Leonardina Ciccarelli

University of Pavia, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (51)98.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exenatide on levels of serum adipocytokines and on β-cell function. The study was conducted between 2008 and 2012. After a run-in period with metformin, 174 patients with type-2 diabetes were randomly distributed to either a group receiving exenatide at 10 μg twice daily, or a group receiving the placebo, for 12 months. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, fasting plasma proinsulin (FPPr), proinsulin : fasting plasma insulin ratio (Pr/FPI ratio), C-peptide, glucagon, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), visfatin, omentin-1, and microalbuminuria. We used ELISA methods to assess the various parameters. Patients also underwent a combined euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamp, with subsequent arginine stimulation. After 12 months, a combination of exenatide and metformin produced a better decrease in body mass, BMI, glycemic control, FPI, FPPr, FPPr/FPI ratio, HOMA-IR, and glucagon level. Treatment with exenatide + metformin was superior to the placebo + metformin in increasing HOMA-β, C-peptide, and β-cell function. Significant negative correlations were found between M value, an index of insulin sensitivity, and measured adipocytokines. In conclusion, the combination of exenatide + metformin plays a role in improving some adipocytokine levels, and is better than metformin alone. The significant negative correlation between M value and measured adipocytokines is another confirmation of the positive effects linked to the improvement in insulin sensitivity.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 09/2013; 91(9):724-32. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of exenatide on some inflammatory markers and to quantify the effect of exenatide on β-cell function. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Seven hospitals in Italy. PATIENTS: A total of 174 white treatment-naive adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) level higher than 7.5%. INTERVENTION: After an open-label run-in period of 8 ± 2 months with metformin, patients were randomized to take exenatide (5 μg twice/day for the first 4 weeks, 10 μg twice/day thereafter) or a placebo volume equivalent for 12 months. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Body mass index, HbA1c , fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, homeostasis model assessment β-cell function index (HOMA-β), fasting plasma proinsulin (FPPr), proinsulin-to-fasting plasma insulin ratio (Pr:FPI ratio), C-peptide, glucagon, vaspin, chemerin, and resistin were evaluated at baseline, at randomization, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Patients also underwent a combined euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic clamp with subsequent arginine stimulation to assess insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. HbA1c was significantly improved with exenatide plus metformin compared with placebo plus metformin. Exenatide plus metformin was also significantly more effective than placebo plus metformin in increasing HOMA-β C-peptide, and all measures of β-cell function after the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamp. We observed that exenatide plus metformin also reduced resistin compared with placebo plus metformin. No variations in vaspin and chemerin were noted in group-to-group comparisons. We observed a significant correlation between M value increase, an index of insulin sensitivity, and a decrease in inflammatory parameters in the exenatide plus metformin group. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of exenatide plus metformin was more effective than metformin alone in improving glycemic control, β-cell function, and inflammatory parameters.
    Pharmacotherapy 06/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim  To quantify how much exenatide added to metformin improves β-cell function, and to evaluate the impact on glycaemic control, insulin resistance and inflammation compared with metformin alone. Methods  A total of 174 patients with Type 2 diabetes with poor glycaemic control were instructed to take metformin for 8 ± 2 months, then they were randomly assigned to exenatide (5 μg twice a day for the first 4 weeks and forced titration to 10 μg twice a day thereafter) or placebo for 12 months. At 12 months we evaluated anthropometric measurements, glycaemic control, insulin resistance and β-cell function variables, glucagon, adiponectin, high sensitivity-C reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α. Before and after 12 months, patients underwent a combined euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic clamp, with subsequent arginine stimulation. Results  Exenatide + metformin gave a greater decrease in body weight, glycaemic control, fasting plasma proinsulin and insulin and their ratio, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and glucagon values and a greater increase in C-peptide levels, homeostasis model assessment β-cell function index (HOMA-β) and adiponectin compared with placebo + metformin. Exenatide + metformin decreased waist and hip circumference, and reduced concentrations of high sensitivity-C reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α. Exenatide + metformin gave a greater increase in M value (+34%), and disposition index (+55%) compared with placebo + metformin; first (+21%) and second phase (+34%) C-peptide response to glucose and C-peptide response to arginine (+25%) were also improved by exenatide + metformin treatment, but not by placebo + metformin. Conclusion  Exenatide is effective not only on glycaemic control, but also in protecting β-cells and in reducing inflammation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.
    Diabetic Medicine 04/2012; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of vildagliptin added to pioglitazone or glimepiride on metabolic and insulin resistance related-indices in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). 168 patients with T2DM were randomized to take either pioglitazone 30 mg once a day plus vildagliptin 50 mg twice a day or glimepiride 2 mg 3 times a day plus vildagliptin 50 mg twice a day. We evaluated body weight, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function index (HOMA-beta), fasting plasma proinsulin (FPPr), proinsulin/fasting plasma insulin ratio (Pr/FPI ratio), adiponectin (ADN), resistin (R), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) at their baseline values, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment. We observed a similar improvement of HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and Hs-CRP compared to baseline in the 2 groups. Fasting plasma insulin, FPPr, Pr/FPI ratio, R, and TNF-alpha were significantly decreased and ADN was significantly increased with pioglitazone plus vildagliptin, but not with glimepiride plus vildagliptin. HOMA-IR, and HOMA-beta values obtained with pioglitazone plus vildagliptin were significantly better than the values obtained with glimepiride plus vildagliptin. Pioglitazone plus vildagliptin were found to be more effective in preserving beta-cell function, and in reducing insulin resistance, and inflammatory state parameters.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2010; 42(9):663-9. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Incretin-based therapies have provided additional options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of exenatide compared to glibenclamide on body weight, glycemic control, beta-cell function, insulin resistance, and inflammatory state in patients with diabetes. One hundred twenty-eight patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving therapy with metformin were randomized to take exenatide 5 microg twice a day or glibenclamide 2.5 mg three times a day and titrated to exenatide 10 microg twice a day or glibenclamide 5 mg three times a day. We evaluated body weight, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function (HOMA-beta) index, plasma proinsulin (PPr), PPr/FPI ratio, resistin, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Body weight and BMI decreased with exenatide and increased with glibenclamide. A similar improvement of HbA(1c), FPG, and PPG was obtained in both groups, whereas FPI decreased with exenatide and increased with glibenclamide. The HOMA-IR index decreased and the HOMA-beta index increased with exenatide but not with glibenclamide. A decrease of PPr was reported in both groups, but only glibenclamide decreased the PPr/FPI ratio. Resistin and RBP-4 decreased with exenatide and increased with glibenclamide. A decrease of Hs-CRP was obtained with exenatide, whereas no variations were observed with glibenclamide. Both exenatide and glibenclamide gave a similar improvement of glycemic control, but only exenatide gave improvements of insulin resistance and beta-cell function, giving also a decrease of body weight and of inflammatory state.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2010; 12(3):233-40. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of the addition of sitagliptin or metformin to pioglitazone monotherapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on body weight, glycemic control, beta-cell function, insulin resistance, and inflammatory state parameters. One hundred fifty-one patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)] >7.5%) in therapy with pioglitazone 30 mg/d were enrolled in this study. We randomized patients to take pioglitazone 30 mg plus sitagliptin 100 mg once a day, or pioglitazone 15 mg plus metformin 850 mg twice a day. We evaluated at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months these parameters: body weight, body mass index, HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function index, fasting plasma proinsulin (Pr), Pr/FPI ratio, adiponectin, resistin (R), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. A decrease of body weight and body mass index was observed with metformin, but not with sitagliptin, at the end of the study. We observed a comparable significant decrease of HbA(1c), FPG, and PPG and a significant increase of homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function index compared with baseline in both groups without any significant differences between the 2 groups. Fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma Pr, Pr/FPI ratio, and HOMA-IR values were decreased in both groups even if the values obtained with metformin were significantly lower than the values obtained with sitagliptin. There were no significant variations of ADN, R, or TNF-alpha with sitagliptin, whereas a significant increase of ADN and a significant decrease of R and TNF-alpha values were recorded with metformin. A significant decrease of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein value was obtained in both groups without any significant differences between the 2 groups. There was a significant correlation between HOMA-IR decrease and ADN increase, and between HOMA-IR decrease and R and TNF-alpha decrease in pioglitazone plus metformin group after the treatment. The addition of both sitagliptin or metformin to pioglitazone gave an improvement of HbA(1c), FPG, and PPG; but metformin led also to a decrease of body weight and to a faster and better improvement of insulin resistance and inflammatory state parameters, even if sitagliptin produced a better protection of beta-cell function.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 12/2009; 59(6):887-95. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the expression pattern of the vascular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system and their inhibitors (TIMPs) in human hypertension. The authors hypothesized that MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 would be abnormal in hypertension, reflecting alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. The authors measured plasma levels and activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in 44 hypertensive patients and 44 controls. MMP-2 levels and activity were significantly higher in hypertensive group (p < .0001). Significant increase was also observed for MMP-9 level and activity (p < .0001) and for TIMP-1 (p < .0001) in hypertensive patients. Plasma levels and activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 are increased in hypertensive patients, which may reflect abnormal ECM metabolism.
    Endothelium 07/2009; 13(3):227-31. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The data reported in literature revealed a novel function for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as modulators of adipogenesis. However, their expression profile and role in the cellular microenvironment during obesity-mediated adipose tissue development remain poorly defined. The authors hypothesized that MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels might be abnormal in obesity, reflecting alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. One hundred and sixty three obese patients and 165 controls were enrolled. The following were measured: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (Tg), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and plasma levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9. A significant increase of BMI and WC (p< .0001) was observed in obese patients. No FPG change was present in obese group, whereas FPI and HOMA index increases (p< .0001) were obtained in obese patients compared to control subjects. No SBP and DBP variations were observed in obese group. Significant TC and LDL-C increases (p< .0001) were present in obese patients, whereas no HDL-C, Tg, and Lp(a) changes were obtained in both groups. MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in obese group (p< .0001). Plasma levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 are increased in obese patients which may reflect abnormal ECM metabolism.
    Endothelium 07/2009; 15(4):219-24. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the problems associated with reaching the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target during statin treatment is the emergence of laboratory or clinical side effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of statin-associated adverse events in diabetic and non-diabetic patients affected by polygenic hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia and the efficacy and tolerability of treatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/10 mg/day on the same subjects experiencing the adverse events. Consecutively enrollment of patients affected by polygenic hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Each Centre used any of the available statins on the basis of current clinical judgement and monitored enrolled patients for adverse events during the following 2 years. Those patients with moderate adverse events suspended the current statin therapy for 1 month (washout period), and then were shifted to treatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/10 mg/day and again monitored for adverse events in the following 6 months. We assessed body mass index, glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase and monitored adverse events such as asthenia and myalgia. All 1170 Caucasian patients affected by polygenic hypercholesterolemia obtained a significant reduction in LDL-C during the observation period (P < 0*05), while those with combined hyperlipidemia also showed a reduction in TG plasma level (P < 0*05) and a significant increase in HDL-C (P < 0*05). Patients affected by polygenic hypercholesterolemia experiencing adverse event under statin treatment obtained a significantly lower reduction than those tolerating the treatment (P < 0*001). The prevalence of adverse events under statin treatment was 4*9% in non-diabetic patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia, 8*6% in those with combined hyperlipidemia, 7*1% in diabetic patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia and 7*6% in those with combined hyperlipidemia. Six months after the shift to treatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/10 mg, all patients experienced a significant improvement in LDL-C, TG and HDL-C plasma level. No adverse event was registered during the ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/10 mg treatment period. It seems that previous side effects observed with statins did not re-appear with the administration of ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/10 mg/day. The efficacy and adverse effect profile of the ezetimibe and simvastatin combination appear to be good for both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, and in both conditions.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 07/2009; 34(3):267-76. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) (Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) provides an opportunity to better understand abnormalities in glucose metabolism in both healthy subjects and those with diabetes. The aims of our study were to assess the reliability of CGMS compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG) and to analyze the graphs obtained in a sample of healthy free-living subjects in order to establish the suitability of CGMS in physiological studies. Eighteen healthy adults, 12 women and six men, were enrolled in this study. Each subject performed 24-h CGMS and inserted 24 glycemic values, measured through a glucose meter, during their common daily activities. Three subjects were excluded from the analysis since they did not meet accuracy criteria. None of the participants received any advice as regard diet and physical activity. Means and standard deviations were used to summarize quantitative data. Normal distribution of data was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk W test. Differences over time and association between glucose levels with other variables were evaluated with linear regression models for repeated measures. We did not find statistically significant differences between CGMS measures and meter readings. In the subjects studied the mean glucose levels increase according to age, and we found a mean increase in glucose concentration of 0.50 mg/dL for every year of age. As regards gender, men presented a 4.63% higher mean glucose concentration than women. A 1.16% higher glucose concentration for every unit (kg/m(2)) of body mass index (BMI) was observed in both groups. All subjects presented glucose concentrations within the established range of normal glucose levels for 91% of the total duration of CGMS. Our results suggest that long-term studies on larger groups of healthy subjects performing CGMS would be useful in order to better understand if BMI, daily stressors due to work or psychological stress, or other factors can influence daily BG variability and if these nonpathological alterations are related to development of glucose metabolism disorders.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2009; 11(3):159-69. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metformin is the drug of choice to treat obese type 2 diabetes patients because it reduces either insulin-resistance and body weight. We aimed to comparatively test the efficacy and tolerability of pioglitazone and sibutramine in metformin-intolerant obese type 2 diabetic patients treated with sibutramine. Five hundred and seventy-six consecutive Caucasian obese type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated during a 12-months period and fifty-two patients were resulted intolerant to metformin at maximum dosage (3,000 mg/day). All intolerant patients to metformin received a treatment with pioglitazone (45 mg/day) and sibutramine (10 mg/day) and they were compared with fifty-three patients treated with metformin (3,000 mg/day) and sibutramine (10 mg/day) for 6 months in a single-blind controlled trial. We assessed body mass index, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin, Fasting Plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, postprandial plasma insulin, lipid profile, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate at baseline and after 3, and 6 months. No body mass index change was observed at 3, and 6 months in pioglitazone + sibutramine group, while a significant reduction of body mass index and waist circumference was observed after 6 months in metformin + sibutramine group (p<0.05). A significant decrease of glycated hemoglobin, Fasting Plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, postprandial plasma insulin and HOMA index was observed after 3, and 6 months in both groups (p<0.05, and p<0.01, respectively). A significant Tg reduction was present after 6 months (p<0.05) in both groups respect to the baseline values. No systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate change was obtained after 3, and 6 months in both groups. Pioglitazone and sibutramine combination appears to be a short-term equally efficacious and well-tolerated therapeutic alternative respect to metformin-intolerant obese type 2 diabetic patients treated with sibutramine.
    Internal Medicine 01/2009; 48(5):265-71. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have directly compared rosiglitazone and metformin effects on adipocytokines. The aim was to observe the possible effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, plasma leptin (pL), adiponectin (ADN), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and resistin (R) in overweight and obese diabetic patients intolerant to metformin. Six hundred and ninety-four consecutive overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated and 56 patients were intolerant to metformin at maximum dosage. We added rosiglitazone to metformin in these intolerant patients (RM) and we compared them with 61 patients treated with metformin (M) in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), pL, ADN, TNF-alpha, and R at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Furthermore, we calculated insulin resistance index (HOMA-index) using FPG and FPI. Glycated hemoglobin, FPG, FPI, and HOMA-index results were lower than baseline values in RM and M groups. Glycated hemoglobin and HOMA-index values were significantly lower in RM group compared to M group at 6 months. Plasma leptin, ADN, TNF-alpha, and R were significantly improved in RM group compared to M group at 6 months. No BMI change was observed, probably because rosiglitazone was added to metformin, that could mitigate the body increase of rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone improved glycemic control and insulin resistance-correlated parameters when added to intolerant metformin patients. These data suggest that rosiglitazone may be the drug of choice for the treatment of overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients.
    Archives of Medical Research 06/2008; 39(4):412-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the combination of metformin plus pioglitazone or rosiglitazone on glucose and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, as well as its tolerability in those patients. In this 12-month, multicentric, double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial, all patients began with metformin. Patients were randomized for self-administration of either pioglitazone or rosiglitazone for 12 months. We assessed body mass index (BMI), glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)], fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels [FPG, PPG, FPI and PPI, respectively] and homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] index) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of treatment, as well as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), nitrites/nitrates and adiponectin (ADN) at baseline and at 12 months of treatment. Significant HbA(1c) decreases were obtained after 9 (p<0.05) and 12 (p<0.01) months in both groups. After 9 and 12 months, mean FPG and PPG levels were decreased in both groups (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). We observed decreases in FPI and PPI at 9 and 12 months (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) compared to the baseline values in both groups. Furthermore, HOMA index improvement over the baseline value was obtained only at 12 months (p<0.05) in both groups. SBP and DBP improved significantly (p<0.05, for each) in both groups after 12 months. hs-CRP decreased significantly (p<0.05) in both groups after 12 months; nitrites/nitrates and ADN increased significantly (p<0.05, for each) in both groups after 12 months. The combination of thiazolinediones and metformin is associated with a slight but significant improvement in the long-term blood pressure control of these patients, and with an improvement in the anti-inflammatory state, both of which are related to a similar reduction in insulin-resistance.
    Hypertension Research 06/2007; 30(5):387-94. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metformin is considered the gold standard for type 2 diabetes treatment as monotherapy and in combination with sulphonylureas and insulin, whereas the combination of metformin with thiazolidinediones is relatively less studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the differential effect on glycaemic metabolism and lipid variables of the combination of metformin plus pioglitazone or metformin plus rosiglitazone in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. All patients began metformin and were randomized to receive pioglitazone or rosiglitazone for 12 months. We assessed body mass index, glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, postprandial plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B. Significant decreases in glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, and postprandial plasma insulin were seen after 9 and 12 months in both groups. Homeostasis model assessment index improved at 12 months in both groups. Significant total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B improvement was observed in pioglitazone group after 12 months, but not in the rosiglitazone group. These variations were significant between groups. The combination of metformin plus thiazolidinediones was able to improve glycaemic control compared with previous therapy. Pioglitazone was associated with a significant improvement in lipid and lipoprotein variables.
    Internal Medicine Journal 03/2007; 37(2):79-86. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to investigate the metabolic effect of telmisartan and irbesartan in subjects treated with rosiglitazone, a well-known insulin-sensitizing drug, in order to clarify the direct metabolic effects of the two former drugs. Patients were enrolled, evaluated, and followed at 3 Italian centers. We evaluated 188 type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (94 males and 94 females in total; 49 males and 46 females, aged 56+/-5, treated with telmisartan; and 45 males and 48 females, aged 55+/-4, treated with irbesartan). All had been diabetic for at least 6 months, and glycemic control by the maximum tolerated dietary changes and maximum tolerated dose of oral hypoglycemic agents had been attempted and failed in all cases. All patients took a fixed dose of rosiglitazone, 4 mg/day. We administered telmisartan (40 mg/day) or irbesartan (150 mg/day) in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical manner. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), glycemic control (HbA1c fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels [FPG, and FPI, respectively], and homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] index), lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and leptin during the 12 months of this treatment. No BMI change was observed after 6 or 12 months in either group. Significant decreases in HbAlc and FPG were observed after 6 months in the telmisartan group, and after 12 months in both groups. The decrease in HbA1c and FPG at 12 months was statistically significant only in the telmisartan group. A significant decrease in FPI was observed at 12 months in both groups, and this decrease was significantly greater in the telmisartan group. Significant decreases in the HOMA index were observed at 6 and 12 months in both groups, and the decrease in the HOMA index after 12 months was significantly greater in the telmisartan group than in the irbesartan group. Significant changes in SBP, DBP, TC, and LDL-C were observed after 6 and 12 months in both groups. Significant decreases in TNF-alpha and leptin levels were observed after 6 months in the telmisartan group, and after 12 months in both groups. In conclusion, in this study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, telmisartan seemed to result in a greater improvement in glycemic and lipid control and metabolic parameters related to metabolic syndrome compared to irbesartan. These observed metabolic effects of different angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers could be relevant when choosing a therapy to correct metabolic derangement of patients affected by metabolic syndrome and diabetes.
    Hypertension Research 12/2006; 29(11):849-56. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of amlodipine-atorvastatin combination on plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and insulin sensitivity in normocholesterolemic obese hypertensive patients. After a 4-week placebo wash-out period, 50 normocholesterolemic [total cholesterol (TC) <5.2 mmol/L], obese (BMI >/=30 kg/m(2)) hypertensive patients (DBP >90 and <105 mm Hg and SBP >140 and <180 mm Hg) were randomly treated with amlodipine (10 mg) or with amlodipine (10 mg) plus atorvastatin (20 mg) according to a cross-over design; each treatment had a 12-week duration. At the end of the placebo and of each treatment period, blood pressure (BP), TNF-alpha, IL-6, insulin resistance (IR) by homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR) and TC were evaluated. Amlodipine monotherapy decreased both SBP (-17.1 mm Hg, p=0.008 vs. placebo) and DBP (-14.3 mm Hg, p=0.008) as well as TNF-alpha (from 3.66+/-1.6 to 3.09+/-1.1 pg/ml, p=0.045) and HOMA-IR (from 4.58+/-0.7 to 3.88+/-0.6, p=0.007). The amlodipine-atorvastatin combination produced a decrease in SBP (-22.5 mm Hg, p=0.0007 vs. placebo, p=0.039 vs. amlodipine), DBP (-17.7 mm Hg, p=0.0007 vs. placebo; p=0.04 vs. amlodipine), TNF-alpha (2.59+/-0.9 pg/mL, p=0.007 vs. placebo and p=0.038 vs. amlodipine) and HOMA-IR (2.86+/-0.4, p=0.0008 vs. placebo and p=0.007 vs. amlodipine). The combination reduced IL-6 (from 7.93+/-1.9 to 5.59+/-1.2 pg/mL, p=0.008 vs. placebo and p=0.007 vs. amlodipine) and TC (from 4.3+/-0.5 to 3.6+/-0.4 mmol/L, p=0.008 vs. placebo and vs. amlodipine). HOMA-IR changes significantly correlated with TNF-alpha changes (r=0.38, p<0.05) during combination but not during amlodipine monotherapy. In normocholesterolemic, obese hypertensive patients, the amlodipine-atorvastatin combination decreased inflammatory markers and IR more than amlodipine monotherapy and produced a greater SBP and DBP reduction.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2006; 62(10):817-22. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group trial, 103 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive one of two thiazolidinediones--pioglitazone or rosiglitazone--in combination with 1500 mg/day of metformin, increasing up to 3000 mg/day, for 12 months. Anthropometric, metabolic, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Significant decreases in glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and post-prandial plasma glucose levels were seen after 9 and 12 months in both groups, and significant decreases in fasting plasma insulin and post-prandial plasma insulin levels were seen after 12 months in both groups. In both groups, improvement in the homeostasis model assessment index compared with baseline was obtained only after 12 months. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were significantly lower in both groups after 12 months compared with baseline values. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, the combination of metformin plus thiazolidinediones improved glycaemic control and produced a slight but significant reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels.
    The Journal of international medical research 09/2006; 34(5):545-55. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metformin is considered the gold standard for type 2 diabetes treatment as monotherapy and in combination with sulphonylureas and insulin. The combination of metformin with thiazolidinediones is less well studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the differential effect, and tolerability, of metformin combined with pioglitazone or rosiglitazone on glucose, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. This 12-month, multicentre, double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted at three study sites in Italy. We assessed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (duration >or=6 months) and with metabolic syndrome. All patients were required to have poor glycaemic control with diet, or experienced adverse effects with diet and metformin, administered up to the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were randomized to receive either pioglitazone or rosiglitazone self-administered for 12 months. We assessed body mass index (BMI), glycaemic control [glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels (FPG, PPG, FPI, and PPI respectively), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index], lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)], lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and homocysteine (HCT) at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of treatment. No BMI change was observed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in either group. Significant HbA(1c) decreases were observed at 9 and 12 months in both groups. After 9 and 12 months, mean FPG and PPG levels decreased in both groups. Decreases in FPI and PPI were observed at 9 and 12 months compared with the baseline in both groups. Furthermore, in both groups, the HOMA index improved but only at 12 months. Significant TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG improvement was present in the pioglitazone group at 12 months compared with the baseline values, and these variations were significantly different between groups. No TC, LDL-C, TG improvement was present in the rosiglitazone group after 12 months. Significant Lp(a) and HCT improvement was present in the pioglitazone group at 12 months compared with the baseline values, and Lp(a) change was significant compared with the rosiglitazone group. Significant HCT decrease was observed in the rosiglitazone group at the end of the study. In our type 2 diabetic patients, both drugs were safe and effective for glycaemic control and improving HCT plasma levels. However, long-term treatment with metformin plus pioglitazone significantly reduced Lp(a) plasma levels, whereas metformin + rosiglitazone did not. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, combined treatment with metformin and rosiglitazone or pioglitazone is safe and effective, However, the pioglitazone combination also reduced the plasma Lp(a) levels whereas the rosiglitazone combination did not.
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 08/2006; 31(4):375-83. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the metabolic effects of the thiazolidinediones have been well studied, there is a lack of comparative data on their effects on certain cardiovascular risk factors, such as elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) and homocysteine (Hcy). This study compared the effects of pioglitazone or rosiglitazone added to glimepiride on a range of lipid parameters, focusing on Lp(a) and Hcy, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. This was a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind study in patients with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome (hypertension [>or=130/85 mm Hg]) and triglyceridemia (>or=150 mg/dL). In addition to glimepiride 4 mg/d, patients received pioglitazone 15 mg QD or rosiglitazone 4 mg QD for 1 year. The primary efficacy variables were change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), Lp(a), and Hey. Secondary efficacy measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) concentrations, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations (FPI and PPI, respectively), the Homeostasis Model Assessment index, and the lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides). All these parameters were measured after a 12-hour fast every 3 months for 1 year. Tolerability was assessed based on reported adverse events and laboratory abnormalities at each study visit. Ninety-one white patients with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome were enrolled, and 87 completed the study (43 men, 44 women; mean [SD] age, 53 [6] years; mean weight, 68.4 [3.3] kg). Mean baseline values for BMI and HbA(1c) were 24.3 (0.8) kg/m(2) and 8.1 % (0.8 %), respectively. At the end of 1 year, both treatment groups had significant increases from baseline in BMI (4.9% glimepiride + pio glitazone, 6.2% glimepiride + rosiglitazone; P < 0.05). Glimepiride + pioglitazone was associated with the following percent improvements from baseline in measures of glycemic control: -17.1% in HbA(1c), -19.3% in FPG, -17.8% in PPG, -40.1% in FPI, and -22.6% in PPI (all, P < 0.01). The corresponding percent improvements from baseline with glimepiride + rosiglitazone were -16.3%, -19.9%, -15.0%, -44.8%, and -22.1% (all, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in any of these parameters. The pioglitazone group had significant improvements from baseline in TC (-11.1%), LDL-C (-12.0%), HDL-C (15.0%), and triglycerides (-22.4%) [corrected] (all, P < 0.05), whereas the rosiglitazone group had significant increases in TC (14.9%), LDL-C (16.5%), and triglycerides (17.9%) (all, P < 0.05); the difference between pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The change from baseline in Lp(a) was significant in the pioglitazone group, both relative to baseline and compared with the rosiglitazone group (-19.7% vs 0.5%, respectively; P < 0.05 vs baseline and vs rosiglitazone). Changes from baseline in Hey were significant in both the pioglitazone and rosiglitazone groups (-20.2% and -25.0%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no significant difference between groups. Both treatments were well tolerated, and no patients had significant changes in transaminases. In these patients with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, the combinations of glimepiride with pioglitazone and glimepiride with rosiglitazone produced significant improvements in measures of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and homocysteinemia. One year of treatment with the pioglitazone combination was associated with significantly reduced plasma Lp(a) levels compared with the rosiglitazone combination.
    Clinical Therapeutics 05/2006; 28(5):679-88. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in the development of hypertension. The high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a well-studied marker of systemic inflammation that has a predictive power with regard to the development of hypertension. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hs-CRP plasma levels are altered in hypertension. Moreover, the study was to assess whether chronic antihypertensive treatment with doxazosin would normalize hs-CRP and nitrites/nitrates. We measured plasma levels of hs-CRP and nitrites/nitrates in 44 normotensive subjects and in 44 patients with hypertension before and after doxazosin therapy for 4 months. hs-CRP plasma levels were significantly higher (P < 0.007) in untreated hypertensive group compared to controls. Significant decrease was observed for hs-CRP (P < 0.05) in hypertensive patients after antihypertensive treatment. Nitrites/nitrates were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the untreated hypertensive group compared to controls. A significant increase was observed for nitrites/nitrates (P < 0.05) in hypertensive patients after antihypertensive treatment. These results suggest that doxazosin treatment exerts anti-inflammatory effects in addition to its antihypertensive properties in hypertensive patients.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 05/2006; 47(4):508-12. · 2.38 Impact Factor