N Shimada

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (20)55.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a group of posttranslational modification enzymes that citrullinate (deiminate) protein arginine residues in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Enzymatic citrullination abolishes positive charges of native protein molecules, inevitably causing significant alterations in their structure and functions. Among the five isoforms of PADs, PAD2 and PAD4 are proved occupants of the central nervous system (CNS), and especially PAD2 is a main PAD enzyme expressed in the CNS. We previously reported that abnormal protein citrullination by PAD2 has been closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and prion disease. Protein citrullination in these patients is thought to play a role during the initiation and/or progression of disease. However, the contribution of changes in PAD2 levels, and consequent citrullination, during developmental and aging processes remained unclear. Therefore, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical methods to measure PAD2 expression and localization in the brain during those processes. PAD2 mRNA expression was detected in the brains of mice as early as embryonic day 15, and its expression in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum increased significantly as the animals aged from 3 to 30 months old. No citrullinated proteins were detected during that period. Moreover, we found here, for the first time, that PAD2 localized specifically in the neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. These findings indicate that, despite PAD2's normally inactive status, it becomes active and citrullinates cellular proteins, but only when the intracellular Ca(2+) balance is upset during neurodegenerative changes.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 10/2009; 88(4):798-806. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most common causes of progressive cognitive impairment in humans and is characterized by neurodegeneration in the brain. Lipid peroxidation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) results from peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and it in turn gives evidence of lipid peroxidation in vivo. HNE reacts with protein histidine residue to form a stable HNE-histidine Michael adduct. To clarify the influence of lipid peroxidation on the pathogenesis of AD, we measured HNE-histidine Michael adduct in hippocampi from four AD patients and four age-matched controls by means of semiquantitative immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody to cyclic hemiacetal type of HNE-histidine Michael adduct. This antibody does not react with the ring-opened form of HNE-histidine Michael adduct and the pyrrole form of HNE-lysine Michael adduct. The HNE adduct was detected in the hippocampi of both AD and control donors, especially in the CA2, CA3 and CA4 sectors. Immunoreactive intensity of HNE adduct in these sectors were significantly higher in AD patients than in the controls. The HNE adduct was found in the perikarya of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. These results show that the hippocampi of patients with AD undergo lipid peroxidation and imply that this activity underlies the production of cytotoxic products such as HNE that are responsible for the pathogenesis of AD.
    Biomedical Research 09/2009; 30(4):227-33. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin C (VC) has a strong antioxidant function evident as its ability to scavenge superoxide radicals in vitro. We verified that this property actually exists in vivo by using a real-time imaging system in which Lucigenin is the chemiluminescent probe for detecting superoxide in senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) mice, which cannot synthesize VC in vivo. SMP30/GNL KO mice were given 1.5 g/L VC [VC(+)] for 2, 4, or 8 weeks or denied VC [VC(-)]. At 4 and 8 weeks, VC levels in brains from VC(-) KO mice were <6% of that in VC(+) KO mice. Accordingly, superoxide-dependent chemiluminescence levels determined by ischemia-reperfusion at the 4- and 8 weeks test intervals were 3.0-fold and 2.1-fold higher, respectively, in VC(-) KO mice than in VC(+) KO mice. However, total superoxide dismutase activity and protein levels were not altered. Thus, VC depletion specifically increased superoxide generation in a model of the living brain.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2008; 377(1):291-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • SEIBUTSU BUTSURI KAGAKU 01/2005; 49(3):73-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic data regarding the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase genes have been accumulated from diverged phyla. Comparison of their regulatory sequences have shed light on the multiple facets of gene regulation systems. Phylogenetic studies, including CpG island and intron-mapping, and homologous sequence comparison, have suggested that the regions of the major mammalian genes, the ortholog (rat alpha or nm23-H2) and its paralog (rat beta or nm23-H1), have been constructed by a stepwise gain and loss of alien genes resulting in "multiple-layered" regulatory systems. They contain representative cis-elements for the constitutive, stage/lineage-specific, and early response expression. These elements' binding capacities to nuclear proteins were confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Further, these regulatory systems generate heterogeneous mRNA at the 5' untranslated region, which influences their own translation efficiencies. In terms of this process, the transcription system would control another layer of gene expression: posttranscriptional (translational) regulation.
    Journal of Bioenergetics 03/2003; 35(1):7-18. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase with special reference to mammalian signal transduction systems was described. The interaction between NDP kinases and G proteins was reevaluated in view of their protein structural information and its significance was extended further on the basis of recent findings obtained with small molecular weight G proteins such as Rad, menin, and Rac. Meanwhile, observations suggesting involvement of NDP kinases in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation led to the realization that NDP kinases may play a crucial role in receptor tyrosine kinase signal transduction systems. In fact, a number of experimental results, particularly obtained with PC12 cells, implicate that NDP kinases appear to regulate differentiation marker proteins and cell-cycle-associated proteins cooperatively. Consequently, we propose a hypothesis that NDP kinases might act like a molecular switch to determine the cell fate toward proliferation or differentiation in response to environmental signals.
    Journal of Bioenergetics 03/2003; 35(1):41-7. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinases in cell growth, differentiation, and tumormetastasis in relation to signal transduction was investigated. The essential role of NDP kinasein cell growth was validated by coupling between reduced NDP kinase levels, induced byantisense oligonucleotides, and the suppression of proliferative activity of a cultured cell line.In addition, because NDP kinase levels are often enhanced with development and differentiation,as has been demonstrated in postmitotic cells and tissues, such as the heart and brain, wefurther examined this possibility using the bone tissue (osteoblasts) and a cultured cell linePC12D. The enhanced NDP kinase accumulation was demonstrated in the matured osteoblastsin vivo and in vitro by immunohistochemistry. In PC12D cells neurite outgrowth took placein NDP kinase -transfected clones without differentiation inducers, which was accompaniedby prolongation of doubling time. Neurite outgrowth, triggered by nerve growth factor and acyclic AMP analog, was down-regulated upon forced expression of inactive mutant NDPkinase by virtue of a dominant negative effect. NDP kinase -transfected rat mammaryadenocarcinoma cells (MTLn3) and nm23-H2-transfected human oral squamous cell carcinomacells (LMF4) manifested reduced metastatic potential and were associated with an alteredsensitivity to environmental factors, such as motility and growth factors. NDP kinase ,compared to NDP kinase , was involved in a wide variety of the cellular phenomena examined.Taken together, NDP kinase isoforms appear to elicit both their own respective and commoneffects. They may have an ability to lead cells to both proliferative and differentiated statesby modulating responsiveness to environmental factors, but their fate seems to depend on theirsurrounding milieu.
    Journal of Bioenergetics 05/2000; 32(3):309-315. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is involved in neuronal differentiation was investigated with special reference to its enzyme activity. Neurite outgrowth of PC12D cells induced by nerve growth factor or a cyclic AMP analog was suppressed to some extent when inactive NDPKs (the active site histidine 118 was replaced with alanine), not active forms, were transiently overexpressed. This suppression was more definite in their stably expressed clones. NDPKbeta-transfected clones and, to a lesser extent, NDPKalpha-transfected clones, but not inactive NDPK-transfected clones, extended neurites without differentiation inducers. These results imply that NDPKs may play a role by exerting their enzyme activity during differentiation of PC12 cells.
    FEBS Letters 03/1999; 445(1):155-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme 05/1997; 42(5):745-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Rat nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is composed of two isoforms (alpha and beta) encoded by independent genes. The mRNAs are expressed ubiquitously; however, the level of expression is tissue-dependent and is also up- or down-regulated under certain conditions, including growth stimulation, differentiation, and tumor metastasis. To address the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression for the rat NDP kinase major isoform alpha (an nm23-H2/PuF homologue), we identified the transcription initiation sites in detail by RNase protection and 5'-rapid amplification of DNA ends and located the core promoter region by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. The transcripts, initiated from an extraordinarily wide range of sites, were categorized into two groups; one transcribed from an upstream region was spliced in the untranslated region (group 1), whereas the other initiated in the downstream region was not (group 2). RNase protection demonstrated that the group 1 mRNA was the dominant form present in all tissues except heart and skeletal muscle. In situ hybridization revealed cell-specific expression of these mRNA species. Furthermore, they differed in the translational efficiency (the group 2 alpha > beta > the group 1 alpha). These findings suggest that the regulation of the NDP kinase expression at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional steps could be fundamentally governed by the selection of transcription initiation sites.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/1997; 272(6):3289-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nm23 gene [encoding nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK)] may act as a metastasis suppressor in certain tumor cells. We investigated the role of NDPK isoforms (alpha and beta) in the metastatic processes, using rat mammary-adenocarcinoma cell lines of poor (MTC) and high (MTLn3) spontaneous metastatic potential respectively. In these cell lines, as in most rat tissues, the alpha isoform (nm23-H2 homolog) was more highly expressed than the beta isoform (nm23-H1 homolog) at the mRNA and protein levels. When examined by Northern- and Western-blot analyses, expression of the 2 isoforms was reduced in highly metastatic MTLn3 cells compared with poorly metastatic MTC cells. The reduced expression was also associated with diminished NDPK-enzyme activity in the cell extracts. Southern-blot and RT-PCR-SSCP analyses suggested that the 2 genes were not grossly altered or mutated in their translation regions. MTLn3 cell clones transfected with NDPKalpha or NDPKbeta cDNA were all tumorigenic when implanted into the mammary fat pad of syngeneic rats. Among those, only clones transfected with the NDPKalpha gene exhibited reduced lung metastasis in a spontaneous metastasis assay.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/1996; 65(4):531-7. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Cancer - INT J CANCER. 01/1996; 65(4):531-537.
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    ABSTRACT: When the expression levels of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase/nm23 were examined in four human normal diploid fibroblast cell lines in comparison with their corresponding immortalized cells transformed by SV40 large T antigen or 60Co irradiation, mRNA levels of the two isoforms (NDP kinase A/nm23-H1, NDP kinase B/nm23-H2) were increased in the immortalized cell lines. The increase was found to be associated with increased translation products. Furthermore, the cell extracts prepared from these immortalized cell lines demonstrated slightly higher enzyme activity than those from their normal counterparts. Neither the growth state nor the in vitro aging largely affected their expression in a normal cell line (TIG-3) examined. The results suggest possible involvement of NDP kinases/nm23 in acquiring an infinite growth property of these cells.
    FEBS Letters 08/1994; 348(3):273-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that at least two isoforms of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, the products of two different tandemly arrayed genes, are present in rat. To understand the physiological role of each isoform, some biochemical properties of recombinant rat NDP kinase α- and β-isoforms, produced in large amount, were studied, cDNAs of the two isoforms were inserted in an expression vector pET3b and recombinant enzymes were overproduced in Escherichia coli. Their primary structures were different from the native enzymes in that the latter suffer from modification of the NH2-terminal end. The two recombinant isoforms were purified from the cell lysate to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by three successive column chromatographies. Despite their extreme similarity in the amino-acid sequences, the two showed somewhat different enzymic properties in terms of di- and triphosphate nucleotide substrate specificity. They showed similar mobilities on SDS-PAGE as expected from their calculated molecular weight (α-isoform, 17 283 versus β-isoform, 17 192) but differed in isoelectric point (α-isoform, pI 6.7; β-isoform, pI 7.8) and heat stability. Polyclonal antibody which reacted with both isoforms and α-isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies differentially recognized native enzymes from rat tissues after the tissue extracts were separated by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis under a denaturation condition. The results showed that the α-isoform, though its amount varied from one tissue to another, was the major form in rat tissues examined compared with the β-isoform which was detectable in brain and testis. There was no preference in their subcellular localization when examined with myelin, synaptosomal supernatant and total homogenate fractions from the rat cerebrum and cerebellum.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/1994; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of estradiol treatment of the human mammary carcinoma cell MCF-7 on the adenylyl cyclase system was examined. Treatment with 10 nM estradiol for 72 h increased the basal level of cAMP, and isoproterenol-, PGE2- or calcitonin-stimulated cAMP production. Estradiol also increased the response to cholera toxin but did not alter the response to forskolin. No significant change in growth rate was observed during the 72 h of estradiol treatment. In MCF-7 cell membranes the responsiveness to isoproterenol, PGE2, or cholera toxin was also enhanced by estradiol treatment. The cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha in MCF-7 cell membranes was significantly increased by 72 h of treatment with estradiol. Consistent with this observation, the level of Gs alpha immunoreactivity was increased in the estradiol-treated cell membranes. On the other hand, pertussis toxin did not change the responsiveness to isoproterenol, PGE2 or calcitonin in either control or estradiol-treated cells. In addition, ADP-ribosylation with pertussis toxin also did not reveal any change in Gi. These results clearly indicate that Gs expression is under the control of estradiol, and that this effect may contribute to the increased sensitivity of hormone-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities in MCF-7 cells.
    FEBS Letters 06/1993; 322(1):25-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complementary and genomic clones for a second form (the beta isoform) of rat nucleoside diphosphate kinase were isolated. Structural studies revealed that nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the beta isoform were quite similar to those of the alpha isoform (identities were 82 and 89%, respectively), which were delineated in our previous study (Kimura, N., Shimada, N., Nomura, K., and Watanabe, K. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 15744-15749). The gene encoding the beta isoform, covering 10 kilobases and comprising five exons, was located in tandem in the immediate vicinity (at a 3-kilobase distance) of the 5' upstream of the alpha isoform gene which was recently reported from this laboratory (Ishikawa, N., Shimada, N., Munakata, Y., Watanabe, K., and Kimura, N. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14366-14372), suggesting their generation by gene duplication. The exon-intron junctions were exactly conserved between the two genes. Southern blot analyses showed that unidentified fragments cross-reacted with the beta isoform cDNA probe besides those containing the genuine gene, and at least two of them were identified as possible processed pseudogenes. Northern and dot blot hybridization studies demonstrated that the alpha isoform was more expressed than the beta isoform in rat tissues examined except brain, from which the isoform designation was derived. These results suggest independent expression and specific roles of these isoforms in the cell. Comparative studies between rat and human isoforms indicate that the isoforms could have differentiated before the two species evolutionally diverged.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1993; 268(4):2583-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Febs Letters - FEBS LETT. 01/1993; 322(1):25-29.
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    ABSTRACT: Two overlapping genomic clones for a rat nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase) have been isolated and characterized. Complete sequencing of the genomic segment including the whole coding region for the enzyme revealed that the gene consists of four exons spanning 5.5 kilobase pairs. Primer extension analyses and ribonuclease protection assays indicated that the transcription may start from multiple sites with the major initiation site at 3 base pairs upstream from the translation initiation site, Met-1. Neither CAAT-box nor TATA-box could be assigned for each transcription initiation site, whereas five putative Sp1-binding sites (GC-boxes) were present in the 5'-flanking region. These features of the NDP kinase gene represent those of housekeeping genes. In genomic Southern blotting using a full-length rat NDP kinase cDNA as a probe, many positively hybridized fragments were detected. In support of this, five possible processed pseudogenes were identified in different DNA segments although many other NDP kinase-related genomic fragments remained to be characterized. These results demonstrate that the NDP kinase gene may consist of a multiple gene family.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1992; 267(20):14366-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that GDP-bound alpha beta gamma-trimeric GTP-binding (G) proteins can be converted into the active GTP-bound form with nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase and ATP, although its exact activation mechanism still remains to be resolved. In the present study, we investigated whether NDP kinase activity was modified by mastoparan, a wasp venom peptide that is known to activate G proteins as an agonist-receptor complex. The activity of NDP kinase measured by the formation of GTP from ATP and GDP was markedly stimulated, when the kinase was incubated with mastoparan. The concentration of mastoparan required for the activation was much lower than that observed for the peptide-induced activation of G proteins under similar assay conditions. There was also an increase in the phosphorylated intermediate of NDP kinase as well as the catalytic activity upon its incubation with mastoparan. These results suggest that mastoparan not only activates G proteins directly via guanine nucleotide exchange reaction but also stimulates NDP kinase activity.
    FEBS Letters 08/1992; 305(3):237-40. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A direct interaction of alpha beta gamma trimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins; G0 and Gs) with nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase) was investigated with homogeneously purified proteins. There was a progressive release of 32Pi from [gamma-32P]ATP when GDP-bound G0 was incubated together with NDP kinase. The Pi release induced by the interaction of G0 with NDP kinase was not accompanied by the dissociation of GDP bound to the alpha-subunit of G0. This was a sharp contrast to G protein-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis observed with GTP as the substrate; the dissociation of bound GDP was essentially required for the following binding of the substrate, GTP, to be hydrolyzed. A kinetic analysis displayed different properties for the substrate of NDP kinase between free GDP and G protein-bound GDP. NDP kinase-dependent phosphorylation of GDP on G0 was indeed demonstrated with adenosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate as the phosphate donor; there was a formation of guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate-bound G0 from the ATP analogue. Moreover, purified Gs was readily ADP-ribosylated by cholera toxin in the presence of NDP kinase, ATP, and an ADP-ribosylation factor, also suggesting that the nucleotide form on Gs was certainly GTP. These results indicate that NDP kinase can transfer the gamma-phosphate of ATP directly to GDP bound to G proteins and that this phosphorylation results in the activation of the signal-coupling proteins. A possible role of the new activation mechanism of G proteins is discussed in comparison with the previously characterized GDP-GTP exchange pathway by the agonist-receptor complex.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1991; 265(35):21536-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor