Linda H Chaudron

University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States

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Publications (30)64.32 Total impact

  • Linda H. Chaudron, Katherine L. Wisner
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Scant literature exists on whether prior pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or induced abortion) increases the risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders-specifically depression and anxiety-after subsequent births. This study compares: (1) risk factors for depression and/or anxiety disorders in the postpartum year among women with and without prior pregnancy loss; and (2) rates of these disorders in women with one versus multiple pregnancy losses. Methods: One-hundred-ninety-two women recruited at first-year pediatric well-child care visits from an urban pediatric clinic provided demographic information, reproductive and health histories. They also completed depression screening tools and a standard semi-structured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Results: Almost half of the participants (49%) reported a previous pregnancy loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, or induced abortion). More than half of those with a history of pregnancy loss reported more than one loss (52%). Women with prior pregnancy loss were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.002) than women without a history of loss. Women with multiple losses were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression (p=0.047) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (Fisher's exact [FET]=0.028) than women with a history of one pregnancy loss. Loss type was not related to depression, although number of losses was related to the presence of depression and anxiety. Conclusions: Low-income urban mothers have high rates of pregnancy loss and often have experienced more than one loss and/or more than one type of loss. Women with a history of pregnancy loss are at increased risk for depression and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), after the birth of a child. Future research is needed to understand the reasons that previous pregnancy loss is associated with subsequent postpartum depression and anxiety among this population of women.
    Journal of Women's Health 09/2013; 22(9):760-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A notable portion (21%) of female patients receiving treatment for depression in community mental health centers (CMHC) has childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Treatment outcomes in this population are heterogeneous; identifying factors associated with differential outcomes could inform treatment development. This exploratory study begins to address the gap in what is known about predictors of treatment outcomes among depressed women with sexual abuse histories. Seventy women with major depressive disorder and CSA histories in a CMHC were randomly assigned to interpersonal psychotherapy (n = 37) or usual care (n = 33). Using generalized estimating equations, we examined four pretreatment predictor domains (i.e. sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features, social and physical functioning, and trauma features) potentially related to depression treatment outcomes. Among sociodemographic characteristics, Black race/ethnicity, public assistance income, and unemployment were associated with less depressive symptom reduction over the course of treatment. Two clinical features, chronic depression and borderline personality disorder, were also related to less reduction in depressive symptoms across the treatment period. Our results demonstrate the clinical relevance of attending to predictors of depressed women with CSA histories being treated in public sector mental health centers. Particular sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features among these women may be significant indicators of risk for relatively poorer treatment outcomes.
    Depression and Anxiety 05/2012; 29(6):479-86. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to examine the role of maternal self-efficacy as a potential mediator between maternal depression and child hospitalizations in low-income families. We analyzed data from 432 mother-child pairs who were part of the control-group for the Nurse-Family Partnership trial in Memphis, TN. Low-income urban, mostly minority women were interviewed 12 and 24 months after their first child's birth and their child's medical records were collected from birth to 24 months. We fit linear and ordered logistic regression models to test for mediation. We also tested non-linear relationships between the dependent variable (child hospitalization) and covariates (depressive symptoms and self-efficacy). Elevated depressive symptoms (OR: 1.70; 90% CI: 1.05, 2.74) and lower maternal self-efficacy (OR: 0.674; 90% CI: 0.469, 0.970) were each associated with increased child hospitalizations. When both maternal self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were included in a single model, the depressive symptoms coefficient decreased significantly (OR decreased by 0.13, P = 0.069), supporting the hypothesis that self-efficacy serves as a mediator. A non-linear, inverse-U shaped relationship between maternal self-efficacy and child hospitalizations was supported: lower compared to higher self-efficacy was associated with more child hospitalizations (P = 0.039), but very low self-efficacy was associated with fewer hospitalizations than low self-efficacy (P = 0.028). In this study, maternal self-efficacy appears to be a mediator between maternal depression and child hospitalizations. Further research is needed to determine if interventions specifically targeting self-efficacy in depressed mothers might decrease child hospitalizations.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 10/2011; 15(7):1011-9. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health burden among perinatal mothers attending well-baby visits with their infants in the first year of life. We compare rates of depression, anxiety disorder, and substance abuse diagnoses between mothers who reported IPV within the past year to those who did not. This cross-sectional study of 188 mothers of infants (under 14 months) was conducted in an urban hospital pediatric clinic. Participants reported demographics and IPV and completed a semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interview. Mothers reporting IPV were more likely to be diagnosed with mood and/or anxiety diagnoses (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test), specifically current depressive diagnoses (p<0.01, Fisher's exact test) and panic disorder (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). There was a trend for more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p<0.06) among abused mothers. Substance abuse and dependence, age, race, insurance status, employment, education, and family arrangements did not differ between groups. Prior major or minor depression increases the odds for perinatal depression threefold (OD 3.18). These findings have implications for practitioners who encounter perinatal women. Findings suggest providers should explore signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders among women reporting IPV. Similarly, when perinatal mothers report symptoms of depression, PTSD, or panic disorder, practitioners should be alert to the possible contributory role of IPV.
    Journal of Women's Health 09/2011; 20(12):1797-803. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many depressed women seen in community mental health centers (CMHCs) have histories of childhood sexual abuse and are economically disadvantaged. Randomized trials are needed to test the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in this population and setting. This study compared interpersonal psychotherapy with usual care psychotherapy among women in a CMHC. Among 1,100 women seeking treatment in a CMHC, 230 (21%) had major depression and histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy women with major depression and sexual abuse before age 18 were randomly assigned to interpersonal psychotherapy (N=37) or usual care psychotherapy (N=33). Staff clinicians provided all treatments. Participants were assessed at study entry and at ten, 24, and 36 weeks after random assignment. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine change over time. Compared with women assigned to usual care, women who received interpersonal psychotherapy had greater reductions in depressive symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scale, p=.05, d=.34; Beck Depression Inventory-II, p=.01, d=.29), posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (p=.04, d=.76), and shame (p=.002, d=.38). Interpersonal psychotherapy and usual care yielded comparable improvements in social and mental health-related functioning. Interpersonal psychotherapy compared favorably to usual care psychotherapy in a CMHC in improving psychiatric symptoms and reducing shame among sexually abused women. However, there is a critical need for continued research to develop more effective treatments for the social and psychiatric sequelae of interpersonal trauma and socioeconomic disadvantage.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 04/2011; 62(4):374-80. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have demonstrated that low-income families often have disproportionately high utilization of emergency department (ED) and hospital services, and low utilization of preventive visits. A possible contributing factor is that some mothers may not respond optimally to their infants' health needs, either due to their own responsiveness or due to the child's ability to send cues. These mother-child interactions are measurable and amenable to change. We examined the associations between mother-child interactions and child healthcare utilization among low-income families. We analyzed data from the Nurse-Family Partnership trial in Memphis, TN control group (n = 432). Data were collected from child medical records (birth to 24 months), mother interviews (12 and 24 months postpartum), and observations of mother-child interactions (12 months postpartum). We used logistic and ordered logistic regression to assess independent associations between mother-child interactions and child healthcare utilization measures: hospitalizations, ED visits, sick-child visits to primary care, and well-child visits. Better mother-child interactions, as measured by mother's responsiveness to her child, were associated with decreased hospitalizations (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.81), decreased ambulatory-care-sensitive ED visits (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.96), and increased well-child visits (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.28). Mother's responsiveness to her child was associated with child healthcare utilization. Interventions to improve mother-child interactions may be appropriate for mother-child dyads in which child healthcare utilization appears unbalanced with inadequate primary care and excess urgent care. Recognition of these interactions may also improve the care clinicians provide for families.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 12/2010; 16(1):83-91. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    Breastfeeding Medicine 10/2010; 5(5):225-6. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    Linda H Chaudron, Neha Nirodi
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to describe the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and disorders (OCD) in perinatal women and to explore the relationship of OCS/OCD to postpartum depression. A prospective longitudinal study of 44 women screened with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between 30 and 37 weeks of pregnancy. Twenty-four women completed a diagnostic interview and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) before delivery and were contacted postpartum to repeat the EPDS and Y-BOCS. In the third trimester, 32% reported high levels of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 10 and/or OCI-R ≥ 15) and 29% of those who completed the diagnostic interview met criteria for OCD. At 1 month postpartum, 12.5% had new OCS (Y-BOCS ≥ 8) and 25% had new high levels of depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 10). OCS increased in intensity postpartum but did not change in character. OCD and OCS may be of greater prevalence during the perinatal period than previously recognized. The high rates provide new information and require replication in larger, more diverse populations. Research in the perinatal period must expand beyond the exploration of depression to include anxiety disorders and specifically OCD.
    Archives of Women s Mental Health 03/2010; 13(5):403-10. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal was to describe the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) in identifying major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MnDD) among low-income, urban mothers attending well-child care (WCC) visits during the postpartum year. Mothers (N = 198) attending WCC visits with their infants 0 to 14 months of age completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview (standard method) and 3 screening tools. The sensitivities and specificities of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnoses of MDD or MDD/MnDD. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy for the entire sample (representing the postpartum year) and subsamples (representing early, middle, and late postpartum time frames). Optimal cutoff scores were calculated. At some point between 2 weeks and 14 months after delivery, 56% of mothers met criteria for either MDD (37%) or MnDD (19%). When used as continuous measures, all scales performed equally well (areas under the curves of > or =0.8). With traditional cutoff scores, the measures did not perform at the expected levels of sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cutoff scores for the BDI-II (> or =14 for MDD and > or =11 for MDD/MnDD) and EPDS (> or =9 for MDD and > or =7 for MDD/MnDD) were lower than currently recommended. For the PDSS, the optimal cutoff score was consistent with current guidelines for MDD (> or =80) but higher than recommended for MDD/MnDD (> or =77). Large proportions of low-income, urban mothers attending WCC visits experience MDD or MnDD during the postpartum year. The EPDS, BDI-II, and PDSS have high accuracy in identifying depression, but cutoff scores may need to be altered to identify depression more accurately among urban, low-income mothers.
    PEDIATRICS 02/2010; 125(3):e609-17. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies noted a positive association between maternal depression and child hospitalizations. However, the mechanisms for this association are not clear. We tested the hypothesis that depressed mothers with low self-efficacy will be more likely to delay seeking care for their children, thus bringing about more hospitalizations. Data from the Nurse-Family Partnership trial in Memphis, TN were used (n=432; control group only). Women were recruited at an obstetrical clinic and interviewed 12 months after their first child's birth. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Mental Health Inventory-5. A 10-item Likert scale, developed and validated for this study, measured self-efficacy. Child hospitalization data from birth to 24 months were available from medical records. All models controlled for children's chronic conditions, birth weight, and demographic factors. Twenty-two percent of children were hospitalized once and 9% were hospitalized two or more times, 14% of mothers had consistently high depressive symptoms, and 48% had lower maternal self-efficacy than the sample mean. Using linear regression, increased maternal depressive symptoms were found to predict lower self-efficacy (-0.188, 95% CI: -0.280, -0.097). Using ordered logistic regression, lower maternal self-efficacy was found to predict more child hospitalizations (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 2.37, 0.995). When these two paths were combined by multiplying the coefficients, maternal self-efficacy was shown to be a mediator (p<0.001) between maternal depression and child hospitalizations in this urban, mostly minority, population. Interventions targeting maternal self-efficacy and adequate maternal depression treatment should be considered to decrease child hospitalizations.
    137st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2009; 11/2009
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    ABSTRACT: To address the maternal and neonatal risks of both depression and antidepressant exposure and develop algorithms for periconceptional and antenatal management. Representatives from the American Psychiatric Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and a consulting developmental pediatrician collaborated to review English language articles on fetal and neonatal outcomes associated with depression and antidepressant treatment during childbearing. Articles were obtained from Medline searches and bibliographies. Search keywords included pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnancy outcomes, depressive disorder, depressive disorder/dt, abnormalities/drug-induced/epidemiology, abnormalities/drug-induced/et. Iterative draft manuscripts were reviewed until consensus was achieved. Both depressive symptoms and antidepressant exposure are associated with fetal growth changes and shorter gestations, but the majority of studies that evaluated antidepressant risks were unable to control for the possible effects of a depressive disorder. Short-term neonatal irritability and neurobehavioral changes are also linked with maternal depression and antidepressant treatment. Several studies report fetal malformations in association with first trimester antidepressant exposure but there is no specific pattern of defects for individual medications or class of agents. The association between paroxetine and cardiac defects is more often found in studies that included all malformations rather than clinically significant malformations. Late gestational use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants is associated with transitory neonatal signs and a low risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. Psychotherapy alone is an appropriate treatment for some pregnant women; however, others prefer pharmacotherapy or may require pharmacological treatment. Antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, but available research has not yet adequately controlled for other factors that may influence birth outcomes including maternal illness or problematic health behaviors that can adversely affect pregnancy.
    General hospital psychiatry 09/2009; 31(5):403-13. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) increases risk for both depression and pain in women. Pain is associated with worse depression treatment response. The contribution of pain to depression treatment outcomes in women with histories of CSA is unknown. This study examined whether clinically significant pain would be associated with worse depression and functioning outcomes among women with CSA histories treated with interpersonal psychotherapy. Participants were 66 women with major depression and CSA who presented to a community mental health center. An interpersonal psychotherapy protocol planned for 14 weekly sessions followed by 2 biweekly sessions. Patients were classified as experiencing high pain or low pain based on reported pain severity and interference with functioning. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess change over time in intent-to-treat analyses. High pain patients entered treatment with greater depression symptom severity than low pain patients. Although both high and low pain patients demonstrated improvement in mood, high-pain patients continued to report more depressive symptoms posttreatment. Furthermore, high pain patients demonstrated less change in their emotion-related role functioning over the course of treatment than low pain patients. Small sample size, secondary analyses, lack of a control group, and limited assessment of pain all limit confidence in the findings of this study. Findings support the evidence that depression is particularly severe and difficult to treat in patients with CSA and pain. Clinicians should evaluate pain in depressed patients with CSA histories. Role functioning may prove to be a particularly important target in the treatment of patients with pain.
    Comprehensive psychiatry 05/2009; 50(3):215-20. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric residency reforms have increased emphasis on psychosocial issues, but we do not know whether this has changed pediatricians' perceptions of barriers to addressing maternal depression. A survey of 1600 members of the American Academy of Pediatrics investigated whether training in adult mental health issues and perceived barriers to addressing maternal depression differed for current pediatric residents, pediatricians in practice <5 years, and those in practice >or=5 years. Training did not differ for respondents who were currently in training, in practice <5 years, or in practice >or=5 years. Those in practice >or=5 years reported more barriers to addressing maternal depression compared with current residents. Current residents with training in adult mental techniques reported fewer barriers to the care of maternal depression. However, in spite of residency reforms, 81% of current residents reported no training in adult mental health issues.
    Clinical Pediatrics 05/2008; 47(7):670-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Linda H Chaudron
    Journal of Women's Health 06/2007; 16(4):551-3. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to identify characteristics of pediatricians that were associated with identification or management (referral and/or treatment) of mothers with depression. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random sample of 1600 of the 50,818 US nonretired members of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Overall, 832 responded, with 745 responses from nontrainee members. The 662 fellow nontrainee members who engaged in direct patient care and completed information on identifying, referring, and treating maternal depression were included in the analyses. A total of 511 of 662 respondents reported identifying maternal depression; of those who reported identifying maternal depression, 421 indicated they referred and 29 that they treated maternal depression in their practices. Pediatricians who are older, work in practices that provide child mental health services, see primarily (> or = 75%) white patients, use > or = 1 method to address maternal depression, agree that pediatricians should be responsible for identifying maternal depression, think that maternal depression has an extreme effect on children's mental health, and are attitudinally more inclined to identify or manage maternal depression had significantly higher odds of reporting identification of maternal depression. Positive correlates of identification and management of maternal depression included practicing in the Midwest, using > or = 1 method to address maternal depression, working in a practice that provides child mental health services, thinking that caregiving problems attributable to maternal health have an extreme effect on children's physical health, having attitudes that are more inclined to identify and to manage maternal depression, and usually inquiring about symptoms routinely to identify maternal depression. Pediatricians' practice characteristics and attitudes are associated with their identification and management of mothers with depression.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2007; 119(3):444-54. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric professionals are being asked to provide an increasing array of services during well-child visits, including screening for psychosocial and family issues that may directly or indirectly affect their pediatric patients. One such service is routine screening for postpartum depression at pediatric visits. Postpartum depression is an example of a parental condition that can have serious negative effects for the child. Because it is a maternal condition, it raises a host of ethical and legal questions about the boundaries of pediatric care and the pediatric provider's responsibility and liability. In this article we discuss the ethical and legal considerations of, and outline the risks of screening or not screening for, postpartum depression at pediatric visits. We make recommendations for pediatric provider education and for the roles of national professional organizations in guiding the process of defining the boundaries of pediatric care.
    PEDIATRICS 02/2007; 119(1):123-8. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatricians are in a good position to identify women who struggle with depression, but studies show low rates of pediatrician identification and management. It is likely that pediatricians' management of maternal depression may vary on the basis of their attitudes, but no instrument has been developed to measure these attitudes. We sought to develop a measure of pediatricians' attitudes about managing maternal depression and to identify characteristics associated with pediatricians' attitudes about managing maternal depression. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data provided by 651 practicing, nontrainee pediatricians (response rate 57.5%) surveyed through an American Academy of Pediatrics 2004 Periodic Survey. An exploratory principal components analysis was used to investigate the interrelationships among the attitudinal items. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the adjusted associations between physician and practice characteristics and attitudes. The attitudinal measure consisted of 3 subscales: acknowledging maternal depression, perceptions of mothers' beliefs, and treating maternal depression. Clinical approaches (eg, interest in further education on identifying or treating maternal depression) and training and work characteristics were significantly related to pediatricians' attitudes; patient characteristics (eg, type of insurance and ethnicity/race) were not significantly associated with pediatricians' attitudes. We developed a measure to assess pediatricians' attitudes about managing maternal depression. The findings from this study can be used to develop and assess interventions that improve pediatricians' attitudes about acknowledging maternal depression, perceptions of mothers' beliefs, and treating maternal depression.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2007; 7(3):239-46. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the incidence, continuation, and resolution of symptoms during the postpartum year in urban women experiencing high depressive symptom levels at one or more well child care visits. As part of a prior study of postpartum depressive symptoms, demographic data and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were systematically collected from pediatric records of a clinic that routinely screens mothers with the EPDS at each first-year well child care visit. To explore the course of depressive symptoms throughout the postpartum year in this pilot study, we included only data from the records that had at least one EPDS > or = 10 (N = 100), a score indicating a high likelihood for clinically significant depressive symptoms. Among 49 women who completed the EPDS at least once before 3 months and between 3 and 11 months postpartum, 33% had high symptom levels throughout the year, 41% improved after the first 3 months, and 26% developed high symptom levels after the first 3 months. Postpartum depressive symptoms persist in many women throughout the postpartum year. Routine screening throughout the year might better identify both a subgroup of women who develop new symptoms during the year, as well as the women whose symptoms persist.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2006; 6(4):221-4. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One quarter of mothers of young children experience high levels of depressive symptoms, and only half are identified by themselves or their providers. Little is known about what factors influence maternal and provider recognition of depression. We use data from the San Mateo County, California, Prenatal to Three project to explore self-recognition, provider response, and referral among low-income Hispanic mothers of infants and toddlers. The goals are (1) to describe the patterns of self-recognition of maternal depression, maternal reporting of health professional response, and referrals for mental health services as related to depression severity and (2) to identify determinants of self-recognition, provider response, and mental health referrals. Our sample consists of 218 nonpregnant Hispanic mothers in San Mateo County. Self-recognition was defined as an affirmative answer to the question, "Have you thought that you needed help with sadness or depression since your child was born?" High depressive symptoms were defined as a score of > or =10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We performed chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Twenty-eight percent responded that they needed help with depression since the birth of their baby. Less than half discussed depressive feelings with their provider. Depression recognition factors differed between mothers and health professionals. Maternal depression is prevalent among Hispanic women on Medicaid but is not readily detected by women or providers. Women and providers use different cues to identify depression, possibly leading to communication discrepancies. Further research on the factors that influence self-recognition and provider recognition of maternal depression is needed.
    Journal of Women's Health 06/2005; 14(4):331-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

528 Citations
64.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • University of Rochester
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • VA Puget Sound Health Care System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2010
    • University Center Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Pediatrics (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States