[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute effects after exposure to different styles of music on cardiac autonomic modulation assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis have not yet been well elucidated. We aimed to investigate the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation in women after exposure to musical auditory stimulation of different styles. The study was conducted on 30 healthy women aged between 18 years and 30 years. We did not include subjects having previous experience with musical instruments and those who had an affinity for music styles. The volunteers remained at rest for 10 min and were exposed to classical baroque (64-84 dB) and heavy metal (75-84 dB) music for 10 min, and their HRV was evaluated for 30 min after music cessation. We analyzed the following HRV indices: Standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of normal-to-normal 50 (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. SDNN, LF in absolute units (ms 2 ) and normalized (nu), and LF/HF ratio increased while HF index (nu) decreased after exposure to classical baroque music. Regarding the heavy metal music style, it was observed that there were increases in SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, and LF (ms 2 ) after the musical stimulation. In conclusion, the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation after exposure to auditory stimulation with music featured an increased global activity of both systems for the two musical styles, with a cardiac sympathetic modulation for classical baroque music and a cardiac vagal tone for the heavy metal style.
Noise and Health 03/2015; 17(75):108-115. DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153402 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals are well known, however, it lacks in the literature the mechanisms that predicts cardiovascular disease in the population living with HIV-AIDS treated with HAART and presenting syndrome lipodystrophy. We aimed to investigate the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-AIDS patients treated with HAART and lipodystrophy syndrome. Methods: A search was performed in Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane using the intersection between the keywords: "cardiovascular disease", "HIV", "AIDS", "HAART" and "lipodystrophy syndrome". Results: The selected studies demonstrated that metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia, central adipose hypertrophy and peripheral lipoatrophy, besides the metabolic syndrome and lipodystrophy are maker clear risks of developing cardiovascular disease in these individuals. Conclusion: The metabolic alterations in HIV-AIDS treated with HAART and presenting lipodystrophy syndrome may potentiate the development of cardiovascular diseases.
International Archives of Medicine 01/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.3823/1677 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The literature indicates that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects cardiac autonomic control. In this study, we conducted a literature review in order to investigate the heart rate variability (HRV) in COPD subjects.
A search was performed in Medline database, using the link between the keywords: “autonomic nervous system”, “cardiovascular system”, “COPD” and “heart rate variability”.
The search resulted in a total of 40 references. Amongst these references, the first exclusion resulted in the barring of 29 titles and abstracts, which were not clearly related to the purpose of review. This resulted in a total of 11 articles that were then read and utilized in the review. The selected studies indicated that there is significant reduction of HRV in patients with COPD, characterized by reduction of indices that assess parasympathetic activity in addition to dealing with the global autonomic modulation. We also established that supervised exercise can reduce these harmful effects in COPD patients. Also, it was reported that the use of non-invasive ventilation in these patients may contribute to the improvement of respiratory symptoms, with no impairing, and may even induce positive responses in cardiac autonomic regulation.
The studies indicate a need for further investigations to guide future therapies to improve the treatment of cardiovascular system in the respiratory diseases.
International Archives of Medicine 10/2014; DOI:10.1186/1755-7682-7-43 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:
Flexible poles can provide rapid eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Muscle vibration is associated with a "tonic vibration reflex” that is stimulated by a sequence of rapid muscle stretching, activation of the muscle spindles and stimulation of a response that is similar to the myotatic reflex. Literature studies analyzing the acute cardiovascular responses to different exercises performed with this instrument are lacking. We investigated the acute effects of exercise with flexible poles on the heart period in healthy men.
The study was performed on ten young adult males between 18 and 25 years old. We evaluated the heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains. The subjects remained at rest for 10 min. After the rest period, the volunteers performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 30 min and their heart rate variability was analyzed.
The pNN50 was reduced at 5-10 and 15-20 min after exercise compared to 25-30 min after exercise (p = 0.0019), the SDNN was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to at rest and 0-10 min after exercise (p = 0.0073) and the RMSSD was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-15 min after exercise (p = 0.0043). The LF in absolute units was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-20 min after exercise (p = 0.0184).
A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole reduced the heart rate variability and parasympathetic recovery was observed approximately 30 min after exercise.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
No clear evidence is available in the literature regarding the acute effect of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic control.
The present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal musical auditory stimulation on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in healthy men.
Patients and Methods:
In this study, HRV was analyzed regarding time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, and pNN50) and frequency domain (LF, HF, and LF / HF) in 12 healthy men. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the participants were exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes through an earphone at seated rest. After exposure to the first song, they remained at rest for five minutes and they were again exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music. The music sequence was random for each individual. Standard statistical methods were used for calculation of means and standard deviations. Besides, ANOVA and Friedman test were used for parametric and non-parametric distributions, respectively.
While listening to heavy metal music, SDNN was reduced compared to the baseline (P = 0.023). In addition, the LF index (ms2 and nu) was reduced during exposure to both heavy metal and classical baroque musical auditory stimulation compared to the control condition (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048, respectively). However, the HF index (ms2) was reduced only during auditory stimulation with music heavy metal (P = 0.01). The LF/HF ratio on the other hand decreased during auditory stimulation with classical baroque music (P = 0.019).
Acute auditory stimulation with the selected heavy metal musical auditory stimulation decreased the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation on the heart, while exposure to a selected classical baroque music reduced sympathetic regulation on the heart.
International Cardiovascular Research Journal 09/2014; 8(3):105-10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to analyze the autonomic modulation in children with Down syndrome (DS). The study was conducted with a convenience sample of children with DS and without heart disease, from the Genetics Clinic of the Hospital Infantil Darcy Vargas and APAE São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The control group was matched for sex and age. The analysis of autonomic modulation was performed using the indices of heart rate variability (HRV). The children remained in the supine position with spontaneous breathing for 20 min. Heart rate was recorded beat-to-beat. HRV analysis was performed in time and frequency domain. For data analysis, we used Student's t test: unpaired and Mann-Whitney. It was considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. From 75 children with DS, 50 were excluded, a total of 25 children [16 boys, 8.6 (1.4) years] participated in this study, and the control group also consisted of 25 children [16 boys, 9.0 (1.2) years] without the syndrome. The BMI of the volunteers with DS was higher than the controls [19.1 (2.9) vs. 15.8 (1.2), p < 0.0001]. There were differences between groups in the indices in frequency domain: LFms(2) [1242.1 (788.25) vs. 786.44 (481.90), p = 0.040], LFun [69.104 (11.247) vs. 57.348 (11.683), p = 0.0004], HFun [30.896 (11.247) vs. 42.520 (11.634), p = 0.0004] and LF/HF [2.594 (1.104) vs. 1.579 (0.9982), p = 0.0004]. No differences were observed in time domain indices. The results indicate increased indices representing the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system and those that indicate the overall modulation in children with DS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionPrevious studies have shown that relaxation music increases the heart's parasympathetic modulation as well as reducing its sympathetic activity. However, what is lacking in the literature is information on the acute effects of different intensities of music on cardiac autonomic regulation. We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of baroque and heavy-metal music on cardiac autonomic regulation at different intensities.Method
The study was performed in 16 healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years. The main outcomes were the geometric indices of heart-rate variability (HRV) [i.e. triangular index (RRtri); triangular interpolation of RR intervals (TINN) and Poincaré plot: SD1, SD2 and SD1/SD2 ratio]. First, HRV was recorded at rest for 10 min. The volunteers were then exposed to baroque or heavy-metal music for 5 min through an earphone; subjects were exposed to each song at three different sound levels (60–70, 70–80 and 80–90 dB). After the first song, subjects remained at rest for 5 min before being exposed to the next song. The sequence of songs and sound intensity were randomised for each individual.ResultsMusical auditory stimulation with baroque music did not influence the geometric indices of HRV. The same was observed with heavy-metal musical auditory stimulation at the three sound-level ranges.Conclusion
Musical auditory stimulation at different sound intensities did not influence the geometric indices of HRV in men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of hydration during exercise, the impact of ingesting water or isotonic solution during and after exercise on the regulation of autonomic modulation is unclear. The study aimed to compare the effect of ingesting water or isotonic solution (Gatorade®, Brazil) on cardiac autonomic modulation in young people after submaximal aerobic exercise. Thirty-one young men were subjected to a protocol consisting of 4 steps: 1) incremental test, 2) control protocol without hydration, 3) protocol with ingestion of water, and 4) protocol with ingestion of isotonic solution. The protocol consisted of 10 minutes of rest, 90 minutes of treadmill exercise at 60% VO2peak and 60 minutes of recovery at rest. In the hydration protocols, hydration occurred during and after exercise, every 15 minutes beginning after the 15th minute of exercise, with the amount ingested proportional to body mass lost in the control protocol. Autonomic modulation was evaluated by heart rate variability. The hydration protocols promoted a more efficient recovery of autonomic modulation, and for the exercise performed, regardless of the hydration administered, the effect on autonomic modulation was similar.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 07/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0004 · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Burnout syndrome can be defined as long-term work stress resulting from the interaction between constant emotional pressure associated with intense interpersonal involvement for long periods of time and personal characteristics. We investigated the prevalence/propensity of Burnout syndrome in clinical nurses, and the factors related to Burnout syndrome-associated such as socio-demographic characteristics, work load, social and family life, leisure activities, extra work activities, physical activities, and work-related health problems.
We conducted a cross-sectional, quantitative, prospective epidemiological study with 188 surgical clinic nurses. We used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), which is a socio-demographic questionnaire and the most widely used instrument to assess Burnout syndrome (three basic dimensions: emotional exhaustion, despersonalization and professional underachievement). The socio-demographic profile questionnaire wascomposed of questions regarding identification, training, time at work, work characteristics and personal circumstances.
The prevalence of Burnout syndrome was higher (10.1%) and 55, 4% of subjects had a propensity to develop this syndrome. The analysis of the socio-demographic profile of the nurse sample studied showed that most nurses were childless married women, over 35 years of age, working the day shift for 36 hours weekly on average, with 2-6 years of post-graduation experience, and without extra employments. Factors such as marital status, work load, emotion and work related stress aggravated the onset of the syndrome.
The prevalence and propensity of Burnout syndrome were high. Some factors identified can be useful for the adoption of preventive actions in order to decrease the prevalence of the clinical nurses Burnout syndrome.
International Archives of Medicine 05/2014; 7:22. DOI:10.1186/1755-7682-7-22 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail.
Complementary therapies in clinical practice 05/2014; 20(2):130-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2013.09.004
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by decreased attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. Autonomic nervous system imbalance was previously described in this population. We aim to compare the autonomic function of children with ADHD and controls by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV).
Children rested in supine position with spontaneous breathing for 20 minutes. Heart rate was recorded beat by beat. HRV analysis was performed in the time and frequency domains and Poincaré plot.
Twenty-eight children with ADHD (22 boys, aged 9.964 years) and 28 controls (15 boys, age 9.857 years) participated in this study. It was determined that the mean and standard deviation of indexes which indicate parasympathetic activity is higher in children with ADHD than in children without the disorder: high frequency in normalized units, 46.182 (14.159) versus 40.632 (12.247); root mean square of successive differences, 41.821 (17.834) versus 38.150 (18.357); differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 199.75 (144.00) versus 127.46 (102.21) (P<0.05); percentage of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 23.957 (17.316) versus 16.211 (13.215); standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat interval, 29.586 (12.622) versus 26.989 (12.983).
Comparison of the autonomic function by analyzing HRV suggests an increase in the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems in children with ADHD in relation to the control group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is poor in the literature the behavior of the geometric indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during the musical auditory stimulation. The objective is to investigate the acute effects of classic musical auditory stimulation on the geometric indexes of HRV in women in response to the postural change maneuver (PCM). We evaluated 11 healthy women between 18 and 25 years old. We analyzed the following indices: Triangular index, Triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincarι plot (standard deviation of the instantaneous variability of the beat-to beat heart rate [SD1], standard deviation of long-term continuous RR interval variability and Ratio between the short - and long-term variations of RR intervals [SD1/SD2] ratio). HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 min. The women quickly stood up from a seated position in up to 3 s and remained standing still for 15 min. HRV was recorded at the following periods: Rest, 0-5 min, 5-10 min and 10-15 min during standing. In the second protocol, the subject was exposed to auditory musical stimulation (Pachelbel-Canon in D) for 10 min at seated position before standing position. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman's followed by the Dunn's posttest for non-parametric distributions. In the first protocol, all indices were reduced at 10-15 min after the volunteers stood up. In the protocol musical auditory stimulation, the SD1 index was reduced at 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up compared with the music period. The SD1/SD2 ratio was decreased at control and music period compared with 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up. Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM.
Noise and Health 03/2014; 16(68):57-62. DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.127857 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The effects of chronic music auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system have been investigated in the literature. However, data regarding the acute effects of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic regulation are lacking. The literature has indicated that auditory stimulation with white noise above 50 dB induces cardiac responses. We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal music of different intensities on cardiac autonomic regulation.
The study was performed in 16 healthy men aged 18-25 years. All procedures were performed in the same soundproof room. We analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) in time (standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals [SDNN], root-mean square of differences [RMSSD] and percentage of adjacent NN intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms [pNN50]) and frequency (low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF] and LF/HF ratio) domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the volunteers were exposed to one of the two musical styles (classical baroque or heavy metal music) for five minutes through an earphone, followed by a five-minute period of rest, and then they were exposed to the other style for another five minutes. The subjects were exposed to three equivalent sound levels (60-70dB, 70-80dB and 80-90dB). The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual.
Auditory stimulation with heavy metal music did not influence HRV indices in the time and frequency domains in the three equivalent sound level ranges. The same was observed with classical baroque musical auditory stimulation with the three equivalent sound level ranges.
Musical auditory stimulation of different intensities did not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men.
Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi: Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir 03/2014; 42(2):139-146.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In prolonged exercise, the state of hypohydration due to sweating raises physiological stress and induces a drop in sports performance. However, the impact of water intake in cardiorespiratory parameters when administered during and after physical activity has not been well studied. This study aimed to analyze the effects of water intake in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), partial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate during and after prolonged exercise.
Thirty-one young males (21.55 +/- 1.89 yr) performed three different protocols (48 h interval between each stage): I) maximal exercise test to determine the load for the protocols; II) Control protocol (CP) and; III) Experimental protocol (EP). The protocols consisted of 10 min at rest with the subject in the supine position, 90 min of treadmill exercise (60% of VO2 peak) and 60 min of rest placed in the dorsal decubitus position. No rehydration beverage consumption was allowed during CP. During EP, however, the subjects were given water (Vittalev, Spaipa, Brazil). The parameters HR, SBP, DBP, SpO2 and respiratory rate were measured at the end of the rest, in 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the activity, except the respiratory rate parameter, and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minute post- exercise.
The hydration protocol provided minimal changes in SBP and DBP and a smaller increase in HR and did not significantly affect SpO2 during exercise and better HR recovery, faster return of SBP and DBP and a better performance for SpO2 and respiratory rate post-exercise.
Hydration with water influenced the behavior of cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young subjects.
International Archives of Medicine 09/2013; 6(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1755-7682-6-35 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydration plays a key role in the physiological maintenance required by exercise.
To evaluate the behavior of heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR) of young people during and after prolonged physical exercise, with and without the intake of water or isotonic solution.
31 young individuals (21.63 +/- 1.86 years) were subjected to a four-step protocol with a 48-hour interval between each step, namely: i) a test to determine the incremental load used in subsequent steps, ii) a control protocol without hydration (CP), iii) an experimental protocol with water intake (PE1), iv) an experimental protocol with ingestion of isotonic (PE2). The protocols consisted of 10 min rest, 90 min of exercise on a treadmill at 60% of VO2 peak and 60 min of recovery. The parameters HR, SBP, DBP, RR and SPO2 were measured at rest, at 30, 60 and 90 min of exercise, with the exception of RR; and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min of recovery. The two-factor analysis of variance for repeated measures model was used for analysis (p<0.05).
There was a moment effect for all variables in exercise (p<0.001), however, no effect was observed between the protocols (SBP, p=0.998; DBP, p=0.897; SpO2, p=0.077, HR=0.281) and in the interaction moment and protocol (SBP, p=0.058; DBP, p=0.191 and SpO2, p=0.510, HR=0.496). In recovery there was also a moment effect for all variables analyzed (p<0.001). There was no effect among protocols for SBP (p=0.986), DBP (p=0.536) and RR (p=0.539), however in the SpO2 (p=0.001) and HR (p=0.033) variables, effects were observed between the protocols. Regarding the moment and protocol interaction, an effect was observed for HR (SBP, p=0.431; DBP, p=0.086; SpO2, p=0.445, RR, p=0.147, HR, p=0.022).
For the type of exercise performed, both the water and the isotonic solution influenced the behavior of cardiorespiratory parameters, and independent of the type of hydration given the behavior of the parameters studied was similar.
International Archives of Medicine 08/2013; 6(1):33. DOI:10.1186/1755-7682-6-33 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to musical auditory stimulation has been reported to improve cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not clear if music acutely influences it in response to autonomic tests. We evaluated the acute effects of music on heart rate variability (HRV) responses to the postural change maneuver (PCM) in women.
We evaluated 12 healthy women between 18 and 28 years old and HRV was analyzed in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50 and pNN50) and frequency (LF, HF and LF/HF ratio) domains. In the control protocol, the women remained at seated rest for 10 minutes and quickly stood up within three seconds and remained standing still for 15 minutes. In the music protocol, the women remained at seated rest for 10 minutes, were exposed to music for 10 minutes and quickly stood up within three seconds and remained standing still for 15 minutes. HRV was recorded at the following time: rest, music (music protocol) 0--5, 5--10 and 10--15 min during standing.
In the control protocol the SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50indexes were reduced at 10--15 minutes after the volunteers stood up, while the LF (nu) index was increased at the same moment compared to seated rest. In the protocol with music, the indexes were not different from control but the RMSSD, pNN50 and LF (nu) were different from the music period.
Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM.
International Archives of Medicine 08/2013; 6(1):32. DOI:10.1186/1755-7682-6-32 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Stroke remains one of the major chronic diseases worldwide, and is considered a major cause of disability, which results not only in persistent neurological deficits, but also in the high physical deconditioning, nevertheless there are not many forms of assessing functional capacity in this population. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of the Six Minute Walk Teste and the Six-Minute Step Test (6MST) in post-stroke patients and compare the behavior of physiological variables during the 6MST and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), by correlating the functional performance obtained in both tests.
The 6MWT was carried out according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the 6MST was performed in six minutes in order to compare it to the 6MWT in a 20 cm step. Was included post-stroke individuals able to walk without aid. All of them did the 6MWT and the 6MST.
12 patients participated in the study. There was no statistical difference in the parameters analyzed when tests were compared. There was poor correlation between the functional performance in both tests.
The 6MWT and the 6MST is feasible for post-stroke patients and physiological responses are equal during the performance of both tests. However, there was no correlation with respect to functional performance, which was assessed by the distance walked in the 6MWT and by the number of steps climbed in the 6MST.
International Archives of Medicine 08/2013; 6(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1755-7682-6-31 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The literature investigated the effects of chronic baroque music auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system. However, it lacks in the literature the acute effects of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic regulation. To evaluate the acute effects of baroque and heavy metal music on heart rate variability (HRV) in women. The study was performed in 21 healthy women between 18 and 30 years old. We excluded persons with previous experience with music instrument and those who had affinity with the song styles. All procedures were performed in the same sound-proof room. We analyzed HRV in the time (standard deviation of normal-to-normal respiratory rate (RR) intervals, root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval, and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms) and frequency (low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], and LF/HF ratio) domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 min. Subsequently they were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for 5 min through an earphone. After the first music exposure they remained at rest for more 5 min and them they were exposed again to baroque or heavy metal music. The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual. The power analysis provided a minimal number of 18 subjects. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and analysis of variance for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman's followed by the Dunn's post-test for non-parametric distributions. During the analysis of the time-domain indices were not changed. In the frequency-domain analysis, the LF in absolute units was reduced during the heavy metal music stimulation compared to control. Acute exposure to heavy metal music affected the sympathetic activity in healthy women.
Noise and Health 07/2013; 15(65):281-7. DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.113527 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are no data in the literature with regard to the acute effects of different styles of music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability. In this study, we evaluated the acute effects of relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability in women.
We conducted this study in 21 healthy women ranging in age from 18 to 35 years. We excluded persons with previous experience with musical instruments and persons who had an affinity for the song styles. We evaluated two groups: Group 1 (n = 21), who were exposed to relaxant classical baroque musical and excitatory heavy metal auditory stimulation; and Group 2 (n = 19), who were exposed to both styles of music and white noise auditory stimulation. Using earphones, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes. After the first music exposure to baroque or heavy metal music, they remained at rest for five minutes; subsequently, they were re-exposed to the opposite music (70-80 dB). A different group of women were exposed to the same music styles plus white noise auditory stimulation (90 dB). The sequence of the songs was randomized for each individual. We analyzed the following indices: triangular index, triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincaré plot (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability, standard deviation of the long-term RR interval, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of the long-term RR interval ratio), low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency ratio, standard deviation of all the normal RR intervals, root-mean square of differences between the adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms. Heart rate variability was recorded at rest for 10 minutes.
The triangular index and the standard deviation of the long-term RR interval indices were reduced during exposure to both music styles in the first group and tended to decrease in the second group whereas the white noise exposure decreased the high frequency index. We observed no changes regarding the triangular interpolation of RR intervals, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability/standard deviation in the long-term RR interval ratio.
We suggest that relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music slightly decrease global heart rate variability because of the equivalent sound level.