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Publications (19)0 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prediction model for the detection of drug-related problems (DRP) in patients on antiretroviral treatment during their regular monitoring in Pharmaceutical Care Clinics before dispensing drugs. MEHOD: Open multicentre prospective study. HIV patients with and without DRP were included. Demographic, clinical and pharmacotherapy variables (related and unrelated to antiretroviral treatment) were included in the model design. To find prognostic factors for DRP, a binary logistic regression model was created after performing a univariate analysis that identified independent variables related to DRP these variables were introduced in the multivariate model for the final selection. Model validity was determined by the shrinkage method and the discriminatory power by Harrell's C-index. RESULTS: 733 patients were included. The variables "adherence", "prescription of drugs needing dosage adjustment", and "total number of drugs prescribed (apart from the antiretroviral treatment)" were independently related to the appearance of DRP. Probabilities predicted by the model, customising the coefficients using the uniform shrinkage method, showed a R(2)=0.962 for the construction sample and a R(2)=0.872 for the validation sample. The discriminatory capacity of the model was 0.816 for the construction sample and 0.779 for the validation sample. CONCLUSIONS: The developed and validated model enables detection of patients on antiretroviral treatment who are at a higher risk for experiencing a DRP. The prediction variables employed are commonly used in patient's pharmacotherapy record, allowing the model to be used in routine clinical practice.
    Farmacia hospitalaria : organo oficial de expresion cientifica de la Sociedad Espanola de Farmacia Hospitalaria. 08/2012; 36(5):343-350.
  • Farmacia Hospitalaria. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for the detection of drug-related problems (DRP) in patients on antiretroviral treatment during their regular monitoring in Pharmaceutical Care Clinics before dispensing drugs.MehodOpen multicentre prospective study. HIV patients with and without DRP were included. Demographic, clinical and pharmacotherapy variables (related and unrelated to antiretroviral treatment) were included in the model design.To find prognostic factors for DRP, a binary logistic regression model was created after performing a univariate analysis that identified independent variables related to DRP these variables were introduced in the multivariate model for the final selection. Model validity was determined by the shrinkage method and the discriminatory power by Harrell's C-index.Results733 patients were included. The variables “adherence”, “prescription of drugs needing dosage adjustment”, and “total number of drugs prescribed (apart from the antiretroviral treatment)” were independently related to the appearance of DRP. Probabilities predicted by the model, customising the coefficients using the uniform shrinkage method, showed a R2 = 0.962 for the construction sample and a R2 = 0.872 for the validation sample. The discriminatory capacity of the model was 0.816 for the construction sample and 0.779 for the validation sample.Conclusions The developed and validated model enables detection of patients on antiretroviral treatment who are at a higher risk for experiencing a DRP. The prediction variables employed are commonly used in patient's pharmacotherapy record, allowing the model to be used in routine clinical practice.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria. 01/2012; 36(5):343–350.
  • Farmacia hospitalaria : órgano oficial de expresión científica de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria. 10/2011; 36(2):112-3.
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    ABSTRACT: At present, the side effects associated with antiretroviral treatment are the main reasons for discontinuation of this kind of therapy, both in clinical trials and in regular clinical practise.On the other hand, due to the change of direction that our profession has suffered in recent years, we face the need to establish a different relationship with the patient, achieving direct and effective Pharmaceutical Care within a framework of shared responsibility for therapeutic results.Pharmacist interventions should be aimed at improving the quality of life of patients, which can only be achieved with a multidisciplinary approach and individualised and adjusted to new patterns of toxicity of the drugs currently used.The pharmacist who does this work must know how to interpret these side effects, giving accurate information to the patient about both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment and correct pharmaceutical follow-up which clearly sets forth the criteria for referral to medical appointments.The aim of this paper is to establish baselines so that the hospital pharmacist can perform clearly and uniformly in the prevention, identification and management of major side effects: gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, dermatological, at the central nervous system and kidney level, associated with antiretroviral therapy.
    Farmacia hospitalaria: órgano oficial de expresión científica de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria, ISSN 1130-6343, Vol. 34, Nº. 5, 2010, pags. 237-250. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate antiretroviral treatment adherence in the HIV patient cohort of our hospital and observe their evolution over a 9-year period; also to determine the individual pattern of adherence over time. Descriptive study of the evolution of average annual adherence and the annual percentage of adherent patients greater than 95% from 2000 to 2008. We analysed the individual pattern of adherence over time and patients were classified into consistently adherent, consistently non-adherent, and fluctuating. In the analysis of 577 patients, baseline adherence was significantly greater in naïve patients with respect to those who were pre-treated. Average annual adherence increased slightly and stayed at values around 95%. As with the percentage of patients with adherence greater than 95%, which increased from 64% in 2000 to 79% in 2008. In terms of the individual pattern of adherence over time, of the 468 patients analysed, the majority (59%) were consistently adherent, 4% non-adherent, and the rest (37%) fluctuated in their adherence. In our cohort the overall adherence values maintained themselves over time and even show a positive trend, likely the result of systematic monitoring of adherence and implementation strategies to maintain adherence.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 01/2010; 34(6):279-83.
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    Farmacia hospitalaria: órgano oficial de expresión científica de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria, ISSN 1130-6343, Vol. 33, Nº. 2, 2009, pags. 115-116. 04/2009;
  • O Ibarra Barrueta, L Ortega Valín
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the Pharmaceutical Care (PC) given to HIV+ patients in Spain. In the year 2004, a survey on PC provided to HIV+ patients was conducted among pharmacists. The survey, with 33 questions, aimed to determine the material and human resources used in this area, as well as specific aspects of PC, and finally the pharmacist's opinion. The survey was distributed through the SEFH (Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacists) webpage and at HIV conferences. Data was collected from 68 hospitals, most of them public. The most important strengths included the availability of material resources, extensive consulting hours, and the intervention of the pharmacist at key moments (treatment initiation, changes in treatment and changes at the request of the patient). Verbal information was provided in most hospitals, accompanied by written information in 68% of cases. Although 81% of hospitals monitored compliance, less than half did it in a systematic manner, with the most widely used method being the dispensing records. Dispensing data was recorded, and to a lesser extent, the patients' drug treatment histories were available. Differences were seen among the hospitals depending on their size. The pharmacist considered that the PC was acceptable, but that there was room for improvement, and considered the measures available insufficient, highlighting the need for specific personnel and training. The PC situation of HIV patients is of a good standard, but there is still a lot to be done to achieve acceptable, quality PC.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 06/2008; 32(3):170-7.
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    Olatz Ibarra Barrueta, Luis Ortega Valín
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo: Conocer la situación de la atención farmacéutica (AF) al paciente con VIH en España. Método: En el año 2004 se realizó una encuesta sobre AF al paciente con VIH dirigida a farmacéuticos. La encuesta, de 33 preguntas, intentaba conocer los recursos materiales y humanos destinados a esta área, así como aspectos concretos de la AF y, finalmente, la opinión del farmacéutico. La encuesta se distribuyó a través de la página web de la SEFH y las jornadas de VIH. Resultados: Se recogieron datos de 68 hospitales, mayoritariamente públicos. Como puntos fuertes destacan la disponibilidad de recursos materiales, un horario de atención amplio y la intervención del farmacéutico en los momentos clave (inicios, cambios de tratamiento y a petición del paciente). En la mayoría de los hospitales se facilitaba información oral, acompañada de información escrita en el 68% de los casos. Aunque el 81% de los hospitales controlaban la adhesión, menos de la mitad lo hacían de forma sistemática; el método más empleado era el registro de dispensación. Se registraban datos de dispensación y, en menor medida, se disponía de una historia farmacoterapéutica del paciente. Se observaron diferencias entre los hospitales según su tamaño. El farmacéutico opinaba que la AF era aceptable pero mejorable y consideraba insuficientes los medios disponibles, destacando la necesidad de personal y formación específica. Conclusiones: La situación de la AF en el paciente con VIH tiene un buen nivel, pero queda mucho por hacer para alcanzar una AF aceptable y de calidad.
    Farmacia hospitalaria: órgano oficial de expresión científica de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria, ISSN 1130-6343, Vol. 32, Nº. 3, 2008, pags. 170-177. 06/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the ARPAS study and analyse the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and patient preferences with regards the antiretroviral treatment (ART), as well as the relationship between compliance and satisfaction with the ART and quality of life.Method The ARPAS study has looked at adult patients diagnosed with HIV and on ART, using a protocol including sociodemographic, clinical, therapeutic and quality of life variables. Compliance was estimated using the SMAQ questionnaire; satisfaction was measured using the ESTAR questionnaire, as was quality of life with the MOS-HIV Health Survey, and treatment preferences were determined using a questionnaire prepared based on the consensus of an expert team in the field of therapeutic monitoring of these patients. A stratified univariate analysis according to compliance and a logistic regression analysis were carried out to study the association of the independent variables with compliance.ResultsA total of 234 patients were evaluated (73.7% male; 43.2 ± 7.8 years of age). The average time since diagnosis and from the initiation of ART was 10.1 ± 5.7 and 7.4 ± 4.4 years respectively. The therapeutic regime of twice-daily doses (bid) was applied to 71% of the patients, and once daily (qd) in 21%. A total of 43% of the patients fulfilled compliance criteria according to the SMAQ. The percentage of the patients with qd complying with the ART was greater than the remaining dosing schedules (55.3 vs. 45.1%), although not significantly (p = 0.251). No differences were observed in the sociodemographic and clinical variables in terms of compliance. An elective preference was observed for the simplest of the therapeutic regimes which contrasts with the evaluation of the ART characteristics, where power is given preference over durability, tolerance and lastly, the convenience of taking the ART. The univariate analysis showed the highest score on the satisfaction scales (50.4 ± 7.8 vs. 46.5 ± 9.7, p = 0.001) and quality of life (81.6 ± 10.7 vs. 75.7 ± 11.8, p < 0.001) in compliant patients with respect to non-compliers. The multivariate models confirm the existence of a significant association between compliance and satisfaction, and between compliance and quality of life.Conclusions Patients consider treatment with a powerful, long-lasting and well-tolerated ART a priority and among their preferences for different treatment regimes, once-daily dosing regimes are highlighted. The ARPAS study showed a direct relationship between compliance and satisfaction with ART, and between compliance and quality of life, in a manner that the strategies improving compliance must necessarily include aspects that allow them to improve patient satisfaction with treatment and quality of life.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria. 01/2007; 31(6):340-352.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the psychometric characteristics, convergent validity and reliability of the antiretroviral treatment satisfaction scale (ESTAR, escala de satisfacción con el tratamiento antirretroviral). Patient satisfaction with ART was determined using the ESTAR questionnaire, developed in Spanish based on the English language version of the HIV-Treatment-Satisfaction Questionnaire (HIVTSQ). In order to evaluate this, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were measured. The construct analysis was performed by studying the covariance and correlation of the questions, and the convergent validity was assessed by using the MOS-HIV (Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey) questionnaire as the standard, as was the content validity by the correlation between the ESTAR and the clinical and therapeutic variables. The ESTAR is structured in two dimensions (clinical satisfaction and satisfaction with lifestyle) with slight modifications to the original version; question 4, discarded in the original version, has been reworded in the Spanish version, and question 9 was deleted because of low communality. As regards the test-retest reliability, all the questions show significant intraclass correlation coefficients (p<0.001). The internal consistency shows higher values than the original version in the lifestyle dimension (a=0.81 vs. a=0.74) and in the total score (a=0.84 vs. a=0.82). With regard to convergent validity, the ESTAR presents significant correlations with the MOS-HIV as a whole and with different dimensions of it, especially the association with mental health, health distress and cognitive functioning dimensions. The ESTAR turns out to be a suitable, reliable instrument for evaluating satisfaction with ART by HIV+ patients.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 01/2007; 31(6):331-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the influence on adherence and clinical outcome of the replacement of a previous antiretroviral therapy to a simplified approach using zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir (Trizivir) and to assess its economic impact. A retrospective study of 75 pretreated, HIV-infected adult patients who received Trizivir from May 2001 to December 2002. Adherence was assessed by dispensation records or medication counting, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and viral load before and six months after medication change was analyzed; finally, the cost of each therapy was assessed in order to calculate the economic impact of medication change. Mean adherence significantly increased a 2.5% after medication change; 16 more patients reached optimal adherence, with an NNT (number of patients requiring therapy change in order to obtain one more adherent) of 4.7. The number of patients with undetectable viral load remained almost similar, and mean CD4 cell counts stayed above 500 cells/mm3 in both periods of time. A great variability in incremental costs was seen, due to the varying costs of the previous treatments, and the influence of five intensification therapies using Trizivir. However, when only simplification regimens were analyzed such variability was reduced, and even became favorable in selected cases. Changing to a simplification therapy using Trizivir resulted in improved adherence, similar clinical outcomes, and a varying economic impact depending on previous antiretroviral therapy costs.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 02/2004; 28(6 Suppl 1):27-33.
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the impact of a pharmaceutical care program on the improvement of adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and on patient immunologic and virologic outcome. A multicenter, observational, prospective study in a HIV-infected patient cohort under treatment with antiretrovirals selected by random sampling in 19 Spanish hospitals. The study lasted 12 months, in which the program was applied through a baseline preprocedural visit and 4 quarterly visits. Adherence estimation was based on pill counting. An adherence > or = 90, or > or = 95% was considered adequate (in two time points). 541 patients were included, most of them were males (68.8%) between 20 and 78 years of age. Major risk groups included injecting drug users (43.4%) and heterosexuals (29.4%). Sixty percent had already received treatment for more than 3 years. Mean baseline viral load and CD4 count values were 32,866 copies/ml and 485 cells/mm3, respectively. Throughout the study a slight increase in the percentage of adherent patients was seen; however, statistical significance was not reached (64.3 and 79.2% of patients showed an adherence > 95 and > 90%, respectively, during the fourth quarter, versus 59.8 and 75.5% at baseline). A statistically significant decrease in viral load and increase in CD4 cells was seen following program application. The percentage of patients with a viral load < 200 copies/ml was 72.2, 76.7, and 75.0% at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quarters, respectively, versus 64.2% at baseline. CD4 cell counts increased by 50 cells/mm3 on average from the start to the end of follow-up. Patients included in the program had a good immunologic and virologic outcome, and a trend towards an increased percentage of patients with good adherence was also seen. These results confirm the need to implement follow-up programs for patients receiving antiretrovirals in order to ensure maximum therapeutic benefits.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 01/2004; 28(6 Suppl 1):19-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a difficult-to-diagnose, poor-prognosis disease that may be primary or secondary to other conditions. It is characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, in situ thrombosis, and altered endothelial function, which clinically manifests with dyspnea and other disabling symptoms for the patient. Conventional treatment includes oral anticoagulants together with oxygen supplementation, diuretics, and digoxin --according to concurrent conditions-- as well as vasodilators, traditionally calcium antagonists. In recent years novel vasodilators have been developed for use in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension-prostaglandins (epoprostenol, iloprost), endothelin-1 receptor antagonists (bosentan), nitric oxide, and sildenafil, among other drugs under study. However, question marks remain on the management of this disease, and further studies are needed to find a truly effective therapeutic option.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 28(4):275-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe the structure, process and outcomes with which hospital pharmacist performs health care activity, teaching and research about Pharmaceutical Care (PC) in HIV patients in Spain. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study carried out between November 2011-February 2012 in spanish hospitals. The inclusion criteria were: hospitals pharmacy services that dispensed antiretroviral medication to HIV patients. The questionnaire had 41 questions structured in 9 groups: hospital type and person conducting the survey, structure and resources, health care activities, interventions, communication with the rest of the multidisciplinary team, adherence, and quality records, management and pharmacoeconomy and teaching and research. Descriptive analysis was performed. To analyze the existence of statistically significant relationships, we applied fisher test, chi-square or logistic regression Results: 86 hospitals completed the survey. In 93%, PC consultation was not classified by pathologies. 27.9% provided continuing PC to all patients. Adherence was determined regularly or when pharmacist suspected poor adherence (57.5 %). 20% of hospital s teaching had a program that allowed a high level of training in PC to HIV patient. 52,3% of participating centers had published scientific articles related to HIV. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical care to HIV patients in Spain need to adapt to a new situation. For this, hospital pharmacists have to consider several issues such as chronicity, comorbidity, incorporation of new technologies and the stratification of patients in order to make it more efficient.
    Farmacia hospitalaria : órgano oficial de expresión científica de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria. 38(2):89-99.
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    ABSTRACT: At present, the side effects associated with antiretroviral treatment are the main reasons for discontinuation of this kind of therapy, both in clinical trials and in regular clinical practise. On the other hand, due to the change of direction that our profession has suffered in recent years, we face the need to establish a different relationship with the patient, achieving direct and effective Pharmaceutical Care within a framework of shared responsibility for therapeutic results. Pharmacist interventions should be aimed at improving the quality of life of patients, which can only be achieved with a multidisciplinary approach and individualised and adjusted to new patterns of toxicity of the drugs currently used. The pharmacist who does this work must know how to interpret these side effects, giving accurate information to the patient about both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment and correct pharmaceutical follow-up which clearly sets forth the criteria for referral to medical appointments. The aim of this paper is to establish baselines so that the hospital pharmacist can perform clearly and uniformly in the prevention, identification and management of major side effects: gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, dermatological, at the central nervous system and kidney level, associated with antiretroviral therapy.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 34(5):237-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the psychometric characteristics, convergent validity and reliability of the antiretroviral treatment satisfaction scale (ESTAR, escala de satisfacción con el tratamiento antirretroviral). Method Patient satisfaction with ART was determined using the ESTAR questionnaire, developed in Spanish based on the English language version of the HIV-Treatment-Satisfaction Questionnaire (HIVTSQ). In order to evaluate this, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were measured. The construct analysis was performed by studying the covariance and correlation of the questions, and the convergent validity was assessed by using the MOS-HIV (Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey) questionnaire as the standard, as was the content validity by the correlation between the ESTAR and the clinical and therapeutic variables. Results The ESTAR is structured in two dimensions (clinical satisfaction and satisfaction with lifestyle) with slight modifications to the original version; question 4, discarded in the original version, has been reworded in the Spanish version, and question 9 was deleted because of low communality. As regards the testretest reliability, all the questions show significant intraclass correlation coefficients (p < 0.001). The internal consistency shows higher values than the original version in the lifestyle dimension (a = 0.81 vs. a =0.74) and in the total score (a = 0.84 vs. a = 0.82). With regard to convergent validity, the ESTAR presents significant correlations with the MOS-HIV as a whole and with different dimensions of it, especially the association with mental health, health distress and cognitive functioning dimensions. Conclusions The ESTAR turns out to be a suitable, reliable instrument for evaluating satisfaction with ART by HIV+ patients.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria. 31(6):331–339.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the ARPAS study and analyse the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and patient preferences with regards the antiretroviral treatment (ART), as well as the relationship between compliance and satisfaction with the ART and quality of life. The ARPAS study has looked at adult patients diagnosed with HIV and on ART, using a protocol including sociodemographic, clinical, therapeutic and quality of life variables. Compliance was estimated using the SMAQ questionnaire; satisfaction was measured using the ESTAR questionnaire, as was quality of life with the MOS-HIV Health Survey, and treatment preferences were determined using a questionnaire prepared based on the consensus of an expert team in the field of therapeutic monitoring of these patients. A stratified univariate analysis according to compliance and a logistic regression analysis were carried out to study the association of the independent variables with compliance. A total of 234 patients were evaluated (73.7% male; 43.2+/-7.8 years of age). The average time since diagnosis and from the initiation of ART was 10.1+/-5.7 and 7.4+/-4.4 years respectively. The therapeutic regime of twice-daily doses (bid) was applied to 71% of the patients, and once daily (qd) in 21%. A total of 43% of the patients fulfilled compliance criteria according to the SMAQ. The percentage of the patients with qd complying with the ART was greater than the remaining dosing schedules (55.3 vs. 45.1%), although not significantly (p=0.251). No differences were observed in the sociodemographic and clinical variables in terms of compliance. An elective preference was observed for the simplest of the therapeutic regimes which contrasts with the evaluation of the ART characteristics, where power is given preference over durability, tolerance and lastly, the convenience of taking the ART. The univariate analysis showed the highest score on the satisfaction scales (50.4+/-7.8 vs. 46.5+/-9.7, p=0.001) and quality of life (81.6+/-10.7 vs. 75.7+/-11.8, p<0.001) in compliant patients with respect to non-compliers. The multivariate models confirm the existence of a significant association between compliance and satisfaction, and between compliance and quality of life. Patients consider treatment with a powerful, long-lasting and well-tolerated ART a priority and among their preferences for different treatment regimes, once-daily dosing regimes are highlighted. The ARPAS study showed a direct relationship between compliance and satisfaction with ART, and between compliance and quality of life, in a manner that the strategies improving compliance must necessarily include aspects that allow them to improve patient satisfaction with treatment and quality of life.
    Farmacia Hospitalaria 31(6):340-52.
  • Farmacia Hospitalaria 33(2):115-6.