[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family members mediate the adherence of parasite-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) to various host receptors. A previous study has shown that the parasite protein, cytoadherence-linked asexual gene 9 (CLAG9), is also essential for IRBC adherence. However, how CLAG9 influences this process remains unknown. In this study, we show that CLAG9 interacts with VAR2CSA, a PfEMP1 that mediates IRBC adherence to chondroitin 4-sulfate in the placenta. Importantly, our results show that the adherent parasites synthesize CLAG9 at two stages--the early ring and late trophozoite stages. Localization studies revealed that a substantial level of CLAG9 is located mainly at or in close proximity of the IRBC membrane in association with VAR2CSA. Upon treatment of IRBCs with trypsin, a significant amount of CLAG9 (≈150 kDa) was converted into ≈142-kDa polypeptide. Together these data demonstrate that a considerable amount of CLAG9 is embedded in the IRBC membrane such that at least a portion of the polypeptide at either N or C terminus is exposed on the cell surface. In parasites lacking CLAG9, VAR2CSA failed to express on the IRBC surface and was located within the parasite. Based on these findings, we propose that CLAG9 plays a critical role in the trafficking of PfEMP1s onto the IRBC surface. These results have important implications for the development of therapeutics for cerebral, placental, and other cytoadherence-associated malaria illnesses.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2010; 107(38):16643-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy results in the adherence of infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in placenta, causing pregnancy-associated malaria with severe health complications in mothers and fetuses. The chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) chains of very low sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in placenta mediate the IRBC adherence. While it is known that partially sulfated but not fully sulfated C4S effectively binds IRBCs, structural interactions involved remain unclear and are incompletely understood. In this study, structurally defined C4S oligosaccharides of varying sulfate contents and sizes were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the binding of IRBCs from different P. falciparum strains to CSPG purified from placenta. The results clearly show that, with all parasite strains studied, dodecasaccharide is the minimal chain length required for the efficient adherence of IRBCs to CSPG and two 4-sulfated disaccharides within this minimal structural motif are sufficient for maximal binding. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that the C4S structural requirement for IRBC adherence is parasite strain-independent. We also show that the carboxyl group on nonreducing end glucuronic acid in dodecasaccharide motif is important for IRBC binding. Thus, in oligosaccharides containing terminal 4,5-unsaturated glucuronic acid, the nonreducing end disaccharide moiety does not interact with IRBCs due to the altered spatial orientation of carboxyl group. In such C4S oligosaccharides, 14-mer but not 12-mer constitutes the minimal motif for inhibition of IRBC binding to placental CSPG. These data have important implications for the development and evaluation of therapeutics and vaccine for placental malaria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta is mediated by chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S). The C4S-adherent parasites selected from laboratory strains have been widely used for determining the C4S structural elements involved in IRBC binding and for the identification of parasite adhesive protein(s). However, as far as we know, the relative binding strength of the placental versus laboratory-selected parasites has not been reported. In this study, we show that IRBCs from the infected placentas bind to C4S about 3-fold higher than those selected for C4S adherence from laboratory strains. Although adherent parasites selected from several laboratory strains have comparable binding strengths, the one obtained from 3D7 parasites designated as 3D7N61 used for malaria genome sequencing, exhibits markedly lower binding strength. Furthermore, 3D7N61-CSA parasites lose most of the binding capacity by tenth generation in continuous culture.
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 06/2008; 159(1):79-84. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondroitinase ABC is a lyase that degrades chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and hyaluronic acid into disaccharides. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of chondroitinase ABC to degrade chondroitin sulfate in which the N-acetyl groups are substituted with different acyl groups. The bovine tracheal chondroitin sulfate A (bCSA) was N-deacetylated by hydrazinolysis, and the free amino groups derivatized into N-formyl, N-propionyl, N-butyryl, N-hexanoyl or N-benzoyl amides. Treatment of the N-acyl or N-benzoyl derivatives of bCSA with chondroitinase ABC and analysis of the products showed that the N-formyl, N-hexanoyl and N-benzoyl derivatives are completely resistant to the enzyme. In contrast, the N-propionyl or N-butyryl derivatives were degraded into disaccharides with slower kinetics compared to that of unmodified bCSA. The rate of degradation of bCSA derivatives by the enzyme was found to be in the order of N-acetyl>N-propionyl>N-butyryl bCSA. These results have important implications for understanding the interaction of N-acetyl groups of glycosaminoglycans with chondroitinase ABC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in the human placenta is mediated by chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S). Although IRBC binding to C4S has been unequivocally established, the adherence characteristics of IRBCs at different stages of parasite development and through successive parasite generations after selection for C4S adherence are not known. Here we show that IRBCs acquire a significant capacity to bind to C4S at as early as 14 h and exhibit maximum binding at 22 to 26 h postinvasion. Surprisingly, the IRBC binding ability decreases by approximately 50% at the late trophozoite and schizont stages. The binding strength of the IRBCs also gradually decreases during successive generations after selection for C4S binding, and at the 32nd generation, the binding capacity was only approximately 31% of that of IRBCs at the 2nd generation, suggesting that IRBCs eventually lose their C4S-adherent capacity. We also tested the susceptibility of the adhesive protein(s) on the IRBC surface to trypsin treatment at different stages of parasite development. The data show that IRBCs with late trophozoites are more resistant to trypsin treatment than those containing early trophozoites, indicating that parasite proteins expressed on the IRBC surface during trophozoite maturation partially mask accessibility of adhesive protein for binding to C4S. These data provide important insights into the expression pattern of the C4S-adhesive protein(s) on the IRBC surface, emphasizing the need for understanding the regulation of genes involved in IRBC binding to C4S. Our data also define the parasite stage at which IRBCs are suitable for studying structural interactions with C4S.
Infection and Immunity 10/2007; 75(9):4409-15. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has been suggested as an additional receptor even though IRBC binding to HA and the presence of HA at locations where IRBCs adhere in the placenta have not been established. In this study, we investigated whether HA is also a receptor for IRBC binding. IRBCs from infected placentas as well as those from different laboratory strains could bind to CSPG but not to HA. In a cell depletion assay, IRBCs from infected placentas could bind quantitatively to CSPG. Although CSPG is present both in the intervillous space and on the syncytiotrophoblast surface, HA is absent in these locations. These data conclusively demonstrate that CSPG, but not HA, is a receptor for IRBC adherence in the placenta. Our data also show, for the first time, that the IRBC-binding CSPG in the placenta is of fetal origin and that, in P. falciparum-infected placentas, the CSPG level is significantly increased, which could exacerbate IRBC adherence and placental pathogenesis. These results have important implications for the development of anti-IRBC adhesion-based vaccine for pregnancy-associated malaria.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/2007; 170(6):1989-2000. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dodecasaccharide motif of the low-sulfated chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) mediate the binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Here we studied the detailed C4S structural requirements by assessing the ability of chemically modified C4S to inhibit IRBC binding to the placental chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Replacement of the N-acetyl groups with bulky N-acyl or N-benzoyl substituents had no effect on the inhibitory activity of C4S, whereas reduction of the carboxyl groups abrogated the activity. Dermatan sulfates showed approximately 50% inhibitory activity when compared with C4Ss with similar sulfate contents. These data demonstrate that the C4S carboxyl groups and their equatorial orientation but not the N-acetyl groups are critical for IRBC binding. Conjugation of bulky substituents to the reducing end N-acetylgalactosamine residues of C4S dodecasaccharide had no effect on its inhibitory activity. Based on these results, we prepared photoaffinity reagents for the identification of the parasite proteins involved in C4S binding. Cross-linking of the IRBCs with a radioiodinated photoactivable C4S dodecasaccharide labeled a approximately 22-kDa novel parasite protein, suggesting strongly for the first time that a low molecular weight IRBC surface protein rather than a 200-400-kDa PfEMP1 is involved in C4S binding. Conjugation of biotin to the C4S dodecasaccharide photoaffinity probe afforded a strategy for the isolation of the labeled protein by avidin affinity precipitation, facilitating efforts to identify the C4S-adherent IRBC protein(s). Our results also have broader implications for designing oligosaccharide-based photoaffinity probes for the identification of proteins involved in glycosaminoglycan-dependent attachment of microbes to hosts.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2007; 282(2):916-28. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that the human placenta contains a uniquely low sulfated extracellular aggrecan family chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG). This CSPG is a major receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in placentas, causing pregnancy-specific malaria. However, it is not known whether such low sulfated CSPGs occur in placentas of other animals and, if so, whether IRBCs bind to those CSPGs. In this study, we show that rat placenta contains a uniquely low sulfated extracellular CSPG bearing chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, which comprise only approximately 2% 4-sulfated and the remainder nonsulfated disaccharides. Surprisingly, the core protein of the rat placental CSPG, unlike that of the human placental CSPG, is a spongiotrophoblast-specific protein (SSP), which is expressed in a pregnancy stage-dependent manner. The majority of rat placental SSP is present in the CSPG form, and only approximately 10% occurs without CS chain substitution. Of the total SSP-CSPG in rat placenta, approximately 57% is modified with a single CS chain, and approximately 43% carries two CS chains. These data together with the previous finding on human placental CSPG suggest that the expression of low sulfated CSPG is a common feature of animal placentas. Our data also show that the unique species-specific difference in the biology of the rat and human placentas is reflected in the occurrence of completely different CSPG core protein types. Furthermore, the rat SSP-CSPG binds P. falciparum IRBCs in a CS chain-dependent manner. Since IRBCs have been reported to accumulate in the placentas of malaria parasite-infected rodents, our results have important implications for exploiting pregnant rats as a model for studying chondroitin 4-sulfate-based therapeutics for human placental malaria.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2006; 281(43):32327-34. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax uses a single member of the Duffy binding-like (DBL) receptor family to invade erythrocytes and is not found in West Africa where its erythrocyte ligand, the Duffy blood group antigen, is missing. In contrast, Plasmodium falciparum expresses four members of the DBL family, and remarkably, single-point mutations of two of these receptors (BAEBL and JESEBL) bind to entirely different erythrocyte ligands, greatly expanding the range of erythrocytes that P. falciparum can invade. In this article, we describe the molecular basis of the binding specificity for one BAEBL variant (VSTK) that binds to glycophorin C. We demonstrate that soluble glycophorin C completely blocks the binding of BAEBL (VSTK) to human erythrocytes, requiring 0.7 microM for 50% inhibition, a concentration similar to that required by glycophorin A to block the binding of erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 to erythrocytes. BAEBL (VSTK) does not bind to Gerbich-negative erythrocytes that express a truncated form of glycophorin C because it lacks exon 3. The N-linked oligosaccharide of Gerbich-negative glycophorin C has a markedly different composition than the wild-type glycophorin C. Moreover, removal of the N-linked oligosaccharide from the wild-type glycophorin C eliminates its ability to inhibit binding of BAEBL (VSTK) to erythrocytes. These findings are consistent with the ligand for BAEBL (VSTK) being, in part, the N-linked oligosaccharide and suggest that single-point mutations in BAEBL allow P. falciparum to recognize oligosaccharides on different erythrocyte surface glycoproteins or glycolipids, greatly increasing its invasion range.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(7):2358-62. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structures of the bovine corneal chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains and the nature of core proteins to which these chains are attached have not been studied in detail. In this study, we show that structurally diverse CS chains are present in bovine cornea and that they are mainly linked to decorin core protein. DEAE-Sephacel chromatography fractionated the corneal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) into three distinct fractions, CSPG-I, CSPG-II, and CSPG-III. These CSPGs markedly differ in their CS and dermatan sulfate (DS) contents, and in particular the CS structure-the overall sulfate content and 4- to 6-sulfate ratio. In general, the CS chains of the corneal CSPGs have low to moderate levels (15-64%) of sulfated disaccharides and 0-30% DS content. Structural analysis indicated that the DS disaccharide units in the CS chains are segregated as large blocks. We have also assessed the suitability of the corneal CSPGs as an alternative to placental CSPG or the widely used bovine tracheal chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) for studying the structural interactions involved in the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) to chondroitin 4-sulfate. The data demonstrate that the corneal CSPGs efficiently bind IRBCs, and that the binding strength is either comparable or significantly higher than the placental CSPG. In contrast, the IRBC binding strength of bovine tracheal CSA is markedly lower than the human placental and bovine corneal CSPGs. Thus, our data demonstrate that the bovine corneal CSPG but not tracheal CSA is suitable for studying structural interactions involved in IRBC-C4S binding.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2004; 1701(1-2):109-19. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in the human placenta is mediated by chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S). A cytoadherence assay using chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) is widely used for studying C4S-IRBC interactions. Bovine tracheal chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) preparation lacking a major portion of core protein has been frequently used for the assay. Here the CSPG purified from bovine trachea and CSA were assessed for IRBC binding and the CS chains studied in detail for structure-activity relationship. The IRBCs bound at significantly higher density to the CSPG than CSA. The CS chains of CSPG/CSA are heterogeneous with varying levels of 4- and 6-sulfates, which are distributed such that approximately 80% of the 4-sulfated disaccharides are present as single and blocks of two or three separated by one to three 6-sulfated disaccharides. The remainder of the 4-sulfated disaccharides is present in blocks composed of 4-12 units, separated by 6-sulfated disaccharides. In the IRBC adherence inhibition analysis, CSA fragments with 88%-92% 4-sulfate were significantly less inhibitory than the intact CSA, indicating that the regions consisting of shorter 4-sulfated blocks efficiently bind IRBCs despite the presence of relatively high levels of 6-sulfate. This is because the 6-sulfated disaccharides have unsubstituted C-4 hydroxyls that are crucial for IRBC binding. The presence of high levels of 6-sulfate, however, significantly interfere with the IRBC binding activity of CSA, which otherwise would more efficiently bind IRBCs. Thus our study revealed the distribution pattern of 4- and 6-sulfate in bovine tracheal CSA and structural basis for IRBC binding.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) sequester in the placenta through chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S)-mediated adherence. The pattern of IRBC adherence in P. falciparum-infected placenta has been controversial. Moreover, the identity of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) receptor, that mediates IRBC adherence, and its location in the placenta have not been established. This study, using immunohistochemical techniques, clearly shows, for the first time, that the low-sulfated CSPGs of the placenta are localized predominantly in the intervillous space. Ex vivo IRBC adherence analyses demonstrate that the IRBCs are adhered to the CSPG receptors in the placenta in a C4S-dependent manner. This IRBC binding pattern was similar to that observed in P. falciparum-infected placentas. These data and the results of dual-fluorescence staining of the endogenous RBCs and syncytiotrophoblasts, and co-localization of CSPG and IRBC adherence unequivocally establish that the low-sulfated CSPGs are the major natural receptors for IRBC adherence in the placenta. Further, it was found that IRBCs adhere mainly in the intervillous space and also at significant levels to the syncytiotrophoblasts. Finally, the ex vivo IRBC adherence method described herein provides a reliable procedure for future studies for the assessment of the efficacy of C4S inhibitors and adhesion inhibitory antibodies.
American Journal Of Pathology 07/2004; 164(6):2013-25. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy leads to chondroitin 4-sulfate-mediated adhesion of the infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in the placenta, causing severe health complications to fetus and the mother. The IRBCs are also frequently found in low density in the umbilical cord of infected placentas. In this study, the CSPGs of umbilical vein and arteries were purified, characterized, and their localization and IRBC-binding abilities were studied. While a versican type CSPG was found both in the vein and arteries, a serglycin type CSPG was present exclusively in the vein. The CSPGs were present at significant level on the endothelial surface of the umbilical vein but not on that of arteries. Although the purified versican and serglycin type CSPGs could bind IRBCs, their binding abilities were significantly less compared to the low sulfated CSPGs of the placenta because of the predominance of 6-sulfated disaccharide moieties in the CS chains. Therefore, IRBCs were unable to bind efficiently onto the umbilical cord endothelial surface. Unexpectedly, however, the IRBCs adhered densely in the blood vessels of fetal villi in the placental tissue sections and sparingly in the blood spaces of the umbilical cord vein, presumably because the CSPG that can efficiently bind IRBCs is present at high levels in the fetal blood vessels and at very low levels in the umbilical cord blood vessels. Since the C4S-adherent IRBCs that enter the fetal blood vessels cannot adhere to the cord endothelial surface and parasites cannot efficiently grow due to fetal hemoglobin toxicity and protection by maternal antibodies, transplacental infection may be quickly cleared without clinical episodes.
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 04/2004; 134(1):115-26. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy leads to the selective adherence of infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in the placenta causing placental malaria. The IRBC adherence is mediated through the chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) chains of unusually low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placenta. To study the structural interactions involved in C4S-IRBC adherence, various investigators have used CSPGs from different sources. Since the structural characteristics of the polysaccharide chains in CSPGs from various sources differ substantially, the CSPGs are likely to differentially bind IRBCs. In this study, the CSPG purified from bovine trachea, a CSPG form of human recombinant thrombomodulin (TM-CSPG), two CSPG fractions from bovine cornea, and the CSPGs of human placenta, the natural receptor, were studied in parallel for their IRBC binding characteristics. The TM-CSPG and corneal CSPG fractions could bind IRBCs at significantly higher density compared to the placental CSPGs. However, the avidity of IRBC binding by TM-CSPG was considerably low compared to placental CSPGs. The corneal CSPGs have substantially higher binding strengths. The bovine tracheal CSPG bound IRBCs at much lower density and exhibited significantly lower avidity than the placental CSPGs. These data demonstrated that the bovine tracheal CSPG and TM-CSPG are not ideal for studying the fine structural interactions involved in the IRBC adherence to the placental C4S, whereas the bovine corneal CSPGs are better alternatives to the placental CSPGs for determining these interactions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (CS/DSPGs) of the human umbilical cord vein, arteries and Wharton's jelly matrices were characterized and localized by immunohistochemical analysis. The CS/DSPGs were found to be decorins and biglycans with 43-48 kDa core proteins and are distributed throughout the umbilical cord. A truncated form of decorin having only the approximately 14 kDa NH(2)-terminal portion of the core protein was found exclusively in the vein. The proteoglycans, regardless of their locations, have two types of CS/DS chains, one with approximately 90% CS and approximately 10% DS and the other with approximately 65% CS and approximately 35% DS. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of the truncated decorin consist of approximately 53% CS and approximately 47% DS. Both decorin and biglycan including the truncated form of decorin could efficiently bind collagen I and fibronectin. The decorin and biglycan with approximately 10% DS and approximately 90% CS were loosely bound in the extracellular matrices, whereas those with approximately 35% DS bound strongly. Together, these data demonstrate that, the GAG chains with 35-47% DS but not those with 10% DS, interact strongly with the matrix. Our data also show that the GAG chain composition is a significant factor in binding of the decorin and biglycan to matrix proteins. The expression of decorin and biglycan with distinctively different CS/DS proportions implies specific biological functions for these PGs in the umbilical cord. The occurrence of the truncated form of decorin exclusively in the umbilical vein suggests a specific functional role.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A characteristic feature of malaria during pregnancy is the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in the intervillous spaces of the placenta. We have recently shown that unusually low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the intervillous spaces mediate the adherence of IRBCs in the placenta. In areas of endemicity, the prevalence of P. falciparum infection in pregnant women peaks during weeks 13 to 20 and then gradually declines, implying that the placental CSPGs are available for IRBC adhesion early during the pregnancy. However, there is no information on the expression and composition of CSPGs during pregnancy. In this study, the expression pattern of CSPGs during the course of pregnancy was investigated. The CSPGs were purified from placentas of various gestational ages, characterized, and tested for the ability to bind IRBCs. The data demonstrate that the CSPGs are present in the intervillous spaces throughout the second and third trimesters. The levels of CSPGs expressed per unit tissue weight were similar in placentas of various gestational ages. However, the structures of the intervillous-space CSPGs changed considerably during the course of pregnancy. In particular, the molecular weight was decreased, with an accompanying gradual increase in the CSPG size polydispersity, from 16 weeks until 38 weeks. The sulfate content was increased considerably after 24 weeks. Despite these structural changes, the CSPGs of placentas of various gestational ages efficiently supported the binding of IRBCs. These results demonstrate that CSPGs can mediate the sequestration of IRBCs in the intervillous spaces of the placenta during the entire second and third trimesters and possibly during the later part of the first trimester as well.
Infection and Immunity 06/2003; 71(5):2455-61. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women results in the chondroitin 4-sulfate-mediated adherence of the parasite-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in the placenta, adversely affecting the health of the fetus and mother. We have previously shown that unusually low sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the intervillous spaces of the placenta are the receptors for IRBC adhesion, which involves a chondroitin 4-sulfate motif consisting of six disaccharide moieties with approximately 30% 4-sulfated residues. However, it was puzzling how the placental CSPGs, which have only approximately 8% of the disaccharide 4-sulfated, could efficiently bind IRBCs. Thus, we undertook to determine the precise structural features of the CS chains of placental CSPGs that interact with IRBCs. We show that the placental CSPGs are a mixture of two major populations, which are similar by all criteria except differing in their sulfate contents; 2-3% and 9-14% of the disaccharide units of the CS chains are 4-sulfated, and the remainder are nonsulfated. The majority of the sulfate groups in the CSPGs are clustered in CS chain domains consisting of 6-14 repeating disaccharide units. While the sulfate-rich regions of the CS chains contain 20-28% 4-sulfated disaccharides, the other regions have little or no sulfate. Further, we find that the placental CSPGs are able to efficiently bind IRBCs due to the presence of 4-sulfated disaccharide clusters. The oligosaccharides corresponding to the sulfate-rich domains of the CS chains efficiently inhibited IRBC adhesion. Thus, our data demonstrate, for the first time, the unique distribution of sulfate groups in the CS chains of placental CSPGs and that these sulfate-clustered domains have the necessary structural elements for the efficient adhesion of IRBCs, although the CS chains have an overall low degree of sulfation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2003; 278(13):11705-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin 4-sulfate, creating a risk factor for both the mother and the fetus. The primigravidae are at higher risk for placental malaria than the multigravidae. This difference in susceptibility has been attributed to the lack of antibodies that block the adhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin 4-sulfate in primigravid women. However, recent results show that many primigravidae at term have antibody levels similar to those of multigravidae, and thus the significance of antiadhesion antibodies in providing protection against malaria during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed plasma samples from women of various gravidities at different gestational stages for antiadhesion antibodies. The majority of women, regardless of gravidity, had similar levels of antibodies at term. Most primigravidae had low levels of or no antiadhesion antibodies prior to ~20 weeks of pregnancy and then produced antibodies. Multigravidae also lacked antibodies until ~12 weeks of pregnancy, but thereafter they efficiently produced antibodies. In pregnant women who had placental infection at term, higher levels of antiadhesion antibodies correlated with lower levels of placental parasitemia. The difference in kinetics of antibody production between primigravidae and multigravidae correlated with the prevalence of malaria in these groups, suggesting that antibodies are produced during pregnancy in response to placental infection. The early onset of efficient antibody response in multigravidae and the delayed production to antibodies in primigravidae appear to account for the gravidity-dependent differential susceptibilities of pregnant women to placental malaria.
Infection and Immunity 01/2002; 69(12):7487-92. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) is known to mediate the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (IRBCs) to human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has also been reported to bind IRBCs, and HA has been suggested as an additional receptor for the sequestration of IRBCs in the placenta. In this study, we assessed the adherence of 3D7 parasite strain, which has been reported to bind both C4S and HA, using highly purified clinical grade rooster comb HA, Streptococcus HA, several preparations of human umbilical cord HA (hucHA), and bovine vitreous humor HA (bvhHA). While all hucHA preparations and bvhHA bound with moderate to high density to IRBCs, the rooster comb and bacterial HAs did not bind IRBCs. IRBCs binding to the hucHA and bvhHA could be abolished by pretreatment with testicular hyaluronidase but not with Streptomyces hyalurolyticus hyaluronidase, suggesting that IRBC binding to hucHA and bvhHA was due to chondroitin sulfate (CS) contaminants in HAs. Compositional analysis confirmed the presence of CS in both hucHA and bvhHA. The CSs present in these commercial hucHA and bvhHA samples were isolated, characterized, and studied for their ability to bind IRBCs. The data suggested that IRBC adherence to hucHA and bvhHA was mediated by the CS present in these samples. However, our data did not exclude the possibility of a minor population of distinct parasite subtype adhering to HA and further studies using pure HA conjugated to proteins or lipids and placental parasite isolates should clarify whether HA is an in vivo receptor for IRBC adherence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the infected red blood cells (IRBCs) selectively accumulate in the intervillous spaces of placenta, leading to poor fetal outcome and severe health complications in the mother. Although chondroitin 4-sulfate is known to mediate IRBC adherence to placenta, the natural receptor has not been identified. In the present study, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) of human placenta were purified and structurally characterized, and adherence of IRBCs to these CSPGs investigated. The data indicate that the placenta contains three distinct types of CSPGs: significant quantities of uniquely low sulfated, extracellular CSPGs localized in the intervillous spaces, minor amounts of two cell-associated CSPGs, and major amounts of dermatan sulfate-like CSPGs of the fibrous tissue. Of the various CSPGs isolated from the placenta, the low sulfated CSPGs of the intervillous spaces most efficiently bind IRBCs. Based on IRBC adherence capacities and localization patterns of various CSPGs, we conclude that the CSPGs of the intervillous spaces are the receptors for placental IRBC adherence. The identification and characterization of these CSPGs provide a valuable tool for understanding the precise molecular interactions involved in placental IRBC adherence and for the development of therapeutic strategies for maternal malaria. In the accompanying paper (Alkhalil, A., Achur, R. N., Valiyaveettil, M., Ockenhouse, C. F., and Gowda, D. C. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 40357-40364), we report the structural requirements for the IRBC adherence.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2001; 275(51):40344-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor