Yale Mitchel

Brigham and Women's Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (85)505.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Present guidelines emphasise the importance of low concentrations of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. In most patients with the disease, however, these concentrations are not achieved with present treatments, so additional treatment is therefore warranted. Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein has been shown to reduce LDL-C concentrations in addition to regular statin treatment in patients with hypercholesterolaemia or at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of anacetrapib, a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.
    The Lancet 03/2015; 385(9983). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62115-2 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events (HPS2-THRIVE) showed that adding extended-release niacin-laropiprant (ERN-LRPT) to statin provided no incremental cardiovascular benefit vs placebo (PBO). ERN-LRPT was also associated with an excess of serious adverse experiences (AEs), some of which were unexpected (infections and bleeding). These findings led to the withdrawal of ERN-LRPT from all markets. We examined the safety profile of ERN-LRPT vs the comparators ERN alone and statins in the ERN-LRPT development program to assess whether similar safety signals were observed to those seen in HPS-THRIVE and whether these might be attributed to ERN or LRPT. Postrandomization safety data from 12 clinical studies, 12 to 52 weeks in duration and involving 11,310 patients, were analyzed across 3 treatments: (1) ERN-LRPT; (2) ERN-NSP (ERN, Merck & Co, Inc or Niaspan [NSP], Abbott Laboratories); and (3) statin-PBO (statin or PBO). The safety profiles of ERN-LRPT and ERN-NSP were similar, except for less flushing with ERN-LRPT. Nonflushing AEs reported more frequently with ERN-LRPT or ERN-NSP than with statin-PBO were mostly nonserious and typical of niacin (nausea, diarrhea, and increased blood glucose). There was no evidence for an increased risk of serious AEs related to diabetes, muscle, infection, or bleeding. Pooled data from 11,310 patients revealed that, except for reduced flushing, the safety profile of ERN-LRPT was similar to that of ERN-NSP; LRPT did not appear to adversely affect the side-effect profile of ERN. The inability to replicate the unexpected AE findings in HPS2-THRIVE could be because of the smaller sample size and substantially shorter duration of these studies. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 03/2015; 9(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2015.02.006 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) INhibition with AnacEtrapib (DEFINE) trial, anacetrapib added to statin produced robust low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-raising vs placebo in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Predictors of the degree of LDL-C and HDL-C responses to anacetrapib, however, are poorly understood. Lipid effects of anacetrapib in patient subgroups within the DEFINE trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00685776) are reported. The percent of placebo-corrected changes from baseline for LDL-C (estimated by Friedewald calculation [Fc-LDL-C]) and HDL-C after 24 weeks of anacetrapib 100 mg/day were compared among patients by age, gender, race, diabetes status, type of concomitant statin with or without other lipid therapies, and baseline HDL-C, Fc-LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG) levels. Percent decreases in Fc-LDL-C and increases in HDL-C with anacetrapib were similar (magnitude of difference generally <1/5 of the overall treatment effect) across subgroups by age, gender, diabetes status, lipid-modifying regimen, and baseline Fc-LDL-C, HDL-C, or TG. On the other hand, anacetrapib effects on Fc-LDL-C (-24% vs -41%) and HDL-C (+75% vs +139%) appeared to be less in black vs white patients, respectively. Effects of anacetrapib on Fc-LDL-C and HDL-C were generally comparable across subgroups, including being relatively independent of baseline Fc-LDL-C, HDL-C, or TG levels. The clinical impact of the lipid-modifying effects of anacetrapib is being evaluated in the cardiovascular disease outcomes trial, Randomized EValuation of the Effects of Anacetrapib though Lipid-modification (REVEAL). Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 02/2015; 9(1):65-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2014.10.005 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Statins modify correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apoB and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C); however, it is not known whether niacin-based therapies have similar effects. Objective To evaluate the effects of extended-release niacin (ERN)/laropiprant (LRPT), simvastatin (SIMVA), and ERN/LRPT + SIMVA (pooled ERN/LRPT + SIMVA) on apoB:LDL-C and apoB:non-HDL-C correlations in dyslipidemic patients. Methods This post-hoc analysis of a 12-week study evaluated the apoB:LDL-C and apoB:non-HDL-C correlations in dyslipidemic patients randomized equally to double-blind ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg, SIMVA 10, 20, or 40 mg, or ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg + SIMVA (10, 20, or 40 mg) once daily for 4 weeks. At week 5, doses were doubled in all groups except SIMVA 40 mg (unchanged) and ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg + SIMVA 40 mg (switched to ERN/LRPT 2 g/40 mg + SIMVA 40 mg). Simple linear regression analyses were used to calculate LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels corresponding to known apoB baseline values (ie, in untreated patients) and following treatment. Results The apoB:LDL-C and apoB:non-HDL-C correlations were higher and the predicted LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels for a known apoB value were considerably lower following treatment with ERN/LRPT, SIMVA and ERN/LRPT + SIMVA compared with untreated patients at baseline. Conclusion Greater dissociation of apoB, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C targets occur following treatment with ERN/LRPT, SIMVA, and ERN/LRPT + SIMVA in patients with dyslipidemia. The achievement of more aggressive LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals in patients receiving lipid-modifying therapy may further reduce coronary risk by normalizing apoB-containing atherogenic lipoproteins.
    Vascular Health and Risk Management 05/2014; 10:279-90. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S58694
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    ABSTRACT: Anacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor that has previously been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with or at high risk of coronary heart disease in the 76-week, placebo-controlled, Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of CETP Inhibition with Anacetrapib (DEFINE) trial. Here, we report the results of the 2-year extension to the DEFINE study where patients (n = 803) continued on the same assigned treatment as in the original 76-week study. Treatment with anacetrapib during the 2-year extension was well tolerated with a safety profile similar to patients on placebo. No clinically important abnormalities in liver enzymes, blood pressure, electrolytes, or adverse experiences were observed during the extension. At the end of the extension study, relative to the original baseline value, anacetrapib reduced Friedewald-calculated LDL-C by 39.9% and increased HDL-C by 153.3%, compared to placebo. The apparent steady state mean plasma trough concentration of anacetrapib was ∼640 nmol/L. Geometric mean plasma concentrations of anacetrapib did not appear to increase beyond week 40 of the 2-year extension of the 76-week DEFINE base study. In conclusion, an additional 2 years of treatment with anacetrapib were well tolerated with durable lipid-modifying effects on LDL-C and HDL-C.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1177/1074248414529621 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2014; 63(12):A1449. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(14)61449-2 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects on lipids and safety during a 12-week reversal period after 18 months of treatment with anacetrapib. The cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib was previously shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39.8% (estimated using the Friedewald equation) and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 138.1%, with an acceptable side-effect profile, in patients with or at high risk for coronary heart disease in the Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of CETP Inhibition With Anacetrapib (DEFINE) trial. A total of 1,398 patients entered the 12-week reversal-phase study, either after completion of the active-treatment phase or after early discontinuation of the study medication. In patients allocated to anacetrapib, placebo-adjusted mean percentage decreases from baseline were observed at 12 weeks off the study drug for Friedewald-calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol (17.6%), and apolipoprotein B (10.2%); placebo-adjusted mean percentage increases were observed for HDL cholesterol (73.0%) and apolipoprotein A-I (24.5%). Residual plasma anacetrapib levels (about 40% of on-treatment apparent steady-state trough levels) were also detected 12 weeks after cessation of anacetrapib. No clinically important elevations in liver enzymes, blood pressure, electrolytes, or adverse experiences were observed during the reversal phase. Preliminary data from a small cohort (n = 30) revealed the presence of low concentrations of anacetrapib in plasma 2.5 to 4 years after the last anacetrapib dose. In conclusion, after the cessation of active treatment, anacetrapib plasma lipid changes and drug levels decreased to approximately 40% of on-treatment trough levels at 12 weeks after dosing, but modest HDL cholesterol elevations and low drug concentrations were still detectable 2 to 4 years after the last dosing.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 01/2014; 113(1):76–83. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.08.041 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    R. Haynes · L. Jiang · J.C. Hopewell · Jing Li · F. Chen · S. Parish · Martin J. Landray · R. Collins · J. Armitage · C. Baigent · [...] · A. Skattebol · G. Moen · Y. Mitchel · O. Kuznetsova · S. MacMahon · J. Kjekshus · C. Hill · T.H. Lam · P. Sandercock · R. Peto ·
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    ABSTRACT: AimsNiacin has potentially favourable effects on lipids, but its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is uncertain. HPS2-THRIVE is a large randomized trial assessing the effects of extended release (ER) niacin in patients at high risk of vascular events.Methods and resultsPrior to randomization, 42 424 patients with occlusive arterial disease were given simvastatin 40 mg plus, if required, ezetimibe 10 mg daily to standardize their low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering therapy. The ability to remain compliant with ER niacin 2 g plus laropiprant 40 mg daily (ERN/LRPT) for ∼1 month was then assessed in 38 369 patients and about one-third were excluded (mainly due to niacin side effects). A total of 25 673 patients were randomized between ERN/LRPT daily vs. placebo and were followed for a median of 3.9 years. By the end of the study, 25% of participants allocated ERN/LRPT vs. 17% allocated placebo had stopped their study treatment. The most common medical reasons for stopping ERN/LRPT were related to skin, gastrointestinal, diabetes, and musculoskeletal side effects. When added to statin-based LDL-lowering therapy, allocation to ERN/LRPT increased the risk of definite myopathy [75 (0.16%/year) vs. 17 (0.04%/year): risk ratio 4.4; 95% CI 2.6-7.5; P < 0.0001]; 7 vs. 5 were rhabdomyolysis. Any myopathy (definite or incipient) was more common among participants in China [138 (0.66%/year) vs. 27 (0.13%/year)] than among those in Europe [17 (0.07%/year) vs. 11 (0.04%/year)]. Consecutive alanine transaminase >3× upper limit of normal, in the absence of muscle damage, was seen in 48 (0.10%/year) ERN/LRPT vs. 30 (0.06%/year) placebo allocated participants. Conclusion The risk of myopathy was increased by adding ERN/LRPT to simvastatin 40 mg daily (with or without ezetimibe), particularly in Chinese patients whose myopathy rates on simvastatin were higher. Despite the side effects of ERN/LRPT, among individuals who were able to tolerate it for ∼1 month, three-quarters continued to take it for ∼4 years.
    European Heart Journal 05/2013; 34(17):1279-1291. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/eht055 · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Estimation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) using the Friedewald (FR) formula is often inaccurate when triglycerides are elevated or VLDL particle composition is altered. We hypothesized that LDL-C estimation by the FR formula and other measurement methods might also be inaccurate in individuals treated with a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor. Methods and Results: An assay comparison study was conducted using pre- and post-treatment serum samples from 280 of the 811 patients treated with the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib in the DEFINE study (Determining the EFficacy and Tolerability of CETP INhibition with AnacEtrapib). After 24 weeks of treatment with anacetrapib, mean LDL-C values by FR formula, Roche Direct Method and Genzyme Direct Method deviated from that measured by the β-quantification (BQ) reference method by -12.2 ± 7.5, -10.2 ± 6.6, -10.8 ± 8.8 mg/dL, respectively. Conclusions: After treatment with anacetrapib, the FR formula and detergent-based direct methods provided lower LDL-C values than those obtained by the BQ reference method. The bias by the FR formula appeared to be due to an overestimation of VLDL-C by the TG/5 component of the formula. Evaluation of the clinical significance of these findings awaits comprehensive lipid and cardiovascular outcome data from ongoing Phase III clinical studies of anacetrapib.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2012; 54(2). DOI:10.1194/jlr.M032615 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotinic acid (niacin) induces beneficial changes in serum lipoproteins and has been associated with beneficial cardiovascular effects. Niacin reduces low-density lipoprotein, increases high-density lipoprotein, and decreases triglycerides. It is well established that activation of the seven-transmembrane G(i)-coupled receptor GPR109A on Langerhans cells results in release of prostaglandin D₂, which mediates the well-known flushing side effect of niacin. Niacin activation of GPR109A on adipocytes also mediates the transient reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels characteristic of niacin, which has been long hypothesized to be the mechanism underlying the changes in the serum lipid profile. We tested this "FFA hypothesis" and the hypothesis that niacin lipid efficacy is mediated via GPR109A by dosing mice lacking GPR109A with niacin and testing two novel, full GPR109A agonists, MK-1903 and SCH900271, in three human clinical trials. In mice, the absence of GPR109A had no effect on niacin's lipid efficacy despite complete abrogation of the anti-lipolytic effect. Both MK-1903 and SCH900271 lowered FFAs acutely in humans; however, neither had the expected effects on serum lipids. Chronic FFA suppression was not sustainable via GPR109A agonism with niacin, MK-1903, or SCH900271. We conclude that the GPR109A receptor does not mediate niacin's lipid efficacy, challenging the long-standing FFA hypothesis.
    Science translational medicine 08/2012; 4(148):148ra115. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003877 · 15.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extended-release niacin (ERN) improves multiple lipid parameters but is underused owing to niacin-induced flushing (NIF). Laropiprant (LRPT) reduces NIF; however, its effects on chronic flushing (>6 months) have not been studied. We examined whether after 20 weeks of treatment with ERN/LRPT, patients who continued ERN/LRPT would experience less NIF than patients who stopped LRPT and continued ERN alone. A total of 1,152 dyslipidemic patients were randomized 2:2:1 to group 1, ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg/day from 0 to 4 weeks and then ERN/LRPT 2 g/40 mg/day from 5 to 32 weeks; group 2, ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg/day from 0 to 4 weeks, ERN/LRPT 2 g/40 mg/day from 5 to 20 weeks, and then ERN 2 g/day without LRPT from 21 to 32 weeks; or group 3, placebo for the entire study. The end points included the number of days each week with a moderate or greater Global Flushing Severity Score (GFSS) ≥4 (primary end point) and the percentage of patients with a maximum GFSS of ≥4 (secondary end point) during the postwithdrawal period (weeks 21 to 32). ERN/LRPT produced significantly less NIF than ERN alone during the postwithdrawal period, as measured by the number of days each week with a GFSS of ≥4 (p <0.001) and the percentage of patients with a maximum GFSS of ≥4 (p <0.001; ERN/LRPT 19.6%; ERN 48.9%; placebo 9.2%). Compared with ERN alone, ERN/LRPT produced fewer drug-related adverse experiences during the postwithdrawal period. After 20 weeks of stable maintenance therapy, dyslipidemic patients treated continuously with ERN/LRPT experienced less NIF than did patients who had had LRPT withdrawn and had continued with ERN alone. In conclusion, the results of our study support the long-term efficacy of ERN/LRPT in reducing NIF symptoms.
    The American journal of cardiology 06/2012; 110(6):817-22. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.05.009 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT) in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796), examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a), compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758).
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 05/2012; 6(3):270-271. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2012.04.041 · 3.90 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Clinical Lipidology 05/2012; 6(3):285. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2012.04.064 · 3.90 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Clinical Lipidology 05/2012; 6(3):287. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2012.04.067 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of extended-release niacin and the prostaglandin D₂ receptor antagonist laropiprant (ERN/LRPT) reduces niacin-induced flushing in patients while preserving its lipid-modifying effects. This predefined exploratory analysis examined the individual and combined effects of ERN/LRPT and simvastatin (SIM) on lipoprotein subclasses. This double-blind study randomized 1398 dyslipidemic patients equally to ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg, SIM (10, 20, or 40 mg), or ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg + SIM (10, 20, or 40 mg) once daily for 4 weeks. At week 5, doses were doubled, except SIM 40 mg (unchanged) and ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg + SIM 40 mg (switched to ERN/LRPT 2 g/40 mg + SIM 40 mg). Cholesterol associated with lipoprotein subclasses was quantified by vertical auto profile II (VAP II). ERN/LRPT + SIM and SIM alone lowered LDL-C 1 and 3, whereas the effects were variable for ERN/LRPT; all three treatments increased LDL-C 4. ERN/LRPT + SIM and ERN/LRPT raised HDL-C 2 and 3, with greater relative percent changes in HDL 2 than HDL 3. ERN/LRPT + SIM for 12 weeks produced substantial reductions in IDL-C, which was additive compared with each monotherapy. Coadministered ERN/LRPT + SIM produced marked reductions in atherogenic lipoproteins, with the greatest effect on IDL-C, and increases in protective HDL subclasses.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 05/2012; 6(3):235-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2011.11.004 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report describes the lipid and safety data collected during an off-drug period that followed 8 weeks of treatment with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, anacetrapib (ANA). A total of 589 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to placebo, atorvastatin (ATV) 20 mg, and varying doses of ANA, provided as monotherapy or coadministered with ATV 20 mg daily. Patients were treated for 8 weeks, followed by an 8-week follow-up period, during which ANA was switched to placebo. At week 16 (8 weeks after ANA was stopped), persistent reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were evident for the monotherapy groups receiving ANA 150 and 300 mg (-9.3% and -15.3%, respectively), and residual increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were observed for the monotherapy groups receiving ANA 40 mg (18.6%), 150 mg (40.5%), and 300 mg (43.4%). The effects on apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I were consistent with the changes observed for LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. Corresponding residual changes in LDL-C and HDL-C were also noted in the ATV coadministration groups at the similar doses of ANA compared with ATV 20 mg alone. Residual plasma drug levels accompanied by reductions in cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity were observed at week 16 and may account for the alterations in plasma lipids 8 weeks after cessation of ANA.
    American heart journal 10/2011; 162(4):708-16. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2011.07.010 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and multiple lipid abnormalities are common. Niacin effectively treats diabetic dyslipidaemia and reduces cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. We evaluated the lipid-altering efficacy and safety (especially, glycaemic control) of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT; a tablet containing 1 g ERN and 20 mg LRPT) in patients with T2DM. In this multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 36-week study, patients (n=796) were randomised 4:3 to ERN/LRPT or placebo. After four weeks at 1 g/day, ERN/LRPT was doubled to 2 g/day (two tablets) for the remainder of the study. The vast majority of randomised patients (~90%) were dyslipidaemic based on medical history or baseline lipid levels; approximately 80% were taking statins and 99% were on an antihyperglycaemic regimen. At week 12, ERN/LRPT produced significant (p≤0.001 for all) percentage changes from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (-17.9%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (23.2%), LDL-C:HDL-C (-32.0%), triglycerides (-23.1%), apolipoprotein (Apo) B (-17.1%), Apo A-I (8.2%) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C (-22.9%) versus placebo. The clinical and laboratory adverse events that occurred more frequently in the ERN/LRPT group versus the placebo group were pruritus, rash, flushing, gastrointestinal upset and elevations in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). From baseline to week 36, median FPG and HbA1c increased with ERN/LRPT from 7.31 to 7.88 mmol/L and 6.9 to 7.3%, respectively, consistent with known niacin effects. More patients in the ERN/LRPT group required intensified antihyperglycaemic therapy (17.6% vs. 8.2%; p≤0.001). In this population of patients with T2DM, ERN/LRPT produced significant, durable improvements in lipids/lipoproteins and had a safety profile consistent with ERN/LRPT and ERN alone in other populations.
    British Journal of Cardiology 02/2011; 18(1):37-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Anacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor that raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety profile of anacetrapib in patients with coronary heart disease or at high risk for coronary heart disease. Eligible patients who were taking a statin and who had an LDL cholesterol level that was consistent with that recommended in guidelines were assigned to receive 100 mg of anacetrapib or placebo daily for 18 months. The primary end points were the percent change from baseline in LDL cholesterol at 24 weeks (HDL cholesterol level was a secondary end point) and the safety and side-effect profile of anacetrapib through 76 weeks. Cardiovascular events and deaths were prospectively adjudicated. A total of 1623 patients underwent randomization. By 24 weeks, the LDL cholesterol level had been reduced from 81 mg per deciliter (2.1 mmol per liter) to 45 mg per deciliter (1.2 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group, as compared with a reduction from 82 mg per deciliter (2.1 mmol per liter) to 77 mg per deciliter (2.0 mmol per liter) in the placebo group (P<0.001)--a 39.8% reduction with anacetrapib beyond that seen with placebo. In addition, the HDL cholesterol level increased from 41 mg per deciliter (1.0 mmol per liter) to 101 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group, as compared with an increase from 40 mg per deciliter (1.0 mmol per liter) to 46 mg per deciliter (1.2 mmol per liter) in the placebo group (P<0.001)--a 138.1% increase with anacetrapib beyond that seen with placebo. Through 76 weeks, no changes were noted in blood pressure or electrolyte or aldosterone levels with anacetrapib as compared with placebo. Prespecified adjudicated cardiovascular events occurred in 16 patients treated with anacetrapib (2.0%) and 21 patients receiving placebo (2.6%) (P = 0.40). The prespecified Bayesian analysis indicated that this event distribution provided a predictive probability (confidence) of 94% that anacetrapib would not be associated with a 25% increase in cardiovascular events, as seen with torcetrapib. Treatment with anacetrapib had robust effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol, had an acceptable side-effect profile, and, within the limits of the power of this study, did not result in the adverse cardiovascular effects observed with torcetrapib. (Funded by Merck Research Laboratories; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00685776.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2010; 363(25):2406-15. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1009744 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Until recently, patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were considered the best subjects for the assessment of changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in randomized intervention trials. Our aims were to investigate whether contemporary statin-treated HeFH patients still show accelerated cIMT increase and to assess the impact of statin treatment, before and after random assignment, on atherosclerosis progression. We retrospectively evaluated cIMT change, and prior statin treatment and postbaseline LDL-C change as predictors of cIMT change, in 1513 HeFH patients who were randomly assigned to the statin arms of the early ASAP and more recent RADIANCE 1, CAPTIVATE, and ENHANCE studies. In the 3 recent studies combined, mean cIMT increased at only 33%of the rate of the simvastatin-treated patients in the ASAP study (0.014 mm/2 years [95% confidence interval, -0.0003-0.028] versus 0.041 mm/2 years [95% confidence interval, 0.020-0.061]; P<0.05). Patients whose statin therapy could be intensified, as evidenced by an LDL-C decrease after the initiation of on-trial statin therapy, showed cIMT decrease in the first 6 to 12 months and a much lower cIMT increase measured over the full 2 years. In line with this, previously statin-naive HeFH patients showed a lower overall cIMT increase. Over the years, intensification of statin therapy in HeFH patients has resulted in an impressive decrease in carotid atherosclerosis progression. In studies that assess other antiatherosclerotic modalities, statin therapy may still induce rapid changes in cIMT. For future cIMT studies, our analyses suggest that patient populations other than intensively pretreated HeFH patients should be selected and that the statin regimen should not be changed on study initiation.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 07/2010; 3(4):398-404. DOI:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.109.909655 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety profile of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT), pooling data from studies in the clinical development program. Data were pooled from three active- or placebo-controlled phase 3 studies and three 1-year extensions of phase 2 studies that ranged from 12 to 52 weeks (N = 4747): ERN/LRPT = 2548; ERN or Niaspan® (ERN-NSP = 1268); or simvastatin or placebo (SIMVA-PBO = 931). The safety and tolerability profile for ERN/LRPT was similar to that of ERN-NSP, except for fewer flushing-related adverse experiences and discontinuations with ERN/LRPT than ERN-NSP. The incidence of consecutive ≥3× the upper limit of normal increases in alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase was numerically (but not statistically) greater with ERN/LRPT (1.0%) than ERN-NSP (0.5%) and similar to SIMVA-PBO (0.9%). Elevations were reversible with therapy discontinuation and not associated with clinical hepatotoxicity. There was no evidence that ERN/LRPT administered alone or concurrently with a statin had adverse effects on muscle. ERN/LRPT and ERN-NSP produced small median increases in fasting blood glucose levels (∼4 mg/dL) after 24 weeks of treatment, consistent with known effects of niacin. The favorable safety and tolerability profile of ERN/LRPT for up to 1 year supports the use of LRPT to achieve improved therapeutic dosing of niacin, an agent with comprehensive lipid-modifying efficacy and shown to reduce cardiovascular risk.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 03/2010; 4(2):105-112.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2010.02.002 · 3.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
505.75 Total Impact Points


  • 2010
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • TIMI Study Group
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • Sterling Research
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Granada
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2005
    • University of Oslo
      • Division of Medicine
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2004
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2001
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Clinical Nutrition
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2000
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • Emory University
      • Division of Cardiology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States