Ching-Shyang Chen

Mennonite Christian Hospital, Hua-lien, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (25)71.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and has an age-specific incidence profile. Over the last decade, many studies have demonstrated the anticancer activity of α-tocopherol, the main and most active form of natural vitamin E. α-Tocopherol-associated protein (TAP) was found to be one of the major α-tocopherol binding proteins in human serum and in liver, brain, and prostate tissues. In this study, we found that reduced TAP expression was significantly correlated with Her2/neu receptor expression, breast cancer stage and nodal stage in paired normal and cancerous breast tissue samples from 93 patients using real-time PCR analysis. A cell viability assay showed that α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), a synthetic derivative of α-tocopherol, enhanced the cells' sensitivity to doxorubicin and resulted in a reduction in cell viability in breast cancers. Taken together, these data suggest that the use of vitamin E or its analogue as a dietary supplement may be beneficial for the treatment of cancer.
    Food Chemistry 06/2013; 138(2-3):1015-21. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.147 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The optimal duration of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment in patients with stage II or III HER2-positive breast cancer. Methods: The records of patients with HER2-positive stage II or III breast cancer who were admitted to the Breast Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital and Yuan's General Hospital between 2000 and 2008 were reviewed. All patients received adjuvant trastuzumab at an initial dose of 4 mg/kg followed by a maintenance dose of 2 mg/kg/week for 22 weeks in combination with chemotherapy. Results: A total of 51 patients were included with a mean age of 46.9 years. Approximately 55% of the patients had stage III disease. The mean follow-up time from initiation of treatment was 45.2 months (range, 0.9 to 85 months). During follow-up, 46 patients (90.2%) did not experience tumor recurrence. The mean estimated disease free survival was 80.2 months. The estimated 1- , 2-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 97.9%, 93.1%, 93.1%, and 93.1%, respectively. The most common adverse effects were gastrointestinal symptoms (21.6%), chills (17.6%), dizziness (9.8%), and bone pain (7.8%). No cardiac or hematologic adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab for 6 months resulted in a clinical benefit in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 03/2013; 14(3):1981-4. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1981 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lymphedema is a common complication of axillary dissection for breast cancer. We investigated whether manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) could prevent or manage limb edema in women after breast-cancer surgery. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of MLD in the prevention and treatment of breast-cancer-related lymphedema. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), SCOPUS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials electronic databases were searched for articles on MLD published before December 2012, with no language restrictions. The primary outcome for prevention was the incidence of postoperative lymphedema. The outcome for management of lymphedema was a reduction in edema volume. Results In total, 10 RCTs with 566 patients were identified. Two studies evaluating the preventive outcome of MLD found no significant difference in the incidence of lymphedema between the MLD and standard treatment groups, with a risk ratio of 0.63 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.14 to 2.82. Seven studies assessed the reduction in arm volume, and found no significant difference between the MLD and standard treatment groups, with a weighted mean difference of 75.12 (95% CI, −9.34 to 159.58). Conclusions The current evidence from RCTs does not support the use of MLD in preventing or treating lymphedema. However, clinical and statistical inconsistencies between the various studies confounded our evaluation of the effect of MLD on breast-cancer-related lymphedema.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2013; 11(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-11-15 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that prevents angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity. Clinically, it has been used to treat a diverse range of cancer types. In this pilot phase II study, we investigated the efficacy and safety profiles of bevacizumab in combination with docetaxel plus cisplatin for patients with advanced HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Between 2005 and 2008, 20 patients with advanced breast cancer were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital. Bevacizumab was administered every two weeks in a 12-cycle treatment with docetaxel plus cisplatin. The primary end-point for this study was the overall response rate. The secondary end-points were progression-free survival and the safety profiles of the combined therapy. The average number of treatment cycles was 10.5 with a response rate of 80%. Neutropenia and neuropathy were the most commonly observed adverse events. Seven patients achieved complete remission and nine patients achieved partial remission. For the overall patient group in this study, the median time-to-progression and overall survival were 28.0 weeks and 52 weeks, respectively. The median time-to-progression and overall survival for the 10 patients that completed all 12 cycles of treatment were 64.0 weeks and 80 weeks, respectively. In one patient, a very rapid reduction in the level of breast cancer lung metastases was observed one week post-treatment. Based on this pilot study, bevacizumab in combination with docetaxel and cisplatin is likely to be an effective treatment option for metastatic breast cancer that warrants further study.
    Anticancer research 12/2012; 32(12):5501-6. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is extremely sensitive for detecting lesions, but certain characteristics of malignancies, such as the washout pattern of kinetic curves, are not specific. Correlations of false-positive MRI and specific pathological results are worthy of study. Methods From March 2008 to September 2011, 217 cases received biopsy after dedicated breast MRI in our department. Biopsies were recommended for suspected malignancies based on the overall analysis of early subtracted phase images, postenhanced curve patterns, color mapping, and tumor morphology. Results Twenty-nine percent of cases were false positive for malignancy, according to MRI. These lesions included radial scar, apocrine metaplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, sclerosing adenosis, intraductal papilloma, fibrocystic change, and mastitis. Conclusion The ability of tumor cells to induce vascularization occurs early in the cell transformation process; therefore, premalignant breast lesions may also induce vascularization to facilitate malignant transformation. As a noninvasive method, contrast-enhanced MRI has a potential role in estimating the degree of angiogenesis and tumor microvascular permeability of breast neoplasms.
    Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 10/2012; 4(5):284–288. DOI:10.1016/j.jecm.2012.09.005
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The compound 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-1,3-benzodioxole (apiole) has been isolated from several different plant species, including Petroselinum sativum. Our recent study found that apiole is a chemical derivative of 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1), which has been isolated from dried Antrodia camphorata (AC ) fruiting bodies, a traditional Chinese medicine with antitumor properties. Aims: Our previous in vitro study demonstrated that apiole inhibits the growth of human colon (COLO 205) cancer cells through the arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. The in vivo antitumor effects of apiole were evaluated in this study. Setting and Design: Apiole was administered to mice at 1-30 mg/kg body weight through intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection three times per week (defined as a dosage of 1×-30×). Materials and Methods: The in vivo antitumor effects of apiole were evaluated in mice with xenografts of COLO 205 cells. Statistical Analysis: All of the data are reported as the means ± S.E. Comparisons were performed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Fisher's least significant difference test. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: Apiole (> 1×) markedly decreased the growth of COLO 205 human colon cancer cell tumor xenografts in an athymic nude mouse model system through the up-regulation of cell cycle regulators, such as p53, p21/Cip1, and p27/Kip1. The apiole-induced increase in G0/G1 phase cell cycle regulators was also associated with a significant decrease in the expression of cyclins D1 and D3. Surprisingly, statistically significantly higher tumor volumes were observed in mice that received 5× apiole compared with 30× apiole-treated mice (P < 0.05). No gross signs of toxicity were observed (e.g., body weight changes, general appearance, or individual organ effects) in any group. Conclusions: Our results show, for the first time, the promising antitumor effects of apiole against colon tumors in an in vivo xenograft model.
    Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 10/2012; 8(4):532-6. DOI:10.4103/0973-1482.106529 · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Although Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDBT) has been used to treat cancer patients clinically, very few studies evaluating the effectiveness of SQDBT using objective indicators have been published. The study objectives were to examine the effectiveness of SQDBT for alleviating hematotoxicity, as indicated by white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemoglobin (Hb) levels, among patients with breast carcinoma receiving chemotherapy. Methods: The authors identified patients with breast carcinoma who received chemotherapy in a teaching hospital in Taipei in 2008 through a chart review process. Only patients with initial WBC counts of <4000/µL were included. The case group was composed of 47 chemotherapy courses treated with SQDBT, whereas the comparison group included 257 courses without SQDBT. The complete blood count test was done before start of a chemotherapy course and 1 week after chemotherapeutic drugs were given. Results: Age, cancer stage, cancer status, use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and chemotherapy drugs were controlled in the model. Patients who took SQDBT had significantly increased WBC counts, especially neutrophils, and Hb after chemotherapy (adjusted β = 1202.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 440.45-1964.57 for WBC; β = 834.83, 95% CI = 197.35-1472.31 for neutrophils; β = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.05-0.63 for Hb). There were no significant differences in tumor markers CEA and CA153 between patients given SQDBT or not after chemotherapy. Conclusion: SQDBT is effective in alleviating hematotoxicity among patients with breast carcinoma receiving chemotherapy, without affecting the presentation of tumor markers in the short term. More study is needed to determine long-term outcomes such as recurrence and survival.
    Integrative Cancer Therapies 07/2012; 12(2). DOI:10.1177/1534735412450513 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair, a serious problem, is caused by entrapment of the ilioinguinal nerve either by mesh or development of fibrosis. Division of the ilioinguinal nerve during hernioplasty has been found to reduce the incidence of chronic groin pain. However, the traditional approach favors preservation of the ilioinguinal nerve during open hernia repair. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared the outcomes of preservation versus division of the ilioinguinal nerve during open mesh repair of inguinal hernia. The primary outcome was the incidence of groin pain; secondary outcomes were numbness and sensory loss. We reviewed six trials with 1,286 patients. We found no difference between the groups for the incidence of groin pain or numbness at 1, 6, and 12 months after open mesh inguinal repair. The incidence of sensory loss or change was significantly higher in the division group than in the preservation group at 6 months [risk ratio (RR) 1.25; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.53] and at 12 months (RR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.01-2.37) postoperatively. No significant differences between the groups were noted at any other points in time. Preservation of the ilioinguinal nerve during open mesh repair of inguinal hernia is associated with a decreased incidence of sensory loss at 6 and 12 months postoperatively compared with that of the division technique. No significant differences were found between the groups for chronic groin pain or numbness.
    World Journal of Surgery 05/2012; 36(10):2311-9. DOI:10.1007/s00268-012-1657-2 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in the development and invasion of primary breast tumors. Lysyl oxidase (LOX), which is an ECM remodeling enzyme, appears to play roles in promoting cancer cell motility and invasion. To ascertain whether LOX overexpression in breast tumor tissues from Asian patients is associated with decreases in metastasis-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients, the mRNA levels of LOX were examined in paired tumor/normal tissue samples using real-time RT-PCR analysis (n = 246 pair-matched samples). To test whether specifically targeting LOX by inhibiting its activity (using beta-aminopropionitrile (β-APN), a LOX inhibitor), mRNA expression (using siRNA), or protein expression (using 25 μM magnolol) attenuates the invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, a cancer cell migration assay was performed. Interestingly, only 78.5% (n = 193) of the breast cancer tumors displayed detectable LOX expression. Nearly 60% (n = 120) of the cases fell into Group 1 (tumor > normal, T > N); in this group, the mean LOX expression in the tumor cells was 20.2-fold greater than in normal cells. However, in Group 2 (normal > tumor, N > T), the LOX expression level in most of the normal tissues examined (80%, 59/73) was less than fivefold greater than in the tumor tissues. The increased level of active LOX in the invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was accompanied by the increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at Tyr-576 and of paxillin at Tyr-118. We also found that the addition of β-APN (300 μM) and magnolol (25 μM), synergistically inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In this article, we describe, for the first time, higher expression of a LOX protein in breast tumors compared with normal tissues from Asian patients. Moreover, the results indicate that the inhibition of LOX using magnolol may represent a more desirable strategy for breast cancer therapy than the use of β-APN.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2012; 134(3):989-1004. DOI:10.1007/s10549-012-1986-8 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine changes in quality of life among patients with breast cancer and factors related to it, during the first three months after diagnosis. Numerous studies have examined quality of life among cancer survivors or among patients with cancer after aggressive treatment; such research has demonstrated that quality of life in the third month after surgery can significantly predict quality of life in the long run. In contrast, changes in quality of life causes among patients during the acute treatment phase have not been well studied. Prospective longitudinal study. Newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer were recruited during 2008-2009. Sixty-one cases completed the four data collections on the day before operation and one, two and three months after surgery. Data were collected using the Functional Living Index-Cancer, Symptom Distress Scale, the Self-Efficacy Scale and a 0-10 Anxiety Numeric Rating Scale. Generalized Estimating Equations were applied for data analysis. There were significant changes in quality of life over the three months following surgery, and the worst quality of life was observed in the first month after surgery. Less advanced stages of cancer, lower anxiety, less symptom distress and higher perceived self-efficacy in the preoperative interview could significantly predict which patients experienced more positive quality of life trends. Fatigue, limited shoulder function and perceived poor appearance were the most significant factors predicting changes of quality of life. Preoperative physical and psychological factors, as well as sense of self-efficacy for managing the cancer, are important factors for predicting changes in patients' quality of life. Healthcare providers should be alert to factors contributing to changes of quality of life among patients receiving chemotherapy. Interventions based on these results should be developed and their effectiveness tested for their impact on breast cancer patients' quality of life. Clinical interventions based on these results should be developed to improve breast cancer patients' quality of life.
    Journal of Clinical Nursing 06/2011; 21(1-2):70-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03735.x · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to explore whether the tea-polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could be used as a potential agent for blocking smoking (nicotine, Nic)- or hormone (estradiol, E2)-induced breast cancer cell proliferation through inhibition of a common signaling pathway. To explore whether Nic (>0.1 μM, 24 h) and E2 (>1 nM, 24 h) significantly increased α9-nicotinic acetylcholine (α9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)) mRNA and protein expression levels, real-time PCR and immunoblotting analysis experiments were performed in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Luciferase promoter activity experiment was performed to test the α9-nAChR promoter activity affected by Nic, E2 or EGCG. The results indicate that treatment with EGCG (1 μM) profoundly decreases Nic- and E2-induced MCF-7 proliferation by down regulating α9-nAChR expression. The α9-nAChR promoter activity is significantly induced by 24-h treatment with Nic (10 μM) or E2 (10 nM) (>1.8 and ∼2.3-fold, respectively) in MCF-7 cells. Pretreatment with EGCG eliminated the Nic- and E2-induced α9-nAChR promoter-dependent luciferase activity. We further demonstrate that combined treatment with EGCG profoundly inhibits [3H]-Nic/ α9-nAChR binding activity in breast cancer cells. We found that the EGCG could be used as an agent for blocking smoking (Nic)- or hormone (E2)-induced breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting of α9-nAChR signaling pathway. This study reveals the novel antitumor mechanisms of EGCG, and these results may have significant applications for chemopreventive purposes in human breast cancer.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 03/2011; 55(3):455-66. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201000254 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • The Breast Journal 11/2010; 16(6):652-3. DOI:10.1111/j.1524-4741.2010.01009.x · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microtubules are part of cell structures that play a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells. The cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is highly expressed in cancer. We report here that CSE1L regulates the association of α-tubulin with β-tubulin and promotes the migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. CSE1L was associated with α-tubulin and β-tubulin in GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. CSE1L-GFP (green fluorescence protein) fusion protein experiments showed that the N-terminal of CSE1L interacted with microtubules. Increased CSE1L expression resulted in decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of α-tubulin and β-tubulin, increased α-tubulin and β-tubulin association, and enhanced assembly of microtubules. Cell protrusions or pseudopodia are temporary extensions of the plasma membrane and are implicated in cancer cell migration and invasion. Increased CSE1L expression increased the extension of MCF-7 cell protrusions. In vitro migration assay showed that enhanced CSE1L expression increased the migration of MCF-7 cells. Our results indicate that CSE1L plays a role in regulating the extension of cell protrusions and promotes the migration of cancer cells.
    Experimental Cell Research 10/2010; 316(17):2969-81. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.07.019 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose: The incidence of breast cancer in Taiwan is increasing, and this form of cancer has already become the number one malignancy. Taiwanese women share similar characteristics of breast cancer with other developed Asian countries such as a younger age at diagnosis. In addition, a large proportion of Asian women have dense glandular breast tissue, which lowers the sensitivity of mammography for cancer detection. In this study, we compared possible differences in image interpretation of digital mammography and a dedicated breast magnetic resonance imaging system (using spiral RODEO). Methods: From March 2008 to April 2009, we retrospectively collected data on 106 Taiwanese women who received both digital mammography and dedicated breast magnetic resonance imaging examinations in the same period. We divided these cases into non-dense and dense groups according to breast density, and compared the image interpretations based on the different modalities. Results: There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the "no match", "partial match", and "exact match" image interpretations categories between the non-dense and dense groups. Conclusion: Mammography may be useful for screening in non-dense breast tissue, but breast magnetic resonance imaging should be an additional screening tool in populations with dense breast tissue.
    Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 10/2010; 2(5):245-250. DOI:10.1016/S1878-3317(10)60038-1
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    ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the estrogen receptor (ER), a transcription factor involved in the nicotine- and 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated up-regulation of α9-nAChR gene expression. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to quantify the α9-nAChR mRNA expression levels of surgically isolated (n=339) and laser-capture microdissected tissues (ER+ versus ER-, n= 6 per group). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase-promoter activity assays were used to investigate the ER-mediated transcriptional regulation of α9-nAChR gene expression. We observed that breast tumors with higher α9-nAChR mRNA expression levels (i.e., a mean fold ratio in the tumor/normal-paired samples of greater than tenfold) were associated with the lowest 5-year disease-specific survival rate (50%, dead/alive= 4/4, total = 8 patients, P= 0.006), in contrast to breast tumors with low levels (i.e., a mean fold ratio of less than onefold) of α9-nAChR expression (88%, dead/alive= 3/22, total= 25 patients). Furthermore, higher α9-nAChR mRNA expression levels were preferentially detected in ER+ tumor tissues in comparison to ER- tumor tissues (ER+ versus ER- patients: n=160 vs. 72; mean fold ratios of α9-nAChR expression = 11 ± 3 vs. 6.7 ± 2.3 fold, respectively). In vitro promoter-binding assays demonstrated that the ER is a major transcription factor that mediates nicotine- and E2-induced up-regulation of α9-nAChR gene expression in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that the ER plays a central role in mediating α9-nAChR gene up-regulation in response to either nicotine or E2 stimulation.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2010; 129(2):331-45. DOI:10.1007/s10549-010-1209-0 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large epidemiological cohort studies in the United States have indicated that active and passive smoking are associated with increased breast cancer risk. However, there was no direct evidence of an effect of tobacco carcinogens on the cellular molecules involved in breast tumorigenesis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of all of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in 50 human breast cancer samples and to determine the expression of the alpha9-nAChR subunit in 276 surgical and laser capture microdissected breast tumor vs normal tissue pairs. Stable MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were established in which expression of the alpha9-nAChR subunit was inhibited using short interfering RNA. MCF-10A normal human breast epithelial cells were established in which the alpha9-nAChR subunit could be conditionally overexpressed by removal of doxycycline from the culture fluid. Cell proliferation and soft agar assays and tumor growth in nude mice were used as measures of cell transformation. All statistical tests were two-sided. In 186 (67.3%) of the 276 paired samples, alpha9-nAChR mRNA was expressed at (mean 7.84-fold) higher levels in breast cancers than in surrounding normal tissue. Stable expression of alpha9-nAChR short interfering RNA in MDA-MB-231 cells attenuated nicotine-stimulated proliferation and growth in soft agar and reduced tumor volume when the cells were introduced as xenografts in SCID mice (n = 5 mice per group; mean tumor volume at 6 weeks treatment in mice injected with Si alpha9 cells = 995.6 mm(3), in mice injected with parental cells = 2993.2 mm(3), difference = 1997.6 mm(3), 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1705 to 2290.2 mm(3), P = .009). Long-term treatment of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells with either nicotine or its active metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, triggered precancerous transformation as defined by soft agar assay. Inducible overexpression of alpha9-nAChR in MCF-10A cell xenografts in nude mice substantially increased tumor growth (n = 5 mice per group; DOX+, mean tumor volume without nicotine vs with nicotine = 266.2 vs 501.6 mm(3), difference = 235.4 mm(3), 95% CI = 112.7 to 358 mm(3), P = .009; DOX-, mean tumor volume without nicotine vs with nicotine = 621.2 vs 898.6 mm(3), difference = 277.4 mm(3), 95% CI = 98.1 to 456.7 mm(3), P = .016; mean tumor volume in the presence of nicotine, DOX+ vs DOX- = 501.6 vs 898.6 mm(3), difference = 397 mm(3), 95% CI = 241.3 to 552.6 mm(3), P = .009). The alpha9-nAChR is important for nicotine-induced transformation of normal human breast epithelial cells.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 09/2010; 102(17):1322-35. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djq300 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test whether long-term ethanol consumption confers therapeutic resistance to human liver cancer patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chronic ethanol-treated cells were established by consecutively culturing a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep 3B, which contains integrated HBV sequences, for 20-40 passages with or without 10 mM ethanol (designated as E20-E40 and C20-C40, respectively). Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that a growth promoting effect of long-term ethanol treatment was induced in the E40 cells through preferential acceleration of S-phase in these cells. Lower protein expression levels of p16, p21/Cip1, and p27/Kip1 were detected in the ethanol-treated E40 cells. We further demonstrated that long-term ethanol-treated E40 cells develop drug resistance in response to mitomycin C (MMC) treatment (>8 microM). Immunoblot analysis revealed that caspase-8-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic signals (such as Bad) were inactivated in the MMC-resistant E40 cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the sequestration of phosphorylated Bad (Ser-112) through its binding with 14-3-3 was detected more profoundly in the MMC-resistant E40 cells. Next, we examined the therapeutic efficacy of MMC (10 mg MMC/kg body weight, three times per week) in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing E40- and C40-xenografted tumors. Significant reductions (>3-fold) in tumor growth were detected in MMC-treated C40-xenografted mice. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that AKT- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated survival factors inhibited the Bad-induced mitochondrial apoptotic signals that were involved in E40 tumor cells and that conferred resistance to MMC.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 08/2010; 49(8):728-38. DOI:10.1002/mc.20648 · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than mammography and sonography for breast cancer detection, but its diagnostic specificity is still being debated, and standardised criteria are lacking. This study used a dedicated breast MRI system with a Spiral RODEO pulse sequence, and applied postprocessing techniques including multiplanar reformation (MPR) with ductal orientation, early subtracted phase (ESP) and a postcontrast kinetic curve. We discuss the possible MRI/pathology correlations based on pathogenetic concepts. We retrospectively collected data from 13 cases of benign intraductal and early-stage malignant lesions to observe the capability of MPR, ESP and kinetic curve techniques to diagnose early lesions differentially. MRI features and pathological findings for these cases were collected. Thirteen cases of ductal carcinoma in situ with MRI characteristics and pathological findings were identified. We analysed early ductal lesions, such as intraductal epithelial hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma, ductal carcinoma in situ and small focal invasive ductal carcinoma. Using MRI with MPR to demonstrate ductal orientation, we found 12 cases with a ductogram appearance and 6 with crossing-over glandular tissue. The tumour size estimated by MRI was accurate in 6 cases, but overestimated in seven. Dedicated breast MRI with MPR, ESP and kinetic curve analyses might be helpful in defining some characteristics of early-stage malignant lesions.
    Asian Journal of Surgery 07/2010; 33(3):143-9. DOI:10.1016/S1015-9584(10)60024-3 · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Arm Exercise Promotion Scale. Patients with breast cancer having mastectomy are taught postoperative arm exercises during hospitalization; however, clinical observations suggest that patients infrequently practise them. It is important to develop an instrument that can be easily applied to evaluate women's motivation for arm exercises. An instrument validation design with a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2008-09. The previously developed 15-item Likert-type Arm Exercise Promotion Scale was further tested for test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, theoretically supported construct validity, and concurrent validity. A total of 94 patients with breast cancer were recruited to the study. The Arm Exercise Promotion Scale has satisfactory internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.88) and a test-retest reliability of 0.90. Three theoretically supported factors were abstracted by principal component analysis: perceived benefits, learning support and situational support. These factors were inter-correlated and statistically significantly correlated with arm exercise behaviour, indicating concurrent and construct validity. There is strong evidence to further support the Arm Exercise Promotion Scale as a valid instrument in assessing factors which promote arm exercises with patients with breast cancer. Future longitudinal clinical studies using this scale could add knowledge about the experiences of carrying out arm exercises in patients with breast cancer across time.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 03/2010; 66(5):1142-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05224.x · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that the persistent exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to nicotine (Nic) through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors increases cyclin D1 promoter activity and protein expression. The main purpose of this study is to elucidate the carcinogenic role of cyclin D3, which is involved in breast tumorigenesis when induced by Nic. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that cyclin D3 is highly expressed at the mRNA level in surgically dissected breast tumor tissue, compared to the surrounding normal tissue (tumor/normal fold ratio = 17.93, n = 74). To test whether Nic/nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding could affect cyclin D3 expression in human breast cancer cells, the transformed cell line MCF-10A-Nic (DOX) was generated from normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) with inducible α9-nAChR gene expression, using the adenovirus tetracycline-regulated Tet-off system. Tet-regulated overexpression of α9-nAChR in MCF-10A-Nic (DOX) xenografted BALB/c-nu/nu mice resulted in a significant induction of cyclin D3. In contrast, cyclin D3 expression was down-regulated in α9-nAChR knock-down (siRNA) MDA-MB-231-xenografted tumors in NOD.CB17-PRKDC(SCID)/J(NOD-SCID) mice. Furthermore, we found that Nic-induced human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell proliferation was inhibited by 1 μM of garcinol (Gar), isolated from the edible fruit Garcinia indica, through down-regulation of α9-nAChR and cyclin D3 expression. These results suggest that α9-nAChR-mediated cyclin D3 overexpression is important for nicotine-induced transformation of normal human breast epithelial cells. The homeostatic regulation of cyclin D3 has the potential to be a molecular target for antitumor chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive purposes in clinical breast cancer patients.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2010; 125(1):73-87. DOI:10.1007/s10549-010-0821-3 · 3.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

275 Citations
71.84 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Mennonite Christian Hospital
      Hua-lien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2010–2013
    • Taipei Medical University Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2013
    • Taipei Medical University
      • • Division of General Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Radiology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan