M R Liebowitz

Columbia University, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (347)2003.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite research documenting a relationship between social anxiety and perfectionism, very little research has examined the relationship between social anxiety and clinical perfectionism, defined as the combination of high personal standards and high maladaptive perfectionistic evaluative concern. In the current studies we examined whether clinical perfectionism predicted social anxiety in a large sample of undergraduates (N=602), in a clinical sample of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; N=180), and by using a variance decomposition model of self- and informant-report of perfectionism (N=134). Using self-report, we found that an interaction of personal standards and evaluative concern predicted both social interaction anxiety and fear of scrutiny, but not in the theorized direction. Specifically, we found that self-report of low standards and high evaluative concern was associated with the highest levels of social anxiety, suggesting that when individuals with SAD hold low expectations for themselves combined with high concerns about evaluation, social anxiety symptoms may increase. Alternatively, when an informants' perspective was considered, and more consistent with the original theory, we found that the interaction of informant-only report of personal standards and shared-report (between both primary participant and informant) of concern over mistakes was associated with self-reported social anxiety, such that high concern over mistakes and high personal standards predicted the highest levels of social anxiety. Theoretical, clinical, and measurement implications for clinical perfectionism are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of anxiety disorders. 11/2014; 29C:61-71.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare outcomes after 6-month maintenance treatment of adults diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on DSM-IV criteria who responded to acute treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) augmented by exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) or risperidone.
    The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are widely used measures of social anxiety. Using data from individuals with social anxiety disorder (n = 435) and nonanxious controls (n = 86), we assessed the psychometric properties of two independently developed short forms of these scales. Indices of convergent and discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, sensitivity to treatment, and readability were examined. Comparisons of the two sets of short forms to each other and the original long forms were conducted. Both sets of scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency in the patient sample, showed expected patterns of correlation with measures of related and unrelated constructs, adequately discriminated individuals with social anxiety disorder from those without, and showed decreases in scores over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or pharmacotherapy. However, some significant differences in scale performance were noted. Implications for the clinical assessment of social anxiety are discussed.
    Assessment 02/2014; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). This study examined the impact of symptom dimensions on EX/RP outcomes in OCD patients. Method The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to determine primary symptoms for each participant. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of 238 patients identified five dimensions: contamination/cleaning, doubts about harm/checking, hoarding, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable/taboo thoughts (including religious/moral and somatic obsessions among others). A linear regression was conducted on those who had received EX/RP (n = 87) to examine whether scores on the five symptom dimensions predicted post-treatment Y-BOCS scores, accounting for pre-treatment Y-BOCS scores. Results The average reduction in Y-BOCS score was 43.0%, however the regression indicated that unacceptable/taboo thoughts (β = .27, p = .02) and hoarding dimensions (β = .23, p = .04) were associated with significantly poorer EX/RP treatment outcomes. Specifically, patients endorsing religious/moral obsessions, somatic concerns, and hoarding obsessions showed significantly smaller reductions in Y-BOCS severity scores. Conclusions EX/RP was effective for all symptom dimensions, however it was less effective for unacceptable/taboo thoughts and hoarding than for other dimensions. Clinical implications and directions for research are discussed.
    Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 01/2014; 28(6):553-558.
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    ABSTRACT: With the publication of DSM-5, the diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia) have undergone several changes, which have important conceptual and clinical implications. In this paper, we first provide a brief history of the diagnosis. We then review a number of these changes, including (1) the primary name of the disorder, (2) the increased emphasis on fear of negative evaluation, (3) the importance of sociocultural context in determining whether an anxious response to a social situation is out of proportion to the actual threat, (4) the diagnosis of SAD in the context of a medical condition, and (5) the way in which we think about variations in the presentation of SAD (the specifier issue). We then consider the clinical implications of changes in DSM-5 related to these issues.
    Depression and Anxiety 01/2014; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the world's most disabling illnesses according to the World Health Organization. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are the only medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat OCD, but few patients achieve minimal symptoms from an SRI alone. In such cases, practice guidelines recommend adding antipsychotics or cognitive-behavioral therapy consisting of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of these 2 SRI augmentation strategies vs pill placebo for the first time, to our knowledge, in adults with OCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial (conducted January 2007-August 2012) at 2 academic outpatient research clinics that specialize in OCD and anxiety disorders. Patients (aged 18-70 years) were eligible if they had OCD of at least moderate severity despite a therapeutic SRI dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Of 163 who were eligible, 100 were randomized (risperidone, n = 40; EX/RP, n = 40; and placebo, n = 20), and 86 completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS While continuing their SRI at the same dose, patients were randomized to the addition of 8 weeks of risperidone (up to 4 mg/d), EX/RP (17 sessions delivered twice weekly), or pill placebo. Independent assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) to measure OCD severity. RESULTS Patients randomized to EX/RP had significantly greater reduction in week 8 Y-BOCS scores based on mixed-effects models (vs risperidone: mean [SE], -9.72 [1.38]; P < .001 vs placebo: mean [SE], -10.10 [1.68]; P < .001). Patients receiving risperidone did not significantly differ from those receiving placebo (mean [SE], -0.38 [1.72]; P = .83). More patients receiving EX/RP responded (Y-BOCS score decrease ≥25%: 80% for EX/RP, 23% for risperidone, and 15% for placebo; P < .001). More patients receiving EX/RP achieved minimal symptoms (Y-BOCS score ≤12: 43% for EX/RP, 13% for risperidone, and 5% for placebo; P = .001). Adding EX/RP was also superior to risperidone and placebo in improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to both risperidone and pill placebo. Patients with OCD receiving SRIs who continue to have clinically significant symptoms should be offered EX/RP before antipsychotics given its superior efficacy and less negative adverse effect profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00389493.
    JAMA Psychiatry 09/2013; 70(11):1190-1199. · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes the long-term effects of augmenting serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) with exposure and ritual prevention or stress management training in patients with DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Between November 2000 and November 2006, 111 OCD patients from 2 academic outpatient centers with partial SRI response were randomized to the addition of exposure and ritual prevention or stress management training, delivered twice weekly for 8 weeks (acute phase); 108 began treatment. Responders (38 of 52 in the exposure and ritual prevention condition, 11 of 52 in the stress management training condition) entered a 24-week maintenance phase. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) was the primary outcome measure. After 24 weeks, patients randomized to and receiving exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training had significantly better outcomes (mean YBOCS scores of 14.69 and 21.37, respectively; t = 2.88, P = .005), higher response rates (decrease in YBOCS scores ≥ 25%: 40.7% vs 9.3%, Fisher exact test P < .001), and higher rates of excellent response (YBOCS score ≤ 12: 24.1% vs 5.6%, Fisher exact test P = .01). During the maintenance phase, the slope of change in YBOCS scores was not significant in either condition (all P values ≥ .55), with no difference between exposure and ritual prevention and stress management training (P > .74). Better outcome was associated with baseline variables: lower YBOCS scores, higher quality of life, fewer comorbid Axis I diagnoses, and male sex. Augmenting SRIs with exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training leads to better outcome after acute treatment and 24 weeks later. Maintenance outcome, however, was primarily a function of OCD severity at entrance. Greater improvement during the acute phase influences how well patients maintain their gains, regardless of treatment condition. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00045903.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 05/2013; 74(5):464-9. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    Michael R Liebowitz, Karen A Tourian, Eunhee Hwang, Linda Mele
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In an effort to establish the lowest effective dose of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate), we assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 10- and 50-mg/day desvenlafaxine vs placebo for the treatment of major depressive disorder. METHODS: Adult outpatients with DSM-IV--defined major depressive disorder and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) total score >=20 were randomly assigned to receive placebo or desvenlafaxine (10 or 50 mg/day) after a 6- to 14-day single-blind placebo lead-in period in an 8-week, phase 3, fixed-dose trial. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline in the HAM-D17 score analyzed using analysis of covariance. Efficacy analyses were conducted with the intent-to-treat population, using the last observation carried forward. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 673 patients. Change from baseline to final evaluation in adjusted HAM-D17 total scores was not significantly different comparing desvenlafaxine 10 mg/day (-9.28) and desvenlafaxine 50 mg/day (-8.92) with placebo (-8.42). There were no differences among treatment groups in the rates of treatment response or remission. Discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 1.8%, 0.9%, and 1.8% of patients in the placebo and desvenlafaxine 10- and 50-mg/day groups, respectively. Overall rates of treatment-emergent adverse events with both doses were similar to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Both doses of desvenlafaxine failed to separate from placebo. However, in a companion study reported separately, desvenlafaxine 50 mg, but not 25 mg, separated from placebo. Taken together, these studies suggest that 50 mg is the minimum effective dose of desvenlafaxine for the treatment of major depressive disorder.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00863798 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00863798?term=00863798&rank=1.
    BMC Psychiatry 03/2013; 13(1):94. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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  • Blanco C, Bragdon LB, Schneier FR, Liebowitz MR
    Essential Evidence-Based Psychopharmacology, Edited by D. Stein, Lerer B, Stahl S, 08/2012: chapter Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder: pages 90- 109; Cambridge University Press., ISBN: 978-1107007956
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating and often accompanied by social avoidance. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations, often partly related to fears of showing signs of excessive autonomic nervous system activation, such as sweating. To clarify the relationship of hyperhidrosis and SAD, this study assessed severity of sweating, overall social anxiety and social anxiety due to sweating, and disability in 2 groups: patients seeking surgical treatment for hyperhidrosis (n = 40) and patients seeking treatment for SAD (n = 64). Hyperhidrosis and SAD patients overlapped in severity of overall social anxiety and social anxiety related to sweating. Hyperhidrosis patients reported elevated levels of social anxiety, with mean severity near the threshold for the generalized subtype of SAD, but significantly lower social anxiety than in the SAD patients. Significantly more hyperhidrosis patients than SAD patients attributed most of their social anxiety to sweating (76% vs 20%). Among hyperhidrosis patients, the pattern of correlations of sweating, social anxiety, and disability was consistent with a model of social anxiety as a mediator of sweating-related disability. The overlap of symptoms in patients presenting for treatment of SAD or hyperhidrosis suggests that both social anxiety and sweating should be assessed in these patients and considered as potential targets of treatment.
    Comprehensive psychiatry 06/2012; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of hypochondriasis are sometimes attributed to personality psychopathology by health care providers. The goals of this study were to assess the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) comorbidity in hypochondriasis (HYP) and to compare the PD comorbidity profile of patients with HYP with that found among patients with other disorders characterized by intrusive thoughts and fears. METHODS: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders (SCID-I and SCID-II) were administered to 179 individuals: 62 with HYP, 46 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 71 with social anxiety disorder (SAD). For group contrasts, the samples were "purified" of the comparison comorbid disorders. General linear models were used to test the combined effect of group (HYP, OCD, SAD), age, and gender on the PD outcome variables. RESULTS: 59.7% of HYP subjects had no Axis II comorbidity. The most common PDs in HYP were paranoid (19.4%), avoidant (17.7%), and obsessive-compulsive (14.5%). HYP significantly differed from SAD in the likelihood of a cluster C disorder, whereas no significant difference was noted for HYP vs. OCD. The proportion of subjects having at least two PDs was not significantly different for HYP vs. OCD or for HYP vs. SAD. CONCLUSION: Although 40% of patients with hypochondriasis have PD comorbidity as assessed by the SCID-II, the amount of PD comorbidity is not significantly different than found among individuals with two comparison anxiety disorders. Therefore, health providers should be aware that PD may complicate the clinical profile of HYP, but they should avoid assuming that PD psychopathology is the primary source of hypochondriacal distress.
    Psychosomatics 05/2012; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and often disabling disorder. This paper reviews the pharmacological treatment of SAD based on published placebo-controlled studies and published meta-analyses. It addresses three specific questions: What is the first-line pharmacological treatment of SAD? How long should treatment last? What should be the management of treatment-resistant cases? Based on their efficacy for SAD and common co-morbid disorders, tolerability and safety, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine should be considered the first-line treatment for most patients. Less information is available regarding the optimal length of treatment, although individuals who discontinue treatment after 12-20 wk appear more likely to relapse than those who continue on medication. Even less empirical evidence is available to support strategies for treatment-resistant cases. Clinical experience suggests that SSRI non-responders may benefit from augmentation with benzodiazepines or gabapentin or from switching to monoamine oxidase inhibitors, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A, benzodiazepines or gabapentin. Cognitive-behavioural is a well-established alternative first line therapy that may also be a helpful adjunct in non-responders to pharmacological treatment of SAD.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with symptom severity, reduced quality of life, and impaired functioning in adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD). No study has investigated how childhood maltreatment impacts pharmacotherapy outcomes in this population, despite evidence for such a link in depression. The current study replicates previous work on childhood maltreatment within SAD and examines its impact on response to pharmacotherapy. One hundred and fifty six individuals seeking treatment for SAD completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which measures various types of abuse and neglect, along with the measures of symptom severity, quality of life, and disability. Data from a subset of patients enrolled in a paroxetine trial (N = 127) were analyzed to gauge the impact of childhood maltreatment on attrition and treatment response. All types of maltreatment except for sexual abuse and physical abuse were related to greater symptom severity. Emotional abuse and neglect were related to greater disability, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical abuse were related to decreased quality of life. Emotional abuse significantly predicted attrition. A time by emotional abuse interaction suggests that for those who stayed the course, the impact of emotional abuse on severity of social anxiety weakened significantly over time. Emotional maltreatment was most strongly linked to dysfunction in SAD, despite a tendency in the anxiety literature to focus on the effects of sexual and physical abuse. Additionally, individuals reporting emotional abuse were more likely to dropout from pharmacotherapy, but those who stayed the course displayed similar outcomes to those without such a history.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2011; 29(2):131-8. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined gender differences among persons with lifetime social anxiety disorder (SAD). Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093), a survey of a representative community sample of the United States adult population. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. The lifetime prevalence of SAD was 4.20% for men and 5.67% for women. Among respondents with lifetime SAD, women reported more lifetime social fears and internalizing disorders and were more likely to have received pharmacological treatment for SAD, whereas men were more likely to fear dating, have externalizing disorders, and use alcohol and illicit drugs to relieve symptoms of SAD. Recognizing these differences in clinical symptoms and treatment-seeking of men and women with SAD may be important for optimizing screening strategies and enhancing treatment efficacy for SAD.
    Journal of anxiety disorders 08/2011; 26(1):12-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    Anthony Pinto, Michael R Liebowitz, Edna B Foa, H Blair Simpson
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    ABSTRACT: Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome.
    Behaviour Research and Therapy 08/2011; 49(8):453-8. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The validity of both the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale has been well-supported, yet the scales have a small number of reverse-scored items that may detract from the validity of their total scores. The current study investigates two characteristics of participants that may be associated with compromised validity of these items: higher age and lower levels of education. In community and clinical samples, the validity of each scale's reverse-scored items was moderated by age, years of education, or both. The straightforward items did not show this pattern. To encourage the use of the straightforward items of these scales, we provide normative data from the same samples as well as two large student samples. We contend that although response bias can be a substantial problem, the reverse-scored questions of these scales do not solve that problem and instead decrease overall validity.
    Journal of anxiety disorders 02/2011; 25(5):623-30. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive fear of scrutiny is a defining feature of social anxiety disorder. Eye contact may trigger feelings of being scrutinized, and although eye contact is commonly feared in persons with social anxiety disorder, it has been studied little. The purpose of this study was to characterize fear and avoidance of eye contact in patients with social anxiety disorder and in nonpatient samples. Gaze fears and avoidance, social anxiety, and depression were assessed in 44 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder, 17 matched healthy comparison subjects, and 79 undergraduates. Patients were reassessed after 8 to 12 weeks of treatment with paroxetine. A new self-report instrument, the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS), was used to assess fear and avoidance of eye contact, and its psychometric properties were analyzed. Patients with generalized social anxiety disorder, in comparison with healthy control participants, reported significantly increased levels of fear and avoidance of eye contact, which decreased significantly after 8 to 12 weeks of treatment with paroxetine. Fear and avoidance of eye contact were significantly associated with severity of social anxiety in all 3 samples. The GARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency within each sample. Self-reported fear and avoidance of eye contact are associated with social anxiety in both nonpatient and social anxiety disorder samples. Preliminary psychometric analyses suggest that the GARS has utility in the assessment of gaze anxiety.
    Comprehensive psychiatry 01/2011; 52(1):81-7. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary objective: evaluate the efficacy (time to recurrence of depressive symptoms) of once daily extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) as maintenance monotherapy treatment to prevent relapse for major depressive disorder (MDD). Time-to-event (maximum 52 weeks), double-blind, multicenter, randomized withdrawal, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) comprising four treatment phases: enrollment (up to 28 days), open-label run-in (4-8 weeks), open-label stabilization (12-18 weeks), and randomization (up to 52 weeks). Seven hundred and seventy-six patients stabilized on quetiapine XR were eligible for randomization (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score ≤12 and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness [CGI-S] score ≤3); 391 received quetiapine XR and 385 received placebo (same dose as last open-label visit). Primary endpoint: time to recurrence of depressive event from randomization. Secondary outcomes included changes from randomization in MADRS total, CGI-S, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) total scores. Adverse events were recorded throughout. Risk of recurrence of depressive event was significantly (P<.001) reduced by 66% (HR=.34; 95% CI: .25, .46) in patients randomized to continue with quetiapine XR versus patients randomized to switch to placebo. During the randomized phase, quetiapine XR maintained improvements in secondary outcomes (P<.001 for all): MADRS (0.15 versus 2.03), CGI-S (-0.03 versus 0.23); PSQI global (0.06 versus 1.35), and HAM-A total score (0.20 versus 1.58), respectively. The most common AEs (>10% any group) during the randomized period were headache and insomnia. Quetiapine XR maintenance therapy significantly reduced the risk of a depressive event in patients with MDD stabilized on quetiapine XR, with a safety and tolerability profile consistent with the known profile of quetiapine.
    Depression and Anxiety 10/2010; 27(10):964-76. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) is efficacious as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, about half of patients have a partial or poor response to EX/RP treatment. This study examined potential predictors and moderators of CBT augmentation of pharmacotherapy, to identify variables associated with a poorer response to OCD treatment. Data were drawn from a large randomized controlled trial that compared the augmenting effects of EX/RP to stress management training (SMT; an active CBT control) among 108 participants receiving a therapeutic dose of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI). Stepwise regression was used to determine the model specification. Pretreatment OCD severity and gender were significant moderators of outcome: severity affected SMT (but not EX/RP) outcome; and gender affected EX/RP (but not SMT) outcome. Adjusting for treatment type and pretreatment severity, significant predictors included greater co-morbidity, number of past SRI trials, and lower quality of life (QoL). Significant moderators, including their main-effects, and predictors accounted for 37.2% of the total variance in outcome, comparable to the impact of treatment type alone (R2=30.5%). These findings were replicated in the subgroup analysis of EX/RP alone (R2=55.2%). This is the first randomized controlled study to examine moderators and predictors of CBT augmentation of SRI pharmacotherapy. Although effect sizes for individual predictors tended to be small, their combined effect was comparable to that of treatment. Thus, future research should examine whether monitoring for a combination of these risk factors and targeting them with multi-modular strategies can improve EX/RP outcome.
    Psychological Medicine 04/2010; 40(12):2013-23. · 5.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
2,003.84 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2014
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      • • Department of Radiology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1987–2012
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Anxiety Disorders Clinic
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2011
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychology
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 1998–2011
    • Temple University
      • Department of Psychology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2008
    • New York University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1988–2008
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2004
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • Devry College of New York, USA
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Stellenbosch University
      • Medical Research Council Unit on Anxiety Disorders
      Stellenbosch, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa
  • 1999
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University at Albany, The State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • George Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1994–1996
    • Albany State University
      • Division of Psychology
      Georgia, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1993
    • University of California, Davis
      • School of Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 1991
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Ithaca, NY, United States