[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysadherin is a cancer-associated cell membrane glycoprotein, which downregulates E-cadherin and promotes metastasis. We studied the clinicopathological features in 72 cases of epithelioid sarcoma and in six cases of malignant rhabdoid tumor, and also assessed the immunohistochemical expression of dysadherin, E-cadherin and MIB-1 in epithelioid sarcoma and malignant rhabdoid tumor cases. In addition, we compared dysadherin mRNA expression between epithelioid sarcoma and malignant rhabdoid tumor cell lines, using RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Immunohistochemical dysadherin expression was more frequently observed in proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma (71%) in comparison with distal-type epithelioid sarcoma (36%) (P = 0.037). Furthermore, seven proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma cases mimicking malignant rhabdoid tumor (histologically classified as the large cell type, accompanied by frequent rhabdoid cells and located in deep soft tissue) were all positive for dysadherin (100%), whereas dysadherin expression was not detected at all in any of the true six malignant rhabdoid tumors (0%). Cell lines established from proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma revealed significantly higher levels of dysadherin mRNA expression, compared with the levels seen in malignant rhabdoid tumor cell lines by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (P = 0.0433). Epithelioid sarcoma patients with dysadherin expression survived for a significantly shorter time than those without dysadherin expression (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, dysadherin immunopositivity (P = 0.0004) was one of the two independent adverse prognostic factors. We conclude that dysadherin expression in epithelioid sarcoma is a significant poor prognostic factor and that it is a powerful diagnostic marker for distinguishing epithelioid sarcoma, including the proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, from malignant rhabdoid tumor. In epithelioid sarcoma, especially in proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, increased cell disadhesion and motility by dysadherin plays an important role to acquire aggressive biological behavior. However, in malignant rhabdoid tumor, cell growth cycle that is regulated by hSNF5/INI1 gene seems to be critical to lethal biological behavior rather than dysadherin.
Modern Pathology 07/2006; 19(6):820-31. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear beta-catenin staining in soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) has been shown to correlate with tumor progression as assessed by proliferative activity or poor prognosis. Frequent activation of Wnt signaling pathway has been also shown in synovial sarcoma (SS), suggesting a specific role of this pathway in SS. We examined roles of nuclear beta-catenin staining within soft tissue sarcomas. Immunohistochemical detection of nuclear beta-catenin accumulation correlated with cyclin D1 overexpression in spindle cell and pleomorphic sarcomas (P = .037), and the expression of these proteins evenly distributed throughout each section. In some cases, strong beta-catenin nuclear staining was observed in highly pleomorphic and mitotic cells. Furthermore, tumors with nuclear beta-catenin accumulation showed statistically significant increasing cyclin D1 mRNA expression level compared with those without (P = .023). Cyclin D1 mRNA expression levels were statistically higher in tumors with cyclin D1 overexpression than in tumors without (P = .037), suggesting that cyclin D1 overexpression is due to transcriptional activation. However, these correlations could not be detected in SS. In biphasic SS, beta-catenin nuclear staining was observed in spindle cells, whereas cyclin D1 nuclear staining was seen in glandular areas where beta-catenin kept membranous expression. Mutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene and in the mutation cluster region of adenomatous polyposis coli gene were absent in this series of cases. Thus, cyclin D1 could be considered as one of the targets of the nuclear beta-catenin in spindle cell and pleomorphic sarcomas. A possible association between beta-catenin accumulation and spindle cell morphogenesis may exist in SS.
Human Pathlogy 07/2006; 37(6):689-97. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm, and malignant cases are extremely rare. A case of malignant PEComa arising in the colon is described herein. The patient was a 43-year-old Japanese woman without a history of tuberous sclerosis complex. The tumor occurred in the abdominal cavity attached to the serosal side of the descending colon. Histologically, the tumor consisted of sheets or closely packed nests of epithelioid cells with clear or eosinophilic cytoplasms. The tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 but negative for S-100 protein and cytokeratins by immunohistochemical staining. Ki-67 labeling index was 2.9%. Peritoneal dissemination of tumor occurred at 20 months and the patient died of tumor at 38 months after the initial operation. This was considered to be a case of malignant PEComa, based on the histological and clinical features. Tumor cells showed overexpression of cyclin D1 but lacked the loss of heterozygosity of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. The result suggests that the overexpression of cyclin D1 may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of PEComa. Because PEComas can behave in an aggressive manner, careful follow up is warranted.
Pathology International 02/2006; 56(1):46-50. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is known to be a major inactivation mechanism of tumor-related genes. To determine the clinicopathological significance of gene promoter methylation in soft tissue sarcomas, we examined the promoter methylation status of 10 tumor-related genes in 65 soft tissue sarcomas and 19 adjacent non-neoplastic tissues by methylation-specific PCR. The methylation frequencies of tumor-related genes tested in soft tissue sarcomas were 17 (26%) for RASSF1A, 11 (17%) for DAP kinase, 10 (15%) for MGMT, nine (14%) for GSTP1, eight (12%) for PTEN, six (9%) for p16 and hMLH1, five (8%) for hMSH2, two (3%) for p14, and one (2%) for RB. Promoter methylation of these genes was not recognized in non-neoplastic tissues. All those cases of soft tissue sarcoma that had MGMT methylation, with the exception of one case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, showed large tumor size (> or = 10 cm) or recurrence. Moreover, eight of 10 cases with MGMT methylation revealed high American Joint Committee on Cancer stage. Seven of 10 cases (70%) with MGMT methylation showed a loss of MGMT expression by immunohistochemistry. In addition, MGMT methylation status had a statistically significant correlation with a loss of MGMT expression (P=0.014). In conclusion, although methylation of tumor-related genes was a relatively rare event in soft tissue sarcomas, methylation was tumor-specific. Of 10 tumor-related genes, cases with MGMT methylation had a tendency to be aggressive behavior. Moreover, MGMT methylation was closely associated with a loss of MGMT expression. Although our findings need to be extending to a large series, promoter methylation of tumor-related genes is likely to have an association with the pathogenesis of soft tissue sarcomas. Furthermore, MGMT methylation may be associated with tumor aggressiveness and the inactivation of MGMT gene.
Modern Pathology 02/2006; 19(1):106-14. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of a telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TOS) of the right femoral neck in a 20-year-old man which was initially diagnosed and managed as an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). The lesion recurred twice. At the second recurrence TOS was diagnosed. The first local recurrence was recognized 4 years 8 months after the first operation. The clinical diagnosis for the recurrent lesion was recurrent ABC, and curettage and bone graft with internal fixation were performed. The second local recurrence was observed 8 months after the second surgery. The right lesser trochanter appeared destroyed on the radiograph, and a large medial soft tissue mass was demonstrated by computed tomography. The patient underwent wide resection of the tumor with prosthetic replacement of the right proximal femur. The histologic section for this lesion showed a blood-filled cystic lesion, and its wall contained sarcomatous cells with atypical mitoses and tumor osteoid. The histologic diagnosis for the second recurrent lesion was high-grade TOS. The retrospective review of the histologic section for the primary lesion showed similar features to ABC except for a few bizarre cells without mitosis in the tissue of cystic wall. The patient demonstrates no evidence of disease 13 months after the last surgery without adjuvant therapy (he declined chemotherapy).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PTEN/MMAC1 ( PTEN ) gene was identified as a tumor suppressor gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein that controls cellular processes. To investigate the potential role and the alteration of the PTEN gene in soft tissue sarcomas (STSs), we searched for homozygous deletion and promoter hypermethylation in a series of 48 STSs that was composed of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, including 2 cases with a mutation that we previously reported; differential polymerase chain reaction and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, respectively, were used for the analyses. Furthermore, to determine whether PTEN gene alterations are involved in the down-regulation of PTEN expression, we examined the expression of PTEN protein in 38 cases in which paraffin-embedded tissues were available for immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to our previous results showing that 2 (4%) of 51 cases had a PTEN mutation, promoter methylation was recognized in 6 (13%) of 48 cases, and homozygous deletion was detected in 1 (2%) of 48 cases in the current study. Of 6 cases with promoter methylation of PTEN gene, 5 were malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Decreased expression of PTEN protein was recognized in 11 (29%) of 38 STS cases. Of 9 cases with PTEN alterations (6 cases with promoter methylation, 2 with mutation, and 1 with homozygous deletion), 3 (33%) showed decreased expression of PTEN protein. Furthermore, decreased expression of the PTEN gene showed a statistically significant correlation with high MIB-1 labeling index in 38 STS cases examined ( P = .0441). In conclusion, promoter methylation and homozygous deletion of the PTEN gene were found to be relatively rare events in cases of STS, as is mutation of the gene. Of 9 cases with a PTEN alteration, 3 (33%) showed a decrease in PTEN expression, indicating that PTEN gene alterations seem to play a minor role in the inactivation of PTEN in these tumors. Furthermore, although a further detailed analysis of a larger number of cases is still necessary, the present results suggest that PTEN expression may be a useful indicator of cell proliferation in patients with STS.
Human Pathlogy 05/2005; 36(4):357-63. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations of the size of microsatellite DNA sequences, namely microsatellite instability (MSI), have been demonstrated in some types of malignancies. We analyzed the MSI of five microsatellite markers in 40 cases of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) using high resolution fluorescent microsatellite analysis. In addition, we examined the expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes by immunohistochemistry, and promoter methylation of the hMLH1 gene by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). MSI was recognized in 10 of 40 STS cases (25%), which consisted of 2 MSH-high (MSI-H) tumors and 8 MSI-low (MSI-L) tumors. A loss of hMLH1 expression was recognized in 7 of 40 STS cases (18%), and loss of hMSH2 expression was recognized in 3 of 40 STS cases (8%). One case showed a loss of both hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression. Promoter hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene was detected in only 3 of 40 STS cases (8%). Of 10 cases with MSI, 5 (50%) showed a loss of hMLH1 and/or hMSH2 expression. There was a statistically significant correlation between MSI-positive tumors and the loss of hMLH1 and/or hMSH2 expression (p=0.0286). Although the frequency of MSI (25%) or a loss of hMLH1 and/or hMSH2 expression (23%) was relatively low in STS cases, a loss of hMLH1 and/or hMSH2 was recognized in 5 out of 10 MSI-positive cases (50%). These findings suggest that the inactivation of MMR gene expression might be the cause of MSI in STS cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently reported frequent E-cadherin gene mutations in synovial sarcoma (SS), suggesting mutational inactivation of E-cadherin as a potential mechanism of spindle cell morphology in SS, a spindle cell sarcoma that shows areas of glandular epithelial differentiaton in some cases (biphasic SS) and only pure spindle cell morphology in most cases (monophasic SS). However, the mechanism of downregulation of E-cadherin in SS remains unknown. To further address this issue, we analysed the mechanisms of E-cadherin silencing in 40 SS. Genetic and epigenetic changes in the E-cadherin gene, and the expression level of its transcriptional repressor Snail were examined by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), methylation-specific PCR, and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Expression of E-cadherin was examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We also examined ELF3, a transcription factor associated with epithelial differentiation in SS in a previous cDNA microarray, by RT-PCR. E-cadherin and ELF3 transcripts were detected, respectively, in 27/40 (67.5%) and in 25/40 (62.5%) of SS, and these epithelial-related genes were almost always coexpressed. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the E-cadherin gene was detected in five cases (12.5%) in SS; however, E-cadherin was silenced at mRNA level in only one of the five cases. E-cadherin missense mutations were observed in five cases (12.5%) of SS. In SS, all five cases with E-cadherin missense mutations had the SYT-SSX1 fusion and were monophasic tumors, suggesting a relationship between the SYT-SSX fusion type and E-cadherin missense mutation (P=0.07). E-cadherin mRNA expression in SS was associated with reduced Snail expression level (P=0.03). E-cadherin membranous expression was observed in 14/40 (35.0%) of SS, and was also correlated with SYT-SSX1 fusion type and biphasic histology. ELF3 was confirmed to be more highly expressed in biphasic than monophasic SS by real-time quantitative PCR. These results suggest that in SS the loss of E-cadherin expression occurs either by Snail trans-repression or by inactivating mutations. Thus, E-cadherin downregulation is associated with the loss or absence of glandular epithelial differentiation in certain SS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The death-associated protein kinase (DAP kinase) was initially identified as a positive mediator of programmed cell death induced by interferon-gamma. To investigate the potential role and the alteration of the DAP kinase gene in soft tissue leiomyosarcoma (LMS), we first searched for homozygous deletion and promoter hypermethylation in 45 LMSs for which genomic DNA was available, using differential PCR and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Promoter methylation was recognized in 10 of 45 cases (22%), and homozygous deletion was detected in 3 of 45 cases (7%). p53 mutation was detected in 11 of 45 LMS cases (24%). Cases with DAP kinase alteration or p53 mutation showed a close correlation with high French Federation of Cancer Centers grade or with poor prognosis (P = 0.0244, P = 0.0491, respectively). Next, to determine that DAP kinase promoter methylation or homozygous deletion is involved in the down-regulation of DAP kinase expression, we examined the expression of DAP kinase protein by immunohistochemistry. Decreased expression of DAP kinase protein was recognized in 13 of 45 LMS cases (29%). Seven of 13 cases (54%) with decreased expression of DAP kinase protein revealed promoter methylation or homozygous deletion of DAP kinase, and the methylation status or homozygous deletion of its gene showed a close correlation with decreased DAP kinase expression (P = 0.0300). In conclusion, although DAP kinase alteration was relatively rare, DAP kinase alteration and/or p53 mutation may associate with tumor progression in soft-tissue LMSs. Furthermore, although further detailed analyses are necessary, promoter methylation or homozygous deletion status of DAP kinase may present a major alternative mechanism of a loss of or decrease in DAP kinase expression.
Human Pathlogy 11/2004; 35(10):1266-71. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a distinctive variant of fibrosarcoma and has been reported to have metastatic potential despite its low-grade histological findings. Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is an important differential diagnosis of LGMFS, because it shows different biological behaviour. Of 75 MFSs in the extremities and trunk, we defined 22 grade 1 tumours as low-grade MFS according to the French Federation of Cancer Centres grading system and compared the clinicopathological factors and immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle regulators with those of 11 LGFMSs.
The two entities could be distinguished on histological grounds. Low-grade MFS was characterized by the presence of prominent elongated, curvilinear capillaries and pseudolipoblasts, accompanied by an abundant myxoid matrix. It had no extensive solid areas. LGFMS was composed of bland spindle cells arranged in a whorled pattern with alternating myxoid and fibrous stroma. Curvilinear capillaries were not prominent and cytological atypia was absent. No tumour necrosis was observed in any of the 11 LGFMSs, whereas only one case showed tumour necrosis in less than 50% of the tumour in 22 low-grade MFSs. The patients with low-grade MFS were significantly older than those with LGFMS (low-grade MFS average, 60.1 years; LGFMS average, 31.5 years; P < 0.0001) and low-grade MFS occurred more frequently in a superficial location (low-grade MFS 14/20; LGFMS 2/11; P = 0.0077). As for cell cycle regulator expression, the MIB-1 labelling index (LI) (14.76 on average) and cyclin E LI (11.55 on average) in low-grade MFS were significantly higher than those (MIB-1 LI, 4.68 on average; cyclin E LI, 3.38 on average) of LGFMS, while p21 LI (25.53 on average) and p27 LI (42.68 on average) in low-grade MFS were significantly lower than those (p21 LI, 42.74 on average; p27 LI, 57.28 on average) of LGFMS.
We conclude that low-grade MFS and LGFMS are distinctly different clinicopathological entities and the assessment of the immunohistochemical expression of MIB-1, cyclin E, p21 and p27 as well as conventional clinicopathological features may be helpful to distinguish low-grade MFS from LGFMS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most commonly occurring soft-tissue sarcoma in children. Some reports have discussed the altered expression and molecular abnormalities of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins in rhabdomyosarcoma; however, variable frequencies of occurrence have been noted. In the current study, among 72 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma, the authors evaluated for the expression of p53, MDM2, p16, p21/WAF1, p27, cyclin D1, cyclin E, pRb and E2F-1 protein immunohistochemically and assessed for proliferative activities using MIB-1. We also analyzed the mutation of the p53 gene in 45 cases, the amplification of the MDM2 gene in 18 cases and the mutation of the H-ras gene in 29 cases, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials. Furthermore, we assessed the correlation between clinicopathologic factors and the results of both immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. Alveolar type affected older patients, and it had a significantly higher mitotic rate compared with the embryonal type (P=0.0226). p53 overexpression was detected in 22 (30.6%) of 72 cases, and 10 (22.2%) of 45 cases had p53 gene abnormalities. As for MDM2, its overexpression was found in nine (12.5%) of 72 cases, and three (16.7%) of 18 cases showed MDM2 amplification. A statistically significant association was observed between immunoreaction for MDM2 and p53 overexpression (P=0.0002), and p53 and MDM2 overexpression was significantly correlated with high MIB-1 labeling indices. E2F-1 labeling indices showed a significantly higher score in alveolar type compared with that seen in embryonal type (P=0.0334), but MIB-1 did not. In conclusion, our study suggests that p53 overexpression may be related to tumor progression because tumors with p53 overexpression have a high proliferative activity in the current study. Alveolar type had a significantly higher both mitotic rate and E2F-1 labeling indices when compared with the embryonal type. The current study is the first report of the correlation of E2F-1 with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
Modern Pathology 07/2004; 17(6):660-9. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synovial sarcomas (SS) consistently show a characteristic chromosomal translocation, t(X;18)(p11;q11), which usually leads to the formation of 2 chimeric fusion transcripts, SYT-SSX1 and -SSX2. A recent multi-institutional retrospective study revealed that the SYT-SSX fusion type emerged as the only independent significant factor for overall survival in cases of SS. The aims of this study were; i). to investigate the frequency of PTEN gene alteration, ii). to evaluate whether the mutation status in various tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is responsible for the clinical and histologic heterogeneity in SS. Forty-nine cases of SS were examined for the presence of PTEN gene mutation by polymerase chain reaction - single-strand conformation polymorphism followed by DNA direct sequencing. The obtained data was combined with those of previously reported TSG mutations such as p53, adenomatous polyposis coli, and E-cadherin genes. Follow-up was available for 44 patients, and survival analysis was performed according to the mutation status of these TSG. PTEN mutations were detected in 7 cases (14.3%), and all of these were monophasic tumors. More than half of the mutations detected were located in exon 9, which has been shown to play a less important role in PTEN functioning, and the PTEN mutation was not associated with patients' prognosis. Mutations in these TSG other than silent mutations were detected in 20 out of 49 cases (40.8%), although the mutation status in TSG was not associated with overall survival rate in patients with SS. Secondary genetic alterations in these TSG seem to have a less important prognostic impact on patients with SS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) is a unique tumor that occurs outside the gastrointestinal tract. EGIST shows a c-kit expression and histologic appearance similar to those of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Most GISTs have gain-of-functional mutation of the c-kit gene, and some have mutation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) gene. However, the frequency of mutation of those genes in EGISTs remains unclear. We examined the clinicopathologic features, prognostic factors, and c-kit and PDGFRA mutation in 39 cases of EGIST. Tumors with high mitotic counts (>or=5/50 high power fields) or a high Ki-67 labeling index (>or=10%) were significantly correlated with worse prognoses. The c-kit mutation was found in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) and the extracellular domain (exon 9) in 12 of 29 cases (41.4%) and 2 of 29 cases (6.9%), respectively. The PDGFRA gene mutation was found at the juxtamembrane domain (exon 12) and the tyrosine kinase domain (exon 18) in one case each. The pattern of kit and PDGFRA mutation in EGIST was essentially similar to that in GIST. Our results suggest that the c-kit and PDGFRA mutations play an important role in the tumorigenesis of EGIST. High mitotic counts and a high Ki-67 labeling index may be useful for predicting the aggressive biologic behavior in EGIST. Furthermore, STI-571, targeting c-kit and PDGFR tyrosine kinase, seems to be a possible therapeutic strategy for EGISTs, especially advanced cases.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 05/2004; 28(4):479-88. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a potential regulator of cell growth that sends its signals through a heteromeric complex composed of type I and II receptors (IR and IIR). This study examined a correlation between TGF-beta1, TGF-beta-IR and -IIR, and cell cycle-related proteins in giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, using immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. First, an immunohistochemical study for TGF-beta1, TGF-beta-IR and -IIR, p27KIP1 (p27), p21WAF1 (p21), cyclin D1, and cyclin E was carried out on 92 cases of GCT of bone; the expression of these proteins was evaluated in multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) and mononucleated stromal cells (MSCs) separately; and proliferative activity was assessed using MIB-1. Next, to confirm our immunohistochemical results, Western blot analysis was performed in 19 cases for which frozen samples were available. Immunoreactivity for TGF-beta-IR and -IIR showed a tendency to be greater in MGCs than in MSCs; however, no differences were observed in TGF-beta1. Cyclin D1 expression was correlated with the occurrence of vascular invasion in both MGCs and MSCs (P = 0.0255 and 0.0183, respectively). The expression of TGF-beta-IIR and p27 was concordantly decreased in both MGSs and MSCs (P = 0.0014 and 0.0317, respectively). The expression for TGF-beta-IIR and p27 in Western blot analysis was related to the results from immunohistochemical analysis, and the expression of TGF-beta-IIR and p27 was concordant in almost all GCT cases. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant inverse relationship between p27 expression and MIB-1 labeling index in MSCs (P = 0.0397). In GCT of bone, TGF-beta-IIR and p27 expression were concordantly decreased; this result supports the possibility that these 2 factors may play an important role in cell proliferation of this tumor. Furthermore, our results provide a possible link between the effects of extracellular growth factors and cell cycle control. In addition, p27 expression may be a useful indicator of cell proliferation in MSCs of this tumor.
Human Pathlogy 02/2004; 35(1):61-8. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p16INK4a tumour suppressor gene, encoding p16 protein, plays a crucial role in regulation of the G1 cell-cycle phase. To investigate the potential role of p16 in soft tissue leiomyosarcoma (LMS), an immunohistochemical analysis was performed of 77 LMSs for p16 expression. Decreased expression of the p16 protein was identified in 25 of 77 LMSs (32%). Decreased expression of p16 correlated significantly with large tumour size (p=0.0038). In a univariate analysis, large tumour size and decreased expression of p16 were statistically significant adverse prognostic factors (p=0.025 and p=0.0021, respectively). In a multivariate analysis including conventional clinicopathological parameters, decreased expression of p16 protein was revealed as the only independent unfavourable prognostic factor (p=0.012). To elucidate the mechanisms of inactivation of the p16INK4a gene, 49 LMSs for which genomic DNA was available were examined; analysis for homozygous deletion, mutation, and promoter hypermethylation was conducted using differential PCR, PCR-SSCP, and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Promoter hypermethylation was detected in 11 of 49 LMS cases (22%); homozygous deletion was detected in 3 of 49 cases (6%); and mutation was not recognized in any of the cases studied. Eight of 15 cases (53%) with decreased expression of p16 protein revealed methylation of the p16INK4a gene promoter. Promoter hypermethylation correlated closely with decreased expression and poor prognosis (p=0.0014 and p=0.0088, respectively). These results suggest that decreased expression of p16 protein can be considered as an independent reliable prognostic parameter in patients with soft tissue LMS. Furthermore, promoter methylation was more frequent than either homozygous deletion or mutation in this tumour, and promoter methylation was also shown to have a strong association with inactivation of the p16INK4a gene.
The Journal of Pathology 12/2003; 201(3):487-95. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft tissue tumor of unknown origin and pathogenesis. We clinicopathologically analyzed 16 cases of ASPS and screened for the genetic alterations of various tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes, including p53, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), E-cadherin, and beta-catenin, in 11 cases of ASPS. We also examined the expression of hMSH2/hMLH1 of DNA mismatch repair genes by immunohistochemistry, and promoter hypermethylation of these DNA mismatch repair genes by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) to elucidate any possible association between mutation status of these genes and inactivation of the hMSH2/hMLH1 genes. Furthermore, microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 5q analysis were used for some cases of ASPS where DNA derived from normal tissue was available. The 5-year overall survival rate for all of the patients in this study was 68.6%. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients presenting with localized ASPS and for patients with distant metastases were 83.3% and 47.6%, respectively. The high nuclear grade of tumor cells was a significantly adverse prognostic factor (P = 0.0085). Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by DNA direct sequencing revealed 4 point mutations of the p53 gene in 3 of 11 cases (27.3%), composed of 3 missense mutations and 1 silent mutation. In addition, 1 case with the E-cadherin missense mutation and 1 case with the APC missense mutations were observed, respectively. None of the cases harbored mutation of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene. Loss of expression of the hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes was observed in 2 (18.2%) and 3 (27.3%) of 11 cases, respectively. All 3 cases with loss of hMLH1 gene expression harbored mutations of the p53 gene. There was a statistically significant correlation between the genetic alteration positive in these tumor-suppressor genes and loss of hMLH1 gene expression (P = 0.024). Methylation-specific PCR did not reveal hypermethylation of the hMSH2/hMLH1 promoter region in any of the cases examined. Three of 8 (37.5%) ASPS cases showed low MSI, and 2 of these 3 cases showed immunohistochemical lack of expression for either hMSH2 or hMLH1. LOH on 5q was present in 2 of 6 (33.3%) informative cases, and both cases showed LOH on the D5S346 marker, a microsatellite marker near the APC locus. Thus, inactivation of hMSH2/hMLH1 of DNA mismatch repair genes seems to have an important role to play in the mutagenesis of the tumor-suppressor genes in ASPS.
Human Pathlogy 10/2003; 34(9):841-9. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1 was identified on chromosome 10q23.3, which is homozygously deleted in many human malignancies. The loss of chromosome 10q was also frequently reported in some types of soft tissue sarcomas. Our study was designed to investigate the frequency of PTEN/MMAC1 gene mutation and to evaluate the role of the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in the tumorigenesis of soft tissue sarcomas without specific balanced translocations. We analyzed 51 cases of soft tissue sarcomas without specific balanced translocations for PTEN/MMAC1 mutations by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing. Mutations in the PTEN/MMAC1 gene were found in only 2 cases (3.9%). Both tumors with PTEN/MMAC1 mutation were leiomyosarcomas arising from the retroperitoneum and inferior vena cava, respectively. Two of 3 leiomyosarcomas arising from the intra-abdominal cavity examined harbored mutations of this tumor suppressor gene. This result suggests that leiomyosarcomas derived from the intra-abdominal cavity might have different tumorigenesis from those of an extremity or the trunk, from the viewpoint of PTEN/MMAC1 mutation, although PTEN/MMAC1 gene mutations are rare event in these soft tissue sarcomas.
International Journal of Cancer 04/2003; 104(2):175-8. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some investigators have reported that the histological features of osteosarcoma (OS) arising in elderly patients are different from those in younger patients; however, a molecular biologic study of OS in elderly patients has not been documented. In this study, 23 cases of OS (15 osteoblastic and 8 MFH-like types) and 18 cases of MFH of bone in patients 40 years of age or older were analyzed for mutation of the p53 gene, amplification of the MDM2 gene, and mutation of the H-ras gene, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials. We also examined the expression of p53, MDM2, and p21WAF1 protein immunohistochemically and assessed the proliferative activities using the monoclonal antibody MIB-1. p53 immunoreactivity was recognized in 5 of 23 OS cases (22%), whereas p53 gene mutations were also detected in 5 of 23 OS cases (22%; osteoblastic [4/15; 27%] and MFH-like [1/8; 18%] types) and in 4 of 18 cases of MFH of bone (22%). There was a statistically significant correlation between p53 immunoreactivity and p53 mutation status in OS (P =.0482). All those cases of osteoblastic OS and MFH of bone that had p53 mutations, with the exception of one case of MFH of bone that had a silent mutation, showed aggressive biologic behavior (dead of disease within 12 mo), in contrast to the MFH-like OS cases (alive without disease at 22 mo). Three cases of OS (13%) and three cases of MFH of bone (17%) showed immunoreactivity for MDM2. As for gene alteration, three cases of OS (13%) and 3 cases of MFH of bone (17%) demonstrated MDM2 amplification. MDM2 amplification showed a significant correlation with the expression of MDM2 protein in OS (P =.0344). p21WAF1 expression was detected in three cases of OS (13%) and in six cases of MFH of bone (33%). MDM2 alteration and p21WAF1 expression were not observed in any of the cases of MFH-like OS. MIB-1-LI showed a statistically significant correlation with p53 immunoreactivity and MDM2 immunoreactivity in OS (P =.0307 and P =.0358, respectively). H-ras mutation at Codons 12 and 13 was not recognized in any of the cases of OS or MFH of bone. In conclusion, although treatment differences during the time of study make it difficult to compare survival analysis, in the current study, p53 mutation in osteoblastic OS and MFH of bone in elderly patients seemed to be closely associated with the progression of the tumor, which was not the case in MFH-like OS. Furthermore, MDM2 alteration and p21WAF1 expression were demonstrated only in osteoblastic OS and MFH of bone, whereas they were not recognized in MFH-like OS. Although the number of patients in this analysis was small, it would appear that MFH-like OS may have some characteristic biologic aspects when compared with osteoblastic OS and MFH of bone in elderly patients.
Modern Pathology 09/2002; 15(8):878-88. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has previously been demonstrated that accumulated beta-catenin serves as an oncoprotein in synovial sarcoma and results in a poor overall survival rate, but the frequency of beta-catenin mutation was quite low (8.2%). The present study, using essentially the same study group of cases, screened for genetic alterations in the mutation cluster region (MCR) of the APC gene in 49 cases of synovial sarcoma. SSCP analysis followed by DNA direct sequencing revealed five missense APC mutations in four cases of synovial sarcoma (8.2%). The mutational sites comprised one case each at codons 1299 (GCT to ACT, Ala to Thr), 1412 (GGA to AGA, Gly to Arg), and 1414 (GTA to ATA, Val to Ile), in addition to one case with double point mutations at codon 1398 (AGT to AAT, Ser to Asn) and at codon 1413 (ATG to ATA, Met to Ile), together with beta-catenin mutation at codon 32 (GAC to TAC, Asp to Tyr). All four cases with APC mutations were histologically of the monophasic fibrous type and showed beta-catenin accumulation. All three cases with APC mutations available for follow-up data were long survivors. This study provides the first evidence that APC mutations also occur in the field of sarcoma, especially in synovial sarcoma.
The Journal of Pathology 05/2002; 196(4):445-9. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of renal angiomyolipoma (AML) with malignant transformation. A 28-year-old woman developed large bilateral renal masses 5 months before admission to our hospital. She was diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis when she was 4 years old. Total nephrectomy of the left kidney was performed, but she died during the operation. Although the focal region of the resected tumor had the appearance of a classic AML, most of the lesion showed a diffuse proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells resembling that in renal cell carcinoma. The epithelioid cells had extremely pleomorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei with frequent mitotic figures, including atypical forms. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the atypical epithelioid cells and the typical AML lesions were both positive for HMB-45 but that the former were negative for epithelial and myogenic markers. The smooth muscle cells and thick-walled vessels were focally positive for muscle-specific actins. Furthermore, the atypical epithelioid cells were immunoreactive for p53, whereas the foci of the typical AML were negative. Examination of the microdissected paraffin-embedded tissues revealed p53 mutations in the malignant epithelioid areas in AML but not in the renal parenchyma or typical AML areas. In this case it is proposed that p53 mutation may play an important role in malignant transformation of renal AML.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 05/2002; 26(4):523-9. · 4.87 Impact Factor