[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current recommendations for the management of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis are to monitor disease activity and adjust therapy accordingly. However, treatment targets and timeframes of change have not been defined. An international expert panel has been convened to develop 'treat-to-target' recommendations, based on published evidence and expert opinion. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence on targeted treatment for axial and peripheral SpA, as well as for psoriatic skin disease. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search covering Medline, Embase and Cochrane, conference abstracts and studies in http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. RESULTS: Randomised comparisons of targeted versus routine treatment are lacking. Some studies implemented treatment targets before escalating therapy: in ankylosing spondylitis, most trials used a decrease in Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; in psoriatic arthritis, protocols primarily considered a reduction in swollen and tender joints; in psoriasis, the Modified Psoriasis Severity Score and the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index were used. Complementary evidence correlating these factors with function and radiographic damage at follow-up is sparse and equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for randomised trials that investigate the value of treat-to-target recommendations in SpA and psoriasis. Several trials have used thresholds of disease activity measures to guide treatment decisions. However, evidence on the effect of these data on long-term outcome is scarce. The search data informed the expert committee regarding the formulation of recommendations and a research agenda.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Clear consensual treatment guidance focused on the musculoskeletal manifestations of PsA would be advantageous. The authors present European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the treatment of PsA with systemic or local (non-topical) symptomatic and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD).
The recommendations are based on evidence from systematic literature reviews performed for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), glucocorticoids, synthetic DMARD and biological DMARD. This evidence was discussed, summarised and recommendations were formulated by a task force comprising 35 representatives, and providing levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement.
Ten recommendations were developed for treatment from NSAID through synthetic DMARD to biological agents, accounting for articular and extra-articular manifestations of PsA. Five overarching principles and a research agenda were defined.
These recommendations are intended to provide rheumatologists, patients and other stakeholders with a consensus on the pharmacological treatment of PsA and strategies to reach optimal outcomes, based on combining evidence and expert opinion. The research agenda informs directions within EULAR and other communities interested in PsA.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 09/2011; 71(1):4-12. · 8.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study health care utilization patterns in patients with gout.
In a gout population from primary care and rheumatology clinics in 3 U.S. metropolitan cities, we collected data on gout-related utilization (primary care, rheumatology, urgent care, emergency room, and other) in the past year. We evaluated the association of comorbidities, age, gender, gout characteristics (time since last gout attack and tophi), and gout severity ratings (mean of serum uric acid, patient-rated, and physician-rated gout severity) and with emergency/urgent care and primary care utilization using regression and correlation analyses.
Of the 296 patients who reported visiting at least 1 type of health practitioner for gout in the past year, the percentage of patients utilizing the service at least once and annual utilization rates among utilizers were as follows: primary care physician, 60%, 3.0 ± 3.4; nurse practitioner/physician assistant, 26%, 2.7 ± 2.5; rheumatologist, 51%, 3.7 ± 5.7; urgent care, 23%, 2.1 ± 2.2; emergency room, 20%, 2.0 ± 1.7; and hospitalization, 7%, 2.1 ± 1.4. Higher overall gout severity was associated with greater use of each resource type and with overall gout-related utilization. Nonemergency/nonurgent care utilization (primary care physician, nurse practitioner, physician's assistant, and rheumatologist for gout) was the strongest predictor of gout-related emergency/urgent care utilization. Patients with more comorbidities had greater gout-related primary care utilization.
Overall gout severity was associated with all types of gout-related utilization. This may help to screen high utilizers for targeted behavioral and therapeutic interventions. Having a higher number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for higher gout-related primary care utilization.
Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism 06/2011; 40(6):501-11. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite a paucity of high quality clinical data, methotrexate (MTX) remains one of the most commonly used medications in the treatment of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This report addresses mechanistic rationale, available clinical evidence, safety considerations, and a potential research agenda regarding the use of MTX in the management of PsA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association of methotrexate (MTX) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists with the risk of infectious outcomes including opportunistic infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Patients with RA enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry prescribed MTX, TNF antagonists or other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were included. The primary outcomes were incident overall and opportunistic infections. Incident rate ratios were calculated using generalised estimating equation Poisson regression models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and RA disease activity measures.
A total of 7971 patients with RA were followed. The adjusted rate of infections per 100 person-years was increased among users of MTX (30.9, 95% CI 29.2 to 32.7), TNF antagonists (40.1, 95% CI 37.0 to 43.4) and a combination of MTX and TNF antagonists (37.1, 95% CI 34.9 to 39.3) compared with users of other non-biological DMARDs (24.5, 95% CI 21.8 to 27.5). The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was increased in patients treated with MTX (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.50) and TNF antagonists (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.78) compared with those treated with other DMARDs. TNF antagonist use was associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections (IRR 1.67, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.94). Prednisone use was associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections (IRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.21) and an increased risk of overall infection at doses >10 mg daily (IRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53).
MTX, TNF antagonists and prednisone at doses >10 mg daily were associated with increased risks of overall infections. Low-dose prednisone and TNF antagonists (but not MTX) increased the risk of opportunistic infections.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 05/2009; 69(2):380-6. · 8.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine effects of the COX-2 inhibitor market withdrawals on NSAID utilization among patients at increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) toxicities.
A prospective cohort study was conducted using patients enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) Registry. The study population included rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients prescribed NSAIDs by rheumatologists from 1/1/2003 to 12/31/2005. Three cohorts were defined based on calendar year. The primary outcome assessed whether or not an NSAID gastroprotective strategy was prescribed. Secondary outcomes included rates of COX-2 inhibitor utilization and gastroprotective co-therapy utilization, stratified by the presence of cardiac and GI risk factors.
NSAID gastroprotection utilization decreased from 65.1% in 2003 to 47.7% (p<0.001) in 2005. COX-2 inhibitor use decreased from 55.1% to 29.2% (p<0.001), whereas nonselective NSAIDs (nsNSAIDs) use increased from 50.2% to 73.9% (p=<0.01). Among patients with two or more risk factors for NSAID related GI bleeding, gastroprotection decreased from 74.4% in 2003 to 60.9% (p<0.01). For patients with two or more CV risk factors from 2003 to 2005, COX-2 inhibitor utilization decreased significantly, whereas nsNSAID utilization increased significantly.
The COX-2 inhibitor withdrawals resulted in a rapid decline in NSAID gastroprotection prescribed by participating U.S. rheumatologists despite the availability of other gastroprotective options. Channeling toward nsNSAID use was widespread, including among patients at increased CV risk. Longer term follow-up is required to determine the clinical significance of these changes in NSAID prescribing, particularly for NSAID-related GI and CV-related toxicities.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 01/2009; 27(3):395-401. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potential hepatotoxicity associated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) requires laboratory monitoring. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the incidence of elevated alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) enzymes associated with methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide (LEF) and MTX+LEF versus other DMARDs was examined.
Patients with RA and PsA enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) initiating DMARDs were identified. Abnormalities were identified when either was 1- or 2-fold times above the upper limits of normal (ULN). Odds ratios (OR) between MTX/LEF dose and elevated ALT/AST enzymes were estimated using generalised estimating equations. Interaction terms for use of MTX+LEF quantified the incremental risk of the combination compared with each individually.
Elevated ALT/AST levels (>1x ULN) occurred in 22%, 17%, 31% and 14% of patients with RA receiving MTX, LEF, MTX+LEF or neither, respectively; elevations were 2.76-fold (95% CI 1.84 to 4.15) more likely in patients with PsA. Elevations >2x ULN occurred in 1-2% of patients on MTX or LEF monotherapy compared with 5% with the combination. After multivariable adjustment and compared with either monotherapy, the combination of MTX and LEF was associated with a greater risk according to MTX dose used as part of the combination: MTX 10-17.5 mg/week, OR 2.91 (95% CI 1.23 to 6.90); MTX > or =20 mg/week, OR 3.98 (95% CI 1.72 to 9.24).
Abnormal ALT/AST levels developed in 14-35% of patients with RA or PsA initiating DMARD therapy. The risks were incrementally greater in those with PsA and in those receiving MTX (> or =10 mg/day) + LEF. These findings should help inform monitoring for potential hepatotoxicity in these patient populations.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 01/2009; 69(1):43-7. · 8.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop comprehensive recommendations for the treatment of the various clinical manifestations of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) based on evidence obtained from a systematic review of the literature and from consensus opinion.
Formal literature reviews of treatment for the most significant discrete clinical manifestations of PsA (skin and nails, peripheral arthritis, axial disease, dactylitis and enthesitis) were performed and published by members of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA). Treatment recommendations were drafted for each of the clinical manifestations by rheumatologists, dermatologists and PsA patients based on the literature reviews and consensus opinion. The level of agreement for the individual treatment recommendations among GRAPPA members was assessed with an online questionnaire.
Treatment recommendations were developed for peripheral arthritis, axial disease, psoriasis, nail disease, dactylitis and enthesitis in the setting of PsA. In rotal, 19 recommendations were drafted, and over 80% agreement was obtained on 16 of them. In addition, a grid that factors disease severity into each of the different disease manifestations was developed to help the clinician with treatment decisions for the individual patient from an evidenced-based perspective.
Treatment recommendations for the cardinal physical manifestations of PsA were developed based on a literature review and consensus between rheumatologists and dermatologists. In addition, a grid was established to assist in therapeutic reasoning and decision making for individual patients. It is anticipated that periodic updates will take place using this framework as new data become available.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 11/2008; 68(9):1387-94. · 8.11 Impact Factor