MiDs) are required to recruit these GTPases from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface. Whether these adaptors participate in both GTPase recruitment and membrane scission is not known. Here we use a yeast strain lacking all fission proteins to identify the minimal combinations of GTPases and adaptors sufficient for mitochondrial fission. Although Fis1 is dispensable for fission, membrane-anchored Mdv1, Mff, or MiDs paired individually with their respective GTPases are sufficient to divide mitochondria. In addition to their role in Drp1 membrane recruitment, MiDs coassemble with Drp1 in vitro. The resulting heteropolymer adopts a dramatically different structure with a narrower diameter than Drp1 homopolymers assembled in isolation. This result demonstrates that an adaptor protein alters the architecture of a mitochondrial dynamin GTPase polymer in a manner that could facilitate membrane constriction and severing activity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; 110(15). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1300855110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes a protease-mediated maturation process that is required for its infectivity. Little is known about how the physical properties of viral particles change during maturation and how these changes affect the viral lifecycle. Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we previously discovered that HIV undergoes a “stiffness switch”, a dramatic reduction in particle stiffness during maturation that is mediated by the viral Envelope (Env) protein.
In this study, we show that transmembrane-anchored Env cytoplasmic tail (CT) domain is sufficient to regulate the particle stiffness of immature HIV-1. Using this construct expressed in trans with viral Env lacking the CT domain, we show that increasing particle stiffness reduces viral entry activity in immature virions. A similar effect was also observed for immature HIV-1 pseudovirions containing Env from vesicular stomatitis virus.
This linkage between particle stiffness and viral entry activity illustrates a novel level of regulation for viral replication, providing the first evidence for a biological role of virion physical properties and suggesting a new inhibitory strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 20S proteasome is an essential, 28-subunit protease that sequesters proteolytic sites within a central chamber, thereby
repressing substrate degradation until proteasome activators open the entrance/exit gate. Two established activators, Blm10
and PAN/19S, induce gate opening by binding to the pockets between proteasome α-subunits using C-terminal HbYX (hydrophobic-tyrosine-any residue) motifs. Equivalent HbYX motifs have been identified in Pba1 and Pba2, which function in proteasome assembly. Here, we demonstrate that Pba1-Pba2
proteins form a stable heterodimer that utilizes its HbYX motifs to bind mature 20S proteasomes in vitro and that the Pba1-Pba2 HbYX motifs are important for a physiological function of proteasomes, the maintenance of mitochondrial function. Other factors
that contribute to proteasome assembly or function also act in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and display complex
genetic interactions with one another, possibly revealing an unexpected pathway of mitochondrial regulation involving the
Pba1-Pba2 proteasome interaction. Our determination of a proteasome Pba1-Pba2 crystal structure reveals a Pba1 HbYX interaction that is superimposable with those of known activators, a Pba2 HbYX interaction that is different from those reported previously, and a gate structure that is disrupted but not sufficiently
open to allow entry of even small peptides. These findings extend understanding of proteasome interactions with HbYX motifs and suggest multiple roles for Pba1-Pba2 interactions throughout proteasome assembly and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly conserved HIV-1 gp41 "pocket" region is a promising target for inhibiting viral entry. PIE12-trimer is a protease-resistant trimeric d-peptide inhibitor that binds to this pocket and potently blocks HIV entry. PIE12-trimer also possesses a reserve of binding energy that provides it with a strong genetic barrier to resistance ("resistance capacitor"). Here, we report the design of a modular scaffold employing PEGs of discrete lengths for the efficient optimization and synthesis of PIE12-trimer. This scaffold also allows us to conjugate PIE12-trimer to several membrane-localizing cargoes, resulting in dramatically improved potency and retention of PIE12-trimer's ability to absorb the impact of resistance mutations. This scaffold design strategy should be of broad utility for the rapid prototyping of multimeric peptide inhibitors attached to potency- or pharmacokinetics-enhancing groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recruitment and assembly of some dynamin-related guanosine triphosphatases depends on adaptor proteins restricted to distinct cellular membranes. The yeast Mdv1 adaptor localizes to mitochondria by binding to the membrane protein Fis1. Subsequent Mdv1 binding to the mitochondrial dynamin Dnm1 stimulates Dnm1 assembly into spirals, which encircle and divide the mitochondrial compartment. In this study, we report that dimeric Mdv1 is joined at its center by a 92-Å antiparallel coiled coil (CC). Modeling of the Fis1-Mdv1 complex using available crystal structures suggests that the Mdv1 CC lies parallel to the bilayer with N termini at opposite ends bound to Fis1 and C-terminal β-propeller domains (Dnm1-binding sites) extending into the cytoplasm. A CC length of appropriate length and sequence is necessary for optimal Mdv1 interaction with Fis1 and Dnm1 and is important for proper Dnm1 assembly before membrane scission. Our results provide a framework for understanding how adaptors act as scaffolds to orient and stabilize the assembly of dynamins on membranes.
The Journal of Cell Biology 12/2010; 191(6):1127-39. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201005046 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV gp41 N-trimer pocket region is an ideal viral target because it is extracellular, highly conserved, and essential
for viral entry. Here, we report on the design of a pocket-specific d-peptide, PIE12-trimer, that is extraordinarily elusive to resistance and characterize its inhibitory and structural properties.
d-Peptides (peptides composed of d-amino acids) are promising therapeutic agents due to their insensitivity to protease degradation. PIE12-trimer was designed
using structure-guided mirror-image phage display and linker optimization and is the first d-peptide HIV entry inhibitor with the breadth and potency required for clinical use. PIE12-trimer has an ultrahigh affinity
for the gp41 pocket, providing it with a reserve of binding energy (resistance capacitor) that yields a dramatically improved
resistance profile compared to those of other fusion inhibitors. These results demonstrate that the gp41 pocket is an ideal
drug target and establish PIE12-trimer as a leading anti-HIV antiviral candidate.
Journal of Virology 11/2010; 84(21):11235-44. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01339-10 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses can be restricted by a host cellular protein called BST2/tetherin that prevents release of budded viruses from the cell surface. Mature BST2 contains a small cytosolic region, a predicted transmembrane helix, and an extracellular domain with a C-terminal GPI anchor. To advance understanding of BST2 function, we have determined a 2.6 Å crystal structure of the extracellular domain of the bacterially expressed recombinant human protein, residues 47-152, under reducing conditions. The structure forms a single long helix that associates as a parallel dimeric coiled coil over its C-terminal two-thirds, while the N-terminal third forms an antiparallel four-helix bundle with another dimer, creating a global tetramer. We also report the 3.45 Å resolution structure of BST2(51-151) prepared by expression as a secreted protein in HEK293T cells. This oxidized construct forms a dimer in the crystal that is superimposable with the reduced protein over the C-terminal two-thirds of the molecule, and its N terminus suggests pronounced flexibility. Hydrodynamic data demonstrated that BST2 formed a stable tetramer under reducing conditions and a dimer when oxidized to form disulfide bonds. A mutation that selectively disrupted the tetramer (L70D) increased protein expression modestly but only reduced antiviral activity by approximately threefold. Our data raise the possibility that BST2 may function as a tetramer at some stage, such as during trafficking, and strongly support a model in which the primary functional state of BST2 is a parallel disulfide-bound coiled coil that displays flexibility toward its N terminus.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2010; 107(42):17951-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1008206107 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) subunits cycle between two states: soluble monomers and higher-order assemblies that bind and remodel membranes during endosomal vesicle formation, midbody abscission and enveloped virus budding. Here we show that the N-terminal core domains of increased sodium tolerance-1 (IST1) and charged multivesicular body protein-3 (CHMP3) form equivalent four-helix bundles, revealing that IST1 is a previously unrecognized ESCRT-III family member. IST1 and its ESCRT-III binding partner, CHMP1B, both form higher-order helical structures in vitro, and IST1-CHMP1 interactions are required for abscission. The IST1 and CHMP3 structures also reveal that equivalent downstream alpha5 helices can fold back against the core domains. Mutations within the CHMP3 core-alpha5 interface stimulate the protein's in vitro assembly and HIV-inhibition activities, indicating that dissociation of the autoinhibitory alpha5 helix from the core activates ESCRT-III proteins for assembly at membranes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway functions in vesicle formation at the multivesicular body, the budding of enveloped RNA viruses such as HIV-1, and the final abscission stage of cytokinesis. As the only known enzyme in the ESCRT pathway, the AAA ATPase (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) Vps4 provides the energy required for multiple rounds of vesicle formation. Like other Vps4 proteins, yeast Vps4 cycles through two states: a catalytically inactive disassembled state that we show here is a dimer and a catalytically active higher-order assembly that we have modeled as a dodecamer composed of two stacked hexameric rings. We also report crystal structures of yeast Vps4 proteins in the apo- and ATPgammaS [adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)]-bound states. In both cases, Vps4 subunits assembled into continuous helices with 6-fold screw axes that are analogous to helices seen previously in other Vps4 crystal forms. The helices are stabilized by extensive interactions between the large and small AAA ATPase domains of adjacent Vps4 subunits, suggesting that these contact surfaces may be used to build both the catalytically active dodecamer and catalytically inactive dimer. Consistent with this model, we have identified interface mutants that specifically inhibit Vps4 dimerization, dodecamerization, or both. Thus, the Vps4 dimer and dodecamer likely form distinct but overlapping interfaces. Finally, our structural studies have allowed us to model the conformation of a conserved loop (pore loop 2) that is predicted to form an arginine-rich pore at the center of one of the Vps4 hexameric rings. Our mutational analyses demonstrate that pore loop 2 residues Arg241 and Arg251 are required for efficient HIV-1 budding, thereby supporting a role for this "arginine collar" in Vps4 function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rhesus monkey intrinsic immunity factor TRIM5alpha(rh) recognizes incoming capsids from a variety of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and inhibits the accumulation of viral reverse transcripts. However, direct interactions between restricting TRIM5alpha proteins and retroviral capsids have not previously been demonstrated using pure recombinant proteins. To facilitate structural and mechanistic studies of retroviral restriction, we have developed methods for expressing and purifying an active chimeric TRIM5alpha(rh) protein containing the RING domain from the related human TRIM21 protein. This recombinant TRIM5-21R protein was expressed in SF-21 insect cells and purified through three chromatographic steps. Two distinct TRIM5-21R species were purified and shown to correspond to monomers and dimers, as analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Chemically cross-linked recombinant TRIM5-21R dimers and mammalian-expressed TRIM5-21R and TRIM5alpha proteins exhibited similar sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobilities, indicating that mammalian TRIM5alpha proteins are predominantly dimeric. Purified TRIM5-21R had ubiquitin ligase activity and could autoubquitylate with different E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in vitro. TRIM5-21R bound directly to synthetic capsids composed of recombinant HIV-1 CA-NC proteins and to authentic EIAV core particles. HIV-1 CA-NC assemblies bound dimeric TRIM5-21R better than either monomeric TRIM5-21R or TRIM5-21R constructs that lacked the SPRY domain or its V1 loop. Thus, our studies indicate that TRIM5alpha proteins are dimeric ubiquitin E3 ligases that recognize retroviral capsids through direct interactions mediated by the SPRY domain and demonstrate that these activities can be recapitulated in vitro using pure recombinant proteins.
Journal of Virology 10/2008; 82(23):11682-94. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01562-08 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During viral entry, HIV gp41 adopts a transient conformation called the "prehairpin intermediate" in which a highly conserved therapeutic target, the N-trimer, is exposed. Despite extensive discovery efforts, potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the N-trimer are elusive. We previously demonstrated the N-trimer is protected by a steric block that prevents large proteins, such as antibodies, from accessing it. Here we further characterize the steric block and identify its source. To study the N-trimer steric accessibility, we produced two sets of C-peptide inhibitors (a potent inhibitor targeting the N-trimer) fused to cargo proteins of increasing size facing either the virus or cell side of the prehairpin intermediate. Both bulky inhibitor sets show a steric block, but the effect is more pronounced with virus-side cargo. Additionally, both sets maintain their potencies in a modified entry assay that removes possible sources of target cell steric hindrance. These results implicate a viral source, likely gp120, as the primary component of the steric block. In addition, we studied the steric accessibility of the "pocket" region of the N-trimer, a highly attractive drug and vaccine target. We demonstrated a pocket-specific antibody, D5, is more potent as an scFv than as a full-length IgG, suggesting the N-trimer steric restriction extends to the pocket. This characterization will facilitate the design of sterically restricted antigens that mimic the steric environment of the N-trimer in the prehairpin intermediate and are capable of inducing potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies that circumvent the N-trimer steric block.
Protein Science 10/2008; 17(12):2091-100. DOI:10.1110/ps.038273.108 · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human ESCRT-I is a multiprotein complex that plays essential roles in HIV budding and endosomal protein sorting. All ESCRT-I complexes contain three common subunits (TSG101, VPS28, and VPS37), and a fourth subunit of yeast ESCRT-I was recently identified (Mvb12p). We now demonstrate that two related human proteins (MVB12A and MVB12B) constitute the fourth class of metazoan ESCRT-I subunits, despite lacking identifiable sequence homology to Mvb12p. Hydrodynamic studies indicate that soluble human ESCRT-I complexes contain one copy of each of the four subunit types. MVB12 subunits associate with the core region of the binary TSG101-VPS37 complex through conserved C-terminal sequence elements. Both MVB12 depletion and overexpression inhibit HIV-1 infectivity and induce unusual viral assembly defects, including aberrant virion morphologies and altered viral Gag protein processing. Taken together, these studies define the composition of human ESCRT-I complexes and indicate that the MVB12 subunits play a unique role in regulating ESCRT-mediated virus budding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In organisms ranging from Arabidopsis to humans, Dicer requires dsRNA-binding proteins (dsRBPs) to carry out its roles in RNA interference (RNAi) and micro-RNA (miRNA) processing. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the dsRBP RDE-4 acts with Dicer during the initiation of RNAi, when long dsRNA is cleaved to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). RDE-4 is not required in subsequent steps, and how RDE-4 distinguishes between long dsRNA and short siRNA is unclear. We report the first detailed analysis of RDE-4 binding, using purified recombinant RDE-4 and various truncated proteins. We find that, similar to other dsRBPs, RDE-4 is not sequence-specific. However, consistent with its in vivo roles, RDE-4 binds with higher affinity to long dsRNA. We also observe that RDE-4 is a homodimer in solution, and that the C-terminal domain of the protein is required for dimerization. Using extracts from wild-type and rde-4 mutant C. elegans, we show that the C-terminal dimerization domain is required for the production of siRNA. Our findings suggest a model for RDE-4 function during the initiation of RNAi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway plays an essential role in regulating cell surface protein composition, thereby impacting numerous cellular functions. Vps4, an ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities, is required late in the MVB sorting reaction to dissociate the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), a requisite for proper function of this pathway. However, regulation of Vps4 function is not understood. We characterize Vta1 as a positive regulator of Vps4 both in vivo and in vitro. Vta1 promotes proper assembly of Vps4 and stimulates its ATPase activity through the conserved Vta1/SBP1/LIP5 region present in Vta1 homologues across evolution, including human SBP1 and Arabidopsis thaliana LIP5. These results suggest an evolutionarily conserved mechanism through which the disassembly of the ESCRT proteins, and thereby MVB sorting, is regulated by the Vta1/SBP1/LIP5 proteins.
The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2006; 172(5):705-17. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200508166 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 entry into cells is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein receptor-binding (gp120) and membrane fusion-promoting (gp41) subunits. The gp41 heptad repeat 1 (HR1) domain is the molecular target of the fusion-inhibitor drug enfuvirtide (T20). The HR1 sequence is highly conserved and therefore considered an attractive target for vaccine development, but it is unknown whether antibodies can access HR1. Herein, we use gp41-based peptides to select a human antibody, 5H/I1-BMV-D5 (D5), that binds to HR1 and inhibits the assembly of fusion intermediates in vitro. D5 inhibits the replication of diverse HIV-1 clinical isolates and therefore represents a previously unknown example of a crossneutralizing IgG selected by binding to designed antigens. NMR studies and functional analyses map the D5-binding site to a previously identified hydrophobic pocket situated in the HR1 groove. This hydrophobic pocket was proposed as a drug target and subsequently identified as a common binding site for peptide and peptidomimetic fusion inhibitors. The finding that the D5 fusion-inhibitory antibody shares the same binding site suggests that the hydrophobic pocket is a "hot spot" for fusion inhibition and an ideal target on which to focus a vaccine-elicited antibody response. Our data provide a structural framework for the design of new immunogens and therapeutic antibodies with crossneutralizing potential.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2005; 102(41):14759-64. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0506927102 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-chain derivatives of JRFL gp120 linked to the first two domains of human CD4 (gp120-CD4D12) or to the CD4 miniprotein analog CD4M9 (gp120-M9), have been constructed. Biacore studies revealed that gp120-CD4D12 and gp120-M9 bound to antibody 17b with dissociation constants of 0.8 and 25 nM, respectively, at pH 7.0, while gp120 alone
did not bind. The binding of gp120-CD4D12 to 17b is not affected by the addition of excess soluble CD4D12, while the binding of gp120-M9 is enhanced. This finding indicates that the M9 component of the single chain interacts relatively
weakly with gp120 and can be displaced by soluble CD4D12. Immunogenicity studies of gp120, gp120-CD4D12, and gp120-M9 were carried out with guinea pigs. All three molecules were highly immunogenic. The resulting antisera were
examined for neutralizing activities against various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. Broadly neutralizing activity
was observed only with sera generated against gp120-CD4D12. These antisera were depleted of anti-CD4D12 antibodies by being passed over a column containing immobilized CD4D12. The depleted sera showed a loss of broadly neutralizing activity. Sera that were affinity purified over a column containing
immobilized gp120-M9 also lacked such neutralizing activity. This finding suggests that the broadly neutralizing response
observed is exclusively due to anti-CD4 antibodies. Competition experiments showed that only antisera generated against gp120-CD4D12 competed with the CD4i antibody 17b and that this activity was not affected by depletion of anti-CD4 antibodies. The data indicate that although
antibodies targeting the CD4i epitope were generated by the gp120-CD4D12 immunogen, these antibodies were nonneutralizing.
Journal of Virology 03/2005; 79(3):1713-23. DOI:10.1128/JVI.79.3.1713-1723.2005 · 4.44 Impact Factor