[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proenkephalin Peptide F [107-140] is an enkephalin-containing Peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla, co-packaged with epinephrine within the chromaffin granules. In vivo studies indicate that Peptide F has classic opioid analgesia effects; in vitro studies suggest potential immune cell interactions. In this investigation we examined patterns of Peptide F concentrations in different bio-compartments of the blood at rest and following sub-maximal cycle exercise to determine if Peptide F interacts with the white blood cell (WBC) bio-compartment during aerobic exercise. Eight physically active men (n=8) performed sub-maximal (80-85% VO(2)(peak)) cycle ergometer exercise for 30minutes. Plasma Peptide F and WBC Peptide F immunoreactivity were examined pre-exercise, mid-exercise and immediately post-, 5-min post-, 15-min post-, 30-min post- and 60-min post-exercise and at similar time-points during a control condition (30minutes rest). Peptide F concentrations significantly (P<0.05) increased at 5 and 60minutes post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise concentrations. No significant increases in Peptide F concentrations in the WBC fraction were observed during or after exercise. However, a significant decrease was observed at 30minutes post-exercise. An ultradian pattern of Peptide F distribution was apparent during rest. Furthermore, concentrations of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and total WBCs demonstrated significant changes in response to aerobic exercise. Data indicated that Peptide F was bound in significant molar concentrations in the WBC fraction and that this biocompartment may be one of the tissue targets for binding interactions. These data indicate that Peptide F is involved with immune cell modulation in the white blood circulatory biocompartment of blood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise) to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consisted of a 12-week exercise (e.g., Latin dance), nutrition education, and counseling intervention. The design included a two-arm parallel group assignment to an experimental group (EG; included 26 mother-daughter dyads) and comparison group (CG; included 20 mother-daughter dyads). Pre- and postintervention 20-Meter Endurance Shuttle Run Test and accelerometry were used to measure children's aerobic capacity and physical activity, respectively. For the mothers, the Rockport Walk test and Non-Exercise Physical Activity Rating test were employed to assess aerobic fitness and physical activity. Anthropometric, demographic, and dietary assessments were also collected pre- and postintervention. Differences in outcome measures between groups were tested using repeated measures analysis of covariance. The BOUNCE intervention had a significant effect on EG Latino daughters' aerobic capacity (P = 0.044). Although not statistically significant, EG daughters reported a higher reduction of high fat food and sweetened beverages and an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption compared to CG daughters. Similarly, EG mothers reported more strategies to increase fruit/vegetable consumption and reduce fat intake compared to CG mothers. No changes in physical activity or BMI were observed between EG and CG mother-daughter dyads.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the neonatal period, high protein breakdown rate is a metabolic process inherent to elevated rates of protein accretion in skeletal muscle. To determine the relationship between hindlimb net movements of essential and nonessential amino acids in the regulation of hindlimb protein breakdown during an overnight fasting-feeding cycle, we infused overnight-food-deprived 10- and 28-day-old piglets with [1-(13)C]phenylalanine and [ring-(2)H(4)]tyrosine over 7 h (during 3 h of fasting and then during 4 h of feeding). Extraction rates for aspartate and glutamate after an overnight fast were 15% and 51% in the 10-day-old compared with 6% and 25% in the 28-day-old (P < 0.05) piglets, suggesting an altered requirement for precursors of amino acids to shuttle nitrogen to the liver as early life progresses. This occurred simultaneously with marginal positive hindlimb net balance of essential amino acids after an overnight fast, with negative net release of many nonessential amino acids, such as alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, and proline. This suggests that newborn muscle does not undergo significant protein mobilization after a short period of fasting in support of an elevated rate of protein accretion. Furthermore, tyrosine efflux from hindlimb breakdown between overnight fasting and feeding periods was not different in the 10-day-old piglets, for which tyrosine was limiting, but when tyrosine supply balanced requirements in the 28-day-old piglet, hindlimb efflux was increased (P = 0.01). The results of the present study indicate that proteolysis and net movements of amino acids are coordinated mechanisms that sustain the elevated rate of net protein accretion during overnight feeding-fasting cycles in the neonate.
Journal of Applied Physiology 10/2008; 105(6):1959-66. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high efficiency of protein deposition during the neonatal period is driven by high rates of protein synthesis, which are maximally stimulated after feeding. In the current study, we examined the individual roles of amino acids and insulin in the regulation of protein synthesis in peripheral and visceral tissues of the neonate by performing pancreatic glucose-amino acid clamps in overnight-fasted 7-day-old pigs. We infused pigs (n = 8-12/group) with insulin at 0, 10, 22, and 110 ng kg(-0.66) min(-1) to achieve approximately 0, 2, 6 and 30 muU ml(-1) insulin so as to simulate below fasting, fasting, intermediate, and fed insulin levels, respectively. At each insulin dose, amino acids were maintained at the fasting or fed level. In conjunction with the highest insulin dose, amino acids were also allowed to fall below the fasting level. Tissue protein synthesis was measured using a flooding dose of L: -[4-(3)H] phenylalanine. Both insulin and amino acids increased fractional rates of protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm muscles. Insulin, but not amino acids, increased protein synthesis in the skin. Amino acids, but not insulin, increased protein synthesis in the liver, pancreas, spleen, and lung and tended to increase protein synthesis in the jejunum and kidney. Neither insulin nor amino acids altered protein synthesis in the stomach. The results suggest that the stimulation of protein synthesis by feeding in most tissues of the neonate is regulated by the post-prandial rise in amino acids. However, the feeding-induced stimulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscles is independently mediated by insulin as well as amino acids.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Few family-based healthy lifestyle programs for Latinos have been conducted, especially family programs targeting mother-daughter dyads. Purpose: To assess the acceptability and feasibility of the Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition Counseling and Exercise (BOUNCE) program designed for Latino mother-daughter pairs. Methods: 92 participants (46 mother-daughter pairs) were recruited from two elementary schools (3rd-6th grades). Process evaluation measures included attendance rates, instructor and participant's evaluation of program. Results: Moderate levels of participation were maintained during the BOUNCE program. Of the 46 mother-daughter pairs who were enrolled, 35 pairs (76%) completed pre- and post-intervention measurements. Participants rated BOUNCE program activities, content, and instructors as highly satisfactory. Daughters reported cooking, food tasting, journaling, and dancing as the most enjoyable and helpful activities. Mothers' most reported enjoyable and helpful activities were grocery shopping tour, food tasting, samba, and salsa dancing. Child care needs, low literacy, parental working schedule, religious beliefs against dancing, and mandatory tutoring were identified as participation barriers. Discussion: Process evaluation demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of the BOUNCE program. Identifying and addressing barriers to participation during the developmental stages of the intervention strengthened the design of this intervention. Translation to Health Education Practice: Results should be of value to health educators involved in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community-and family-based interventions designed for Latino families.
American Journal of Health Education. 08/2008; 39(5):283-295.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose was to examine effects of oral contraceptive (OC) use on plasma growth hormone (GH) responses to heavy resistance exercise. Sixty untrained women were placed into one of two groups: currently using OC (Ortho Tri-Cyclen) (n=25; mean+/-SD: 24.5+/-4.2y, 160.4+/-7.1cm, 64.1+/-11.3kg) or not currently using OC (NOC) (n=35; 23.6+/-4.6y, 165.9+/-6.0cm, 65.7+/-10.3kg). Participants performed an acute heavy resistance exercise test (AHRET; six sets of 10 repetition squats; 2min rest between sets) during days 2-4 of the follicular phase (NOC group) or of inactive oral contraceptive intake (OC group). Plasma was obtained before and immediately after AHRET and subsequently fractionated based on apparent molecular weight (>60kD, 30-60kD, and <30kD). GH was determined in unfractionated plasma and each plasma fraction using 4 methods: (1) Nichols Institute Diagnostics immunoradiometric assay (Nichols), (2) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) competitive radioimmunoassay, (3) DSL immunofunctional enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (IFA) and (4) rat tibial line bioassay. GH increased (P<0.05) in all fractions post-AHRET for the Nichols, NIDDK, and IFA. The OC group displayed higher resting GH for the NIDDK, and higher exercise-induced GH for the IFA, Nichols, and NIDDK in unfractionated plasma and >60kD subfraction compared to NOC group. No differences were observed for the tibial line bioassay. OC use augmented immunological GH response to AHRET in unfractionated plasma and >60kD molecular weight subfraction. However, OC use only increased biological activity of GH in one of two bioassays. These data demonstrated that GH concentrations at rest and following exercise are assay-dependent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Diets high in fat, especially saturated fat, are often linked to obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, all risk factors for CVD. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between diet and CVD risk factors in members of a university marching band, dance team and cheer squad.
In 2004, 232 marching band, dance team and cheer squad members completed a self-administered survey evaluating dietary intake. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, fasting serum glucose and cholesterol were measured. Unpaired t-test and Pearson's chi square test were used to determine baseline differences by gender. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the cross-sectional association between dietary intake of various food groups such as grains, meats, fruits & vegetables, dairy, water, alcohol and risk factors for CVD namely BMI, WHR, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP).
45% of the participants were overweight; 30% of females and 4.3% of males had WHR >/= 0.80 and 0.95 respectively. Almost 8% were hyperglycemic, 10% hypercholesterolemic, 15% had high systolic and 9% had high diastolic BP. Less than 50% consumed the recommended servings of grains, fruits and vegetables, dairy and water and 58% consumed alcohol. Higher grains intake was positively associated with higher BMI (Adjusted beta = 1.97, p = 0.030, 95% CI: 0.19, 3.74) and; higher alcohol intake was also positively associated with higher BMI (Adjusted beta = 0.15, p = 0.002, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.24).
These results warrant the evaluation of existing college-based health programs and development of new interventions to improve dietary habits and promote a healthy lifestyle in these athletes.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 01/2008; 5:9. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation determined the influence of acute and chronic resistance exercise on responses of growth hormone (GH) molecular variants in women. Seventy-four healthy young women (23 +/- 3 yr, 167 +/- 7 cm, 63.8 +/- 9.3 kg, 26.3 +/- 4.0% body fat) performed an acute bout of resistance exercise (6 sets of 10 repetition maximum squat). Blood samples were obtained pre- and postexercise. Resulting plasma was fractionated by molecular mass (fraction A, >60 kDa; fraction B, 30-60 kDa; and fraction C, <30 kDa) using chromatography. Fractionated and unfractionated (UF) plasma was then assayed for GH using three different detection systems (monoclonal immunoassay, polyclonal immunoassay, and rat tibial line in vivo bioassay). Subjects were then matched and randomly placed into one of four resistance exercise training groups or a control group for 24 wk. All experimental procedures were repeated on completion of the 24-wk resistance training programs. After acute exercise, immunoassays showed consistent increases in UF GH samples and fractions B and C; increases in fraction A using immunoassay were seen only in the monoclonal assay. No consistent changes in bioactive GH were found following acute exercise. Conversely, chronic exercise induced no consistent changes in immunoassayable GH of various molecular masses, whereas, in general, bioassayable GH increased. In summary, although acute exercise increased only immunoactive GH, chronic physical training increased the biological activity of circulating GH molecular variants. Increased bioactive GH was observed across all fractions and training regimens, suggesting that chronic resistance exercise increased a spectrum of GH molecules that may be necessary for the multitude of somatogenic and metabolic actions of GH.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2006; 291(6):E1177-87. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis promotes insulin resistance and reduces protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of adults. The effect of sepsis on insulin-stimulated muscle protein synthesis has not been determined in neonates, a highly anabolic population that is uniquely sensitive to insulin. Overnight fasted neonatal pigs were infused for 8 h with endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 0 and 10 mug.kg(-1).h(-1)]. Glucose and amino acids were maintained at fasting levels, insulin was clamped at either fasting or fed (2 or 10 muU/ml) levels, and fractional protein synthesis rates were determined at the end of the infusion. LPS infusion induced a septic-like state, as indicated by a sustained elevation in body temperature, heart rate, and cortisol. At fasting insulin levels, LPS reduced fractional protein synthesis rates in gastrocnemius muscle (-26%) but had no effect on the masseter and heart. By contrast, LPS stimulated liver protein synthesis (+28%). Increasing insulin to fed levels accelerated protein synthesis rates in gastrocnemius (controls by +38%, LPS by +60%), masseter (controls by +50%, LPS by +43%), heart (controls by +34%, LPS by +40%), and diaphragm (controls by +54%, LPS by +29%), and the response to insulin was similar in LPS and controls. Insulin did not alter protein synthesis in liver, kidney, or jejunum in either group. These findings suggest that acute endotoxemia lowers basal fasting muscle protein synthesis in neonates but does not alter the response of protein synthesis to insulin.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2006; 291(1):E159-66. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was the first study to examine the three circulatory biocompartments (plasma, white blood cell layer (WBC) and red blood cell layer (RBC)) and determine PF concentrations before and after exercise. Proenkephalin peptide F (PF) is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla. PF is co-packaged with epinephrine, and both can be co-secreted in response to similar stimuli. PF and epinephrine have shown immunomodulating properties. Ten healthy resistance trained men performed six sets of 10 RM squats with 2 min rest periods between sets and 10 healthy active men were matched and served as resting controls. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 15 min post-exercise and were analyzed for lactate, cortisol, epinephrine and biocompartmentalized PF. There was no change in resting control values measured across time within respective PF biocompartments and endocrine profile, indicating stability and technique validity of peptide F across the time period measured. As expected, the acute resistance exercise protocol caused an increase in lactate at 15 min post-exercise. Circulating epinephrine increased immediately post-exercise and returned to baseline during 15 min into recovery. Plasma PF increased immediate post-exercise and 15 min post-exercise, while WBC-PF and RBC-PF only increased at 15 min into recovery. For all time points tested, resting and exercise WBC-PF and RBC-PF concentrations were lower than plasma PF thus indicating a concentration difference across the three different biocompartments within the same blood sample. The presence of PF within all three biocompartments of whole blood may indicate the potential for biological transport and interactions with other cells in other biocompartments of the blood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proenkephalin peptide F [107-140] is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla and is co-packaged with epinephrine within adrenal medullary chromaffin granules. Peptide F has been shown to have the classic opioid analgesia effects along with immune cell interactions. This is only the second peptide F study in women, and in it we compare the responses of peptide F to a maximal cycle exercise test and recovery values over the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Eight untrained (directly documented in this study) women who were eumenorrheic performed a progressive maximal exercise test to volitional exhaustion on a cycle ergometer, once during the follicular phase, and once during the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Blood was obtained pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and at 0, 15, and 30 min into recovery. Typical exercise changes in response to the cycle tests were observed with blood lactate increases that remained elevated 30 min into recovery. No significant exercise-induced elevations were observed for peptide F concentrations with exercise nor were any differences observed between the two menstrual phases. Thus, the effects of the menstrual cycle on peptide F concentrations appear to be minimal under the conditions of this investigation. With high concentrations of peptide F observed at rest (approx. 0.2-0.3 pmol ml(-1)) pre-exercise arousal mechanisms may have obviated any exercise-induced response. In addition, inhibition via elevated epinephrine may have inhibited any post-exercise increases and finally adrenal medullary capacity for circulatory concentrations of peptide F may have been reached in such untrained women. Pre-exercise arousal mechanisms potentially related to analgesia may also be involved to prepare untrained women for the stress of maximal exercise.