[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An autoimmune hypothesis has been suggested for a subtype of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with childhood onset: obsessions, compulsions and/or tics would result from anti-streptococcal antibodies that cross-react with basal ganglia tissue based on molecular mimicry. Consistent with this hypothesis anti-brain antibodies were detected in sera of children with OCD and/or Tourette's syndrome. In the present study, we tested whether adults with OCD have anti-brain antibodies or other antibodies that serve as markers of autoimmunity.
Seventy-four DSM-IV OCD (YBOCS> or =16) subjects were recruited and compared to 44 controls with a current Major Depressive Episode for neurological symptoms, ALSO titres, anti-tissue and anti-thyroid antibodies. Anti-brain antibodies were tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods.
The proportion of subjects with tic comorbidity or positive ASLO titre (>200 IU/ml) was significantly greater in OCD than in MDE patients (21.6 vs. 2.3% and 16.3 vs. 2.3%, respectively). No other differences in antibody parameters were found. 4/74 OCD patients (5.4%) and none of the controls resulted positive for anti-brain antibodies, with a band around 50-60 kDa at the Western blot analysis.
The methodology used to assess anti-brain antibodies.
The majority of adult OCD patients do not seem to have autoimmunity disturbances as compared to a control group. However, a greater percentage of subjects with positive ASLO titres were found among OCD patients. For a small proportion of OCD patients, moreover, autoimmune reactions towards neuronal structures are present although further investigations are needed to demonstrate its etiopathogenetic relevance.
Journal of affective disorders 08/2009; 116(3):192-200. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. The aim of this study is to investigate quality of life (QoL) and clinical characteristics of generalized (GSAD) and performance-focused social anxiety disorder (PFSAD). Method. Our sample includes 41 outpatients with social anxiety disorder and 100 control subjects. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life and Enjoyment questionnaire. Assessments included the MINI Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Symptom Checklist, the Work and Social Adjustment Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). Using the Liebowitz social anxiety scale, patients were divided into GSAD and PFSAD. Results. QoL of subjects with GSAD was lower than in controls in most areas, while only the areas of physical health and leisure time were impaired in patients with PFSAD. Patients with GSAD were more likely to be depressed, to meet criteria for substance abuse, to have higher severity scores on the CGI and the SCL-90 compared to PFSAD. Conclusions. GSAD is associated with widespread worsening of QoL, while patients with PFSAD had a poorer QoL than controls only in the areas of physical health and leisure time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical authors had hypothesized that affective temperaments represent the subclinical manifestations of mood disorders: in particular, cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments have been considered as a subthreshold variant of bipolar disorder. The aim of our study is to test the presence of affective temperaments in a group of Italian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and to test the association between cyclothymic temperament and well-established validators of bipolar disorder diagnosis such as age at onset and family history of bipolar disorder.
Patients with diagnosis of major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR) were included in the study. Affective temperaments have been evaluated through the Italian semistructured interview version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-I). In order to improve the accuracy of family history and age at onset reports, close family members of the patients were also interviewed.
104 of patients included in the study have completed the temperament interview. 25.5% were diagnosed with a dominant affective temperament. Cyclothymic affective temperament was the most represented in the sample of MDD patients (12.3%); depressive, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments have been detected respectively in 7.5%, 2.8% and 2.8% of patients. Patients with CT showed a significantly lower age at onset of MDD than "pure" MDD patients (31.9 vs. 40.9 years; p=0.049) and higher rates of family history of bipolar disorder in first degree relatives (15.4% vs. 0%; p=0.001).
The major limitation of this study was the lack of a group of bipolar depressives, which would have been useful in order to confirm the similarities of age at onset and bipolar family history with cyclothymic MDD.
Our data confirm previous reports in a sample of accurately screened patients with unipolar major depression: we found that patients with a cyclothymic temperament had an earlier age at onset and a higher family history for bipolar disorder than patients without any dominant affective temperament. Further research is needed to ascertain whether patients with "unipolar" cyclothymic MDD respond to mood stabilizers.
Journal of affective disorders 07/2009; 121(3):199-203. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 57% SiO(2), 3% Al(2)O(3), 34% CaO and 6% Na(2)O glass (SCNA) has been produced in form of powders and deposited by plasma spray on titanium alloy and stainless steel substrates. The obtained coatings have been subjected to a patented ion-exchange treatment to introduce silver ions in the surface inducing an antibacterial behavior. Silver surface-enriched samples have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM observation, EDS analysis, in vitro bioactivity tests, leaching tests by GFAAS (graphite furnace atomic adsorption spectroscopy) analyses, cells adhesion and proliferation, and antibacterial tests using Staphylococcus Aureus strain. In vitro tests results showed that the modified samples acquired an antimicrobial action against tested bacteria maintaining unaffected the biocompatibility of the glass. Furthermore the ion-exchange treatment can be successfully applied to glass-coated samples without affecting the properties of the coatings; the simplicity and reproducibility of the method make it suitable for glass or glass-ceramic coatings of different composition in order to produce coated devices for bone healing and/or prostheses, able to reduce bacterial colonization and infections risks.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 12/2008; 20(3):741-9. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A glass belonging to the system SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-CaO-Na(2)O has been subjected to a patented ion-exchange treatment to induce surface antibacterial activity by doping with silver ions. Doped samples have been characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) analysis, in vitro bioactivity test, Ag(+) leaching test by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) analyses, cytotoxicity tests by fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation, adsorption of IgA and IgG on to the material to evaluate its inflammatory property and antibacterial tests (cultures with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). In vitro tests results demonstrated that the modified glass maintains the same biocompatibility of the untreated one and, moreover, it acquires an antimicrobial action against tested bacteria. This method can be selected to realize glass or glass-ceramic bone substitutes as well as coatings on bio-inert devices, providing safety against bacterial colonization thus reducing the risks of infections nearby the implant site. The present work is the carrying on of a previous research activity, concerning the application of an ion-exchange treatment on glasses belonging to the ternary system SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O. On the basis of previous results the glass composition was refined and the ion-exchange process was adapted to it, in order to tune the final material properties. The addition of Al(2)O(3) to the original glass system and the optimization of the ion-exchange conditions allowed a better control of the treatment, leading to an antibacterial material, without affecting both bioactivity and biocompatibility.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 12/2008; 20(3):733-40. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a psychiatrically healthy Parkinson's disease patient who presented acute transient depressive states related to high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and its neighbouring anatomical structures, i.e. the substantia nigra, zona incerta and Forel's fields. This case confirms that the subthalamic region plays a critical role in modulating human behaviour, providing especially sensitive to depressive states elicited by HFS in conditions of increased vulnerability. Worthy of note is the finding that these mood changes presented subsequent adaptation with time, probably as a result of both the disappearance of the microtraumatic effect of the implantation procedure and the plastic changes induced by HFS.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 11/2008; 273(1-2):135-8. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A glass–ceramic composition has been studied to realise a highly bioactive material, suitable for stimulate the bone regeneration, which has been subjected to a patented ion exchange process with silver ions, to impart antibacterial properties. The obtained material has been characterised by SEM, EDS and XRD analyses, before and after the introduction of Ag+ ions, and has been subjected to mechanical tests. Ag+ release was verified by GF-AAS analysis. The influence of silver on material wettability and bioactivity was evaluated through contact angle measurements and in vitro test on SBF solution. Finally, biocompatibility with osteoblast like cells and antibacterial test on Staphylococcus Aureus, have been realised to demonstrate the effective antimicrobial behaviour and the safety of silver doped glass–ceramic. On the basis of this study, it was evinced that ion exchange technique, optimised on glasses in previous research works, allows the controlled introduction of Ag+ ions and can be transferred on medical devices totally or partially realised with bioactive glass–ceramic.
Advances in Applied Ceramics 09/2008; 107(5):234-244. · 0.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma spray bioactive glass ceramic coatings on metallic substrates have been characterised and modified by a patented ion exchange process in order to introduce silver ions onto their surface and confer antibacterial properties. Both treated and untreated materials have been analysed by means of SEM, EDS and XRD in order to verify the amount of introduced silver, and also after immersion in simulated body fluid in order to investigate bioactivity. The amount of silver released in simulated body fluid has been quantified by means of graphite furnace atomic adsorption spectrophotometry analysis. Finally cellular and microbiological test have been performed in order to verify material biocompatibility and antibacterial behaviour.
Advances in Applied Ceramics 09/2008; 107(5):245-253. · 0.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of controlled trials examining the efficacy of brief dynamic psychotherapy (BDT) in the treatment of major depressive disorder, especially in a long-term perspective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate recurrence rates in unipolar major depressed patients who are responsive to acute phase combined treatment with BDT plus pharmacotherapy in comparison with patients initially treated with pharmacotherapy alone.
Subjects for this study were 92 patients who met criteria for remission at the end of a 6-month acute treatment phase for major depressive disorder, single episode, with combined therapy (BDT plus pharmacotherapy) versus pharmacotherapy alone. 41 (64.1%) subjects were remitters to combined treatment and 51 (61.4%) were remitters to antidepressants alone. The study included a 6-month continuation treatment trial with pharmacotherapy and a following perspective, naturalistic 48-month follow-up (without any treatment).
Patients who received combined treatment, in comparison with those who were treated with pharmacotherapy alone, show a significant lower rate of recurrences of depressive episodes at 48-months naturalistic follow up (27.5% in comparison with 46.9%: chi(2)=3.525; df=1; p=.048).
Inclusion and exclusion criteria may limit the generalizability of the results. Furthermore it may be unclear whether the effect is attributable to BDT per se as opposed to extra time with a therapist.
The significant lower recurrence rates in a 48-month follow-up in the group of patients treated with the addition of BDT to medication in the acute phase support the view of the advantage in the long-term outcome of adding psychotherapeutic intervention to pharmacotherapy in the acute therapy of unipolar major depression.
Journal of affective disorders 09/2008; 114(1-3):200-7. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder type II (BDII) has been considered since its distinction from bipolar disorder type I (BDI) as a milder form, on the basis of cross-sectional symptoms intensity. Longitudinal data, on the contrary, do suggest that it is at least as severe as BDI, if not even more chronic and impairing. Few studies investigated differences in Axis II comorbidity in bipolar disorder patients according to bipolar subtypes, and none examined patients during prolonged euthymia. The aim of the study was to determine comorbidity rates for personality disorders in euthymic bipolar subjects, comparing bipolar type I and II disorders (BDI and BDII).
186 DSM-IV (SCID-I) bipolar disorder subjects were enrolled; all patients were euthymic for at least two months, as confirmed by a HAM-D<8 and a YMRS<6. Axis II comorbidity was evaluated through SCID-II. Differences in Axis II comorbidity rates were examined with the Pearson's Chi-square test.
Of the subjects included, 71 had BDI and 115 BDII. At least a personality disorder was present in 42.5% of all bipolars, 43.7% of BDI and 41.7% of BDII. No differences were detected between the two subgroups for any single personality disorder.
We relied only on the patients' reports in assessing personality disorders; the sample was made of subjects referred to a tertiary centre who were able to maintain euthymia.
Our study confirms the high comorbidity rates for personality disorders in bipolar subjects and provides evidence that BDII, with regard to Axis II comorbidity, is as severe as BDI.
Journal of affective disorders 09/2008; 115(1-2):257-61. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether or not to use antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder is a matter of debate. Antidepressant treatment of bipolar depression has been associated with manic switch and cycle acceleration. Furthermore, recent studies have argued against the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of bipolar depression. Nevertheless, many clinicians continue to employ antidepressants, especially in the management of severe depression that is unresponsive to mood stabilizers alone.
Because of the unclear risk-to-benefit ratio of antidepressants in bipolar disorder, we have performed an updated review of the relevant literature. In this article we examine (1) all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of antidepressants in the treatment of acute bipolar depression and assessing the risk of antidepressant-induced manic switch and (2) non-RCT trials that evaluate the impact of antidepressant discontinuation after acute antidepressant response.
A MEDLINE search of journals, covering the period from January 1966 to July 2007 and supplemented by bibliographic cross-referencing, was performed to identify the relevant studies. The keywords used were antidepressant, bipolar depression, bipolar disorder, switch, manic switch, antidepressant-induced mania, predictors, and antidepressant discontinuation. Criteria used to select studies included (1) English language and (2) studies published in peer-reviewed journals.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that antidepressants exert some efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression in some populations of patients. Moreover, the risk of manic switch, although not totally countered, appears to be strongly reduced when antidepressants are given in combination with a mood stabilizer and when new-generation antide-pressants are preferred over old tricyclic antidepressants. Finally, some studies have proven that the continuous use of antidepressants after the remission of a major depressive episode helps to prevent further depressive relapses without causing a significant increase in manic relapses.
Clearly, there is a place for antidepressants in bipolar disorder; however, it is important to be cautious and evaluate their use on a case-by-case basis. Looking at specific depressive symptoms might help physicians in making the choice of whether to prescribe or not prescribe antidepressants.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 08/2008; 69(8):1307-18. · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate in a single-blind manner, over a period of 8 weeks, the comparative efficacy and tolerability of risperidone versus olanzapine addition in the treatment of OCD patients who did not show a >or=35% decrease in the YBOCS score after 16-week SRI treatment (defined as resistant). The study consisted of two different phases: a 16-week open-label prospective phase to ascertain resistance to SRI treatment and an 8-week single-blind addition phase for resistant subjects only. Ninety-six subjects with DSM-IV OCD (YBOCS>or=16) entered the open-label prospective phase; at the end of the 16-week period, 50 (52%) were judged to be resistant and were randomized to receive risperidone (1 to 3 mg/d) or olanzapine (2.5 to 10 mg/d) addition for 8 weeks. Overall, patients in both groups responded significantly, without differences between the two treatment groups; although no differences emerged for the proportion of patients reporting at least an adverse event, the profiles of adverse experiences differed significantly, being risperidone associated with amenorrhoea and olanzapine with weight gain.
European Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2008; 18(5):364-72. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting results regarding the association of maternal antenatal distress with preterm birth and low birth weight. This study investigated the association between maternal distress and intrauterine growth abnormality, low birth weight and preterm birth.
Three mutually exclusive and homogeneous groups of pregnant women (with actual psychiatric disorder, with maternal psychological distress, and healthy comparisons) underwent fetal ultrasound examinations, uterine and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry. Infant weight was measured and information collected on obstetrical features and sociodemographic factors.
No differences emerged among the three groups of pregnant women in any ultrasound variables. Antenatal maternal psychiatric disorders and antenatal distress were not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Infants of women with psychiatric disorders had lower birth weight and higher percentage of birth weight below the 10th centile for gestational age (30%) than infants of healthy mothers (5%).
These findings are preliminary and warrant further investigation in larger-scale study; they are limited by the heterogeneity of psychiatric diagnoses.
Maternal psychiatric disorders are associated with a lower birth weight, but the effect is unlikely to be due to abnormal utero-placental or feto-placental vascularisation. Further studies should investigate other possible causes of lower birth weight associated with maternal psychiatric disorders.
Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2008; 111(2-3):214-20. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment resistant patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are those who undergo adequate trials of first-line therapies without a satisfactory response. Two major options are available for those patients: 1) augmentation with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or pharmacotherapy, and 2) switch to another compound or to another formulation. The first approach is to augment the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) with CBT or with another drug. In the first case preliminary data indicate that exposure and response prevention is effective. Pharmacological augmentation has been tried with several drugs; the effectiveness of antipsychotic (first and second generation) augmentation is well documented and subjects with comorbid tic may be particularly responsive to haloperidol. A second, although less established, augmentation strategy consists in adding another SRI. Other drugs like pindolol and morphine have shown efficacy in few controlled studies. The second approach, less studied, is switching from a serotonergic compound to another one (generally from a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor to clomipramine or vice-versa), or to venlafaxine or mirtazapine. Finally, patients that failed to respond to oral clomipramine might benefit from switching to the IV clomipramine. The augmentation strategy should be considered in case of partial response while the switch strategy in absence of any minimal improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present randomized, single-blind, pilot study was to assess the efficacy of the addition of a second mood stabilizer, either olanzapine or lamotrigine, to lithium in patients with remitted bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety disorder.
Adult DSM-IV bipolar disorder patients with a current anxiety disorder and a Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) score of 12 or higher, in remission from an affective episode for at least 2 months while on lithium maintenance treatment, were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of single-blind olanzapine 5 to 10 mg/day (N = 24) or lamotrigine 50 to 200 mg/day (N = 23) addition to lithium. The primary outcome measure was the HAM-A; secondary outcome measures were the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Data were collected from July 2005 to February 2007.
Twenty-two patients in the olanzapine and 18 in the lamotrigine group completed the trial. Mean +/- SD final doses of olanzapine and lamotrigine were, respectively, 7.7 +/- 4.2 mg/day and 96.7 +/- 46.7 mg/day in the intent-to-treat sample (N = 47). Both olanzapine and lamotrigine were effective in reducing HAM-A scores from baseline to endpoint (paired t test for completers: t = 11.361, df = 21, p < .001 for olanzapine and t = 6.301, df = 17, p < .001 for lamotrigine). Both drugs were also effective on the secondary outcome measures. Olanzapine was more effective than lamotrigine at weeks 6 and 12 with a last-observation-carried-forward analysis on all 3 outcome measures, while such differences disappeared on the HAM-A and GAF at week 12 with the visit-wise analysis.
The addition of a second mood stabilizer (olanzapine or lamotrigine) to lithium is effective in reducing anxiety symptoms in bipolar disorder patients with a co-occurring anxiety disorder.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 04/2008; 69(4):609-16. · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The following two subgroups of subjects were selected according to the age at onset of symptomatology: patients with an early-onset (< or =10 years), and patients with a later onset (> or =17 years). Of the 148 patients screened for the present study, 33 (22.3%) had an early onset and 1369 (46.6%) had a later onset. With regard to personality disorders, early-onset patients showed more OC personality disorders (OCPD) than later onset patients. Our finding suggests that OCD in childhood increases the risk for developing OCPD in adulthood, or that early-onset OCD and OCPD share a common pathogenesis.
Psychiatry Research 04/2008; 158(2):217-25. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with bipolar disorder may be at greater risk for overweight and obesity than individuals in the general population. This risk may be due to the illness itself, to mediating factors (diet, life style) and/or to medications used to treat the disorder. This investigation explores the association between body weight and bipolar illness in drug-naïve patients.
Weight and height were retrospectively obtained from 76 clinical charts of drug-naïve patients with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV-TR). A reference group for comparison was then selected from another psychiatric population (65 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder) and investigated with the same methodology to estimate their BMI. A second focus was to examine the differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between overweight and non-overweight bipolar patients.
A total of 40.8% of the patients with bipolar disorder met criteria for obesity or overweight with significant difference in comparison with obsessive-compulsive patients (10.8%). The highest proportions of depression at index episode were in the overweight group (83.3%) with significant difference with the non-overweight patients (58.1%).
Retrospective study. Weight measurement not in euthymic period.
Overweight is significantly more prevalent in drug-naïve patients with bipolar disorder than in another drug-naïve psychiatric patients (OCD). In agreement with previous studies, the number of patients experiencing a depressive episode was significantly higher in the overweight than in the non-overweight group. These results suggest that the prevalence of overweight in bipolar patients is also influenced by the illness itself or mediating factors such as diet and life style than by pharmacologic treatment.
Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2008; 110(1-2):149-55. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies investigated the impact of anxiety disorder comorbidity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of bipolar patients and none examined bipolar subtypes differences. The aim of the study was 1) to determine comorbidity rates for anxiety disorders in euthymic bipolar subjects, comparing bipolar type I and II disorders (BDI and BDII), and 2) to compare within each group HRQoL measures in subjects with and without anxiety comorbidity.
Comorbidity was evaluated through the SCID-I; HRQoL was assessed using the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). All subjects were euthymic since at least 2 months, as confirmed by a HAM-D <8 and a YMRS <6. A comparison was made for SF-36 scores between subjects (all bipolars, BDI and BDII) with and without anxiety disorders.
105 patients were enrolled: 44 with BDI and 61 with BDII. Current and lifetime anxiety disorders comorbidities were 32.4% and 41.0% for all bipolars, 31.8% and 40.9% for BDI and 32.8% and 41.0% for BDII. BDI patients differed in several SF-36 domains from BDII subjects, which reported a poorer HRQoL. A current and lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder was associated with a poorer HRQoL considering all bipolars; when examining separately BDI and II subjects, however, the deleterious effect was restricted to BDI patients.
The cross-sectional assessment of HRQoL, the generic instrument used (SF-36) and the small sample size.
Our study confirms the high comorbidity rates for anxiety disorders in bipolar subjects and provides evidence that anxiety comorbidity impacts HRQoL in subjects with BDI and not BDII.
Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2008; 105(1-3):297-303. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Italian patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and to determine the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of MetS in this patient population.
Subjects with BD I and II were included. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, lifestyle information (alcohol and smoking habits and rate of physical exercise) and comorbidity for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes were collected. Patients were assessed for MetS according to both National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
MetS was evaluated in 99 patients out of 108 who were enrolled. MetS was present in 25.3% of the sample. Abdominal obesity was present in 50%, hypertension in 40%, high triglycerides in 34.7%, low HDL-C levels in 32.3% and fasting hyperglycemia in 11% of the sample. Prevalence of MetS was 30% when IDF criteria were employed. Of the investigated variables, age, duration of illness, rate of obesity and cardiovascular disease were higher in patients with MetS. After the regression analysis, only age and obesity were associated to MetS.
MetS is highly prevalent in Italian patients with BD. Our 25.3% prevalence rate is consistent with the 21-22% reported in other European studies and lower than that in U.S. studies. Elderly and obese patients with BD are at particularly high risk for MetS.
General Hospital Psychiatry 01/2008; 30(4):318-23. · 2.98 Impact Factor