[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heritability of opioid use disorder has been widely investigated; however, the influence of specific genes on methadone treatment outcomes is not well understood. The association between response to methadone treatment and genes that are involved in substance use behaviors and reward mechanisms is poorly understood, despite evidence suggesting their contribution to opioid use disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) polymorphisms on continued opioid use among patients on methadone treatment for opioid use disorder.
BDNF 196G>A (rs6265) and DRD2-241A>G (rs1799978) genetic variants were examined in patients with opioid use disorder who were recruited from methadone treatment clinics across Southern Ontario, Canada. We collected demographic information, substance use history, blood for genetic analysis, and urine to measure opioid use. We used regression analysis to examine the association between continued opioid use and genetic variants, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, methadone dose, duration in treatment, and number of urine screens.
Among 240 patients treated with methadone for opioid use disorder, 36.3 percent (n = 87) and 11.3 percent (n = 27) had at least one risk allele for rs6265 and rs1799978, respectively. These genetic variants were not significantly associated with continued opioid use while on methadone maintenance treatment [rs6265: odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.792, 2.371, p = 0.264; rs1799978: OR 1.27, 95 % CI 0.511, 3.182, p = 0.603].
Despite an association of BDNF rs6265 and DRD2 rs1799978 with addictive behaviors, these variants were not associated with continued illicit opioid use in patients treated with methadone. Problematic use of opioids throughout treatment with methadone may be attributed to nongenetic factors or a polygenic effect requiring further exploration. Additional research should focus on investigating these findings in larger samples and different populations.
Addiction science & clinical practice 12/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/s13722-015-0040-7
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is responsible for a large proportion of hospital admissions and antibiotic utilization. Physician adherence to evidence-based pneumonia management guidelines is poor. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are an effective intervention to mitigate against unwarranted variation from these guidelines. Despite this benefit, ASPs have not been shown to reduce the length of stay of hospitalized patients with pneumonia. In immune-competent adult patients admitted to a hospital ward with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, does a multi-faceted ASP utilizing prospective chart audit and feedback reduce the length of stay, compared with usual care, without increasing the risk of death or readmission 30 days after discharge from hospital?
Starting on 1 April 2013, all consecutive immune-competent adult patients (>18 years old) admitted to a hospital ward with a positive febrile respiratory illness screening questionnaire and a diagnosis of pneumonia by the attending physician will be eligible for inclusion in this non-randomized study. All eligible patients who fulfill the ASP review criteria will undergo a prospective chart audit, followed by an ASP recommendation provided to the attending physician. The attending physician is responsible for implementing or rejecting the ASP recommendation. This is a modified stepped-wedge design with a baseline data collection period of 3 months, followed by non-random sequential introduction of the ASP intervention on each of four hospital wards in a single community-based, academic-affiliated 339-bed acute-care hospital in Barrie, ON, Canada. The primary outcome measure is hospital length of stay; secondary outcome measures include days and duration of antibiotic therapy, and inadvertent adverse outcomes of 30 day post-discharge mortality and hospital readmission rates. Differences in outcome measures will be assessed using extended Cox regression analysis. Time to ASP intervention is included as a time-dependent covariate in the final model, to account for time-dependent bias.
By designing a pragmatic clinical trial with unique design and analytic features, we not only expect to demonstrate the effectiveness of a real-world ASP, but also provide a model for program evaluation that can be used more broadly to improve patient safety and quality of care.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02264756 .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 16 %. Despite the availability of several treatment options for depression, many patients do not respond to treatment and develop chronic illness associated with several secondary comorbidities. Behavioural activation (BA) is a simple therapy that has the potential for improving symptoms of depression and quality of life in patients with depression. The effectiveness of BA has not, however, been tested in a group format for patients with moderate to severe depression attending a specialized mood disorders tertiary care setting. Group format has the advantage of treating more patients at the same time especially in resource-limited settings. The primary objective of this pilot study is to test the feasibility of a main trial by assessing the recruitment and retention rates, average group size, completion of data and resources needed and receive the participants’ feedback on the intervention. The secondary objective is to explore the change in mood and quality of life measures in adults with depression receiving BA.
Using a pragmatic pilot randomized controlled trial design, we will test the feasibility of a large trial to assess the effectiveness of BA added to usual care compared to a depression support group with usual care. Participants will be randomized after obtaining informed written consent to one of two study arms. Face-to-face group therapy will be provided in a hospital setting by trained therapists. Intervention and control groups will be seen twice weekly for 10 weeks and then once weekly for further 8 weeks. Participants will be completing mood symptom scales, quality of life questionnaires and anthropometric measures and provide blood samples for future analysis of biomarkers of response to treatment. During the pilot study we will also solicit participants’ feedback and experience regarding the number, frequency and contents of the sessions as well as to explore participant perceptions of barriers or benefits associated with the BA program.
The pilot study will help to inform a larger trial and assist in modifying the intervention based on patients’ feedback.
Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT02045771.
Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (HiREB) number: 14–042.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease that is seen among adolescent women. Currently, there is limited evidence to support treatment options leading to considerable variation in practice among healthcare specialists. The objective of this study is to review and synthesize all the available evidence on treatment options for PCOS among adolescent women.
We will conduct a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of metformin, oral contraceptive pills as monotherapy, or as combination with pioglitazone, spironolactone, flutamide, and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of PCOS in adolescent women ages 11 to 19 years. The primary outcome measures are menstrual regulation and change hirsutism scores. The secondary outcome measures include acne scores, prevalence of dysglycaemia, BMI, lipid profile, total testosterone level, and adverse events. We will perform literature searches through Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and gray literature resources. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts of identified citations, review the full texts of potentially eligible trials, extract information from eligible trials, and assess the risk of bias and quality of the evidence independently. Results of this review will be summarized narratively and quantitatively as appropriate. We will perform a multiple treatment comparison using network meta-analysis to estimate the pooled direct and indirect effects for all PCOS interventions on outcomes if adequate data is available.
PCOS treatment poses a clinical challenge to the patients and physicians. This is the first systematic review and network meta-analysis for PCOS treatment in adolescents. We expect that our results will help improve patient care, unify the treatment approaches among specialists, and encourage research for other therapeutic options.
Systematic review registration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Despite the growing numbers of men and women with opioid use disorder in Canada, sex-specific issues in treatment have not been re-examined in the current population of patients with opioid addiction. We aimed to evaluate sex differences in substance use, health, and social functioning among men and women currently receiving methadone treatment for opioid use disorder in Ontario, Canada.
We recruited 503 participants with opioid dependence disorder receiving methadone maintenance treatment. We collected data on demographics, treatment characteristics, psychiatric history, addiction severity, and drug use patterns through urinalysis. We performed adjusted univariate analyses and logistic regression to identify distinct factors affecting men and women.
Among our sample of 54 % (n = 266) men and 46 % women (n = 226) with mean age 38.3 years, less than half of participants were employed (35.6 %) and married (31.8 %) and had completed a high school education (27.9 %). Compared to men, women had frequent physical and psychological health problems, family history of psychiatric illness, and childcare responsibilities and began using opioids through a physician prescription. Men had higher rates of employment, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use compared to women.
Our results have revealed different patterns of substance use, health, and social functioning among men and women currently receiving methadone treatment for opioid addiction in Ontario, Canada. This information can be used to develop an integrative treatment regimen that caters to the individual needs of men and women, as well as to inform methadone treatment protocols to include specialized services (including vocational counseling, childcare and parenting assistance, medical assistance, relationship or domestic violence counseling, etc.) and increase their availability and accessibility on a larger scale.
Biology of Sex Differences 12/2015; 6(1). DOI:10.1186/s13293-015-0038-6 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suicidal behavior is a growing public health concern resulting in morbidity and premature death. Although certain factors such as age, sex, and psychiatric disorders have been consistently reported to be associated with suicidal behavior, other factors including biological markers, diet, and physical activity may also influence suicidal behavior. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a full-scale study to identify the conventional and novel risk factors of suicidal behavior in individuals who made a recent suicide attempt.
This pilot study was a case-control study of participants with recent (within 1 month of admission) suicide attempts admitted to hospital and compared to two control groups: 1) psychiatric inpatient participants without a history of suicide attempts and 2) community-based controls. We collected information on demographic variables, circumstances of suicide attempts (for cases), medical and psychiatric diagnoses, behavioral patterns, physical measurements, and social factors. Blood and urine samples were also collected for biological markers. Feasibility outcomes are as follows: 1) 50 % of all eligible cases will consent to participate, 2) 50 cases and 100 controls per year can be recruited, and 3) at least 80 % of the participants will provide blood samples for DNA and biological markers.
We recruited 179 participants in total; 51 cases, 57 psychiatric controls without suicide attempt, and 71 non-psychiatric controls in Hamilton, Ontario. Recruitment rate was 70 % (213/304), and we obtained urine and blood specimens from 90 % (191/213) of participants. Questionnaire completion rates were high, and data quality was very good with few data-related queries to resolve. We learned that cases tended to be hospitalized for long periods of time and the suicide attempt occurred more than a month ago in many of the cases; therefore, we expanded our inclusion criterion related to timing of suicide attempt to 3 months instead of 1 month.
The study procedures needed certain modifications including extending the time between suicide attempt and date of recruitment, and more detailed questionnaires related to diet were necessary while other questionnaires such as social support needed to be shortened. Overall, this study showed that it is feasible to conduct a larger-scale study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lumbar transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has become an optional part of multimodal analgesia following several abdominal surgeries. There remains a lack of consensus regarding the extent of dermatomal blockade following lumber TAP block, as well as the optimal local anesthetic volumes and concentrations. The objectives of this pilot trial were to assess the feasibility of conducting a similar full-scale trial and gather information on relevant clinical outcomes, namely whether greater local anesthetic volumes would lead to more cephalad dermatomal blockade.
The study was a prospective, double-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three arms, each representing different local anesthetic volumes: 20 ml 0.5% ropivacaine, 30 ml 0.33% ropivacaine, and 40 ml 0.25% ropivacaine. We planned to recruit 30 females undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy for non-malignant pathology, who would then receive bilateral ultrasound-guided midaxillary TAP blocks at the completion of surgery. Randomized patients would be followed for 48 h post-block and would receive multimodal analgesia. The primary outcomes were measurements of patient recruitment and safety, to inform the feasibility of a larger trial. The main secondary outcome was the clinically pertinent endpoint of dermatomal blockade, which was assessed by loss of sensation to ice and pinprick.
Our target sample size was reached in 8 months, and the recruitment rate was 52% (31/60). A total of 58 TAP blocks were performed among 29 patients. All but one of the patients who received interventions were successfully followed and assessed up to 48 h. No patient safety-related adverse events were reported during the study period. The mean highest dermatome blocked in each group at any time point was T8. The 20 ml 0.5% ropivacaine group achieved a T9–L1 block that lasted for 48 h. The 30 ml 0.33% ropivacaine group had a sensory block from T9–L1 that regressed to T10–T12 between 24 and 48 h. The 40 ml 0.25% ropivacaine group reported an initial sensory block from T9–T12 that regressed by 24 h to include only the T12 dermatome.
This pilot study demonstrated that the study design is feasible and safe to be carried to a full-scale RCT. The preliminary clinical findings showed that increasing the volume, while maintaining a constant dose, of local anesthetic does not appear to extend the height of dermatomal blockade following midaxillary TAP block. This finding needs to be confirmed in future studies.
ClinicalTrials.gov registration is: NCT01307215.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The consequences of opioid relapse among patients being treated with opioid substitution treatment (OST) are serious and can result in abnormal cardiovascular function, overdose, and mortality. Chronic pain is a major risk factor for opioid relapse within the addiction treatment setting. There exist a number of opioid maintenance therapies including methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone, and levomethadyl acetate (LAAM), of which the mediating effects of pain on treatment attrition, substance use behavior, and social functioning may differ across therapies. We aim to 1) evaluate the impact of pain on the treatment outcomes of addiction patients being managed with OST and 2) identify the most recently published opioid maintenance treatment guidelines from the United States, Canada, and the UK to determine how the evidence is being translated into clinical practice.
The authors will search Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest Dissertations and theses Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and the National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry. We will search www.guidelines.gov and the National Institute for Care and Excellence (NICE) databases to identify the most recently published OST guidelines. All screening and data extraction will be completed in duplicate. Provided the data are suitable, we will perform a multiple treatment comparison using Bayesian meta-analytic methods to produce summary statistics estimating the effect of chronic pain on all OSTs. Our primary outcome is substance use behavior, which includes opioid and non-opioid substance use. We will also evaluate secondary endpoints such as treatment retention, general physical health, intervention adherence, personal and social functioning, as well as psychiatric symptoms.
This review will capture the experience of treatment outcomes for a sub-population of opioid addiction patients and provide an opportunity to distinguish the best quality guidelines for OST. If chronic pain truly does result in negative consequences for opioid addiction patients, it is important we identify which OSTs are most appropriate for chronic pain patients as well as ensure the treatment guidelines incorporate this information.
Systematic review registration
PROSPERO CRD42014014015 http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42014014015#.VS1Qw1wkKGM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigating the cumulative rate of deficits and the change of a frailty index (FI) chronologically is helpful in clinical and research settings in the elderly. However, limited evidence for the change of frailty before and after some nonfatal adverse health event such as a major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) is available. Data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women 3-year Hamilton cohort were used in this study. The changes of FI before and after onset of MOF were compared between the women with and without incident MOF. We also evaluated the relationship between risk of MOF, falls and death and the change of FI and the absolute FI measures. There were 3,985 women included in this study (mean age: 69.4 years). The change of FI was significantly larger in the women with MOF than those without MOF at Year 1 (0.085 vs. 0.067, p-value = 0.036) and Year 2 (0.080 vs. 0.052, p-value = 0.042) post-baseline. The FI change was not significantly related with risk of MOF independently of age. However the absolute FI measures were significantly associated with increased risk of MOF, falls and death independently of age. In summary, the increase of the FI is significantly larger in the elderly women experiencing a MOF than their peer controls, indicating their worsening frailty and greater deficit accumulation after a MOF. Measures of the FI change may aid in the understanding of cumulative aging nature in the elderly and serve as an instrument for intervention planning and assessment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2739 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Clinical prediction rules have been validated and widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) to predict stroke and major bleeding. However, these prediction rules were not developed in the same population, and do not provide the key information that patients and prescribers need at the time anticoagulants are being considered-what is the individual patient-specific risk of both benefit (decreased stroke) and harm (increased major bleeding). In this study, our primary objective is to develop and validate a prediction model for patients' individual combined benefit and harm outcomes (stroke, major bleeding and neither event) with and without warfarin therapy. Our secondary outcome is all-cause mortality.
Methods and analysis:
We will use data from the Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) anticoagulation management databases and electronic medical records. Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis during an ambulatory KPCO medical office visit, emergency department visit, or inpatient stay between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012 with no AF diagnosis in the previous 180 days will be included. Patients' demographic characteristics, laboratory data, comorbidities, warfarin medication data and concurrent use of medication will be used to construct the prediction model. For primary outcomes (stroke with no major bleeding, and major bleeding with no stroke), we will perform polytomous logistic regression to develop a prediction model for patients' individual combined benefit and harm outcomes, taking neither event group as the reference group. As regards death, we will use Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to build a prediction model for all-cause mortality.
Ethics and dissemination:
This study has been approved by the KPCO Institutional Review Board and the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board. Results from this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal electronically and in print. The prediction models may aid in patient-physician shared decision-making when they are considering warfarin therapy.
BMJ Open 11/2015; 5(11):e009518. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009518 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Meta-analyses of continuous outcomes typically provide enough information for decision-makers to evaluate the extent to which chance can explain apparent differences between interventions. The interpretation of the magnitude of these differences - from trivial to large - can, however, be challenging. We investigated clinicians' understanding and perceptions of usefulness of 6 statistical formats for presenting continuous outcomes from meta-analyses (standardized mean difference, minimal important difference units, mean difference in natural units, ratio of means, relative risk and risk difference).
We invited 610 staff and trainees in internal medicine and family medicine programs in 8 countries to participate. Paperbased, self-administered questionnaires presented summary estimates of hypothetical interventions versus placebo for chronic pain. The estimates showed either a small or a large effect for each of the 6 statistical formats for presenting continuous outcomes. Questions addressed participants' understanding of the magnitude of treatment effects and their perception of the usefulness of the presentation format. We randomly assigned participants 1 of 4 versions of the questionnaire, each with a different effect size (large or small) and presentation order for the 6 formats (1 to 6, or 6 to 1).
Overall, 531 (87.0%) of the clinicians responded. Respondents best understood risk difference, followed by relative risk and ratio of means. Similarly, they perceived the dichotomous presentation of continuous outcomes (relative risk and risk difference) to be most useful. Presenting results as a standardized mean difference, the longest standing and most widely used approach, was poorly understood and perceived as least useful.
None of the presentation formats were well understood or perceived as extremely useful. Clinicians best understood the dichotomous presentations of continuous outcomes and perceived them to be the most useful. Further initiatives to help clinicians better grasp the magnitude of the treatment effect are needed.
Canadian Medical Association Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1503/cmaj.150430 · 5.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eligibility criteria that result in the exclusion of a substantial number of patients from randomized trials jeopardize the generalizability of treatment effect to much of the clinical population. This is important when evaluating opioid substitution and antagonist therapies (OSATs), especially given the challenges associated with treating the opioid-dependent population. We aimed to identify OSAT trials' eligibility criteria, quantify the percentage of the clinical population excluded by these criteria, and determine how OSAT guidelines incorporate evidence from these trials.
We performed a systematic review to identify the eligibility criteria used across trials. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry (CTR), World Health Organization International CTR Platform Search Portal, and the National Institutes of Health CTR databases from inception to January 1, 2014. To quantify the effect of trials' eligibility criteria on generalizability, we applied these criteria to data from an observational study of opioid-dependent patients (n = 394). We then accessed the Canadian, American, British, and World Health Organization (WHO) OSAT guidelines to evaluate how evidence is used in the recommendations.
Among the 60 trials identified the majority (≥50 % of trials) exclude patients with psychiatric (60 %) and physical comorbidity (51.7 %). Additionally, we found 19 trials exclude patients with current alcohol/substance-use problems (31.7 %), and 29 (48.3 %) exclude patients taking psychotropic medications. These criteria were restrictive and in some cases rendered 70 % of the observational sample ineligible. North American OSAT guidelines made strong recommendations supported by evidence with poor generalizability. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and WHO guidelines for opioid misuse provide a critical assessment of the literature used to inform their recommendations.
Trials assessing OSATs often exclude patients with concurrent disorders. If the excluded patients respond differently to treatment, results from these trials are likely to overestimate the true effectiveness of OSATs. North American guidelines should consider these limitations when drafting clinical recommendations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A positive circumferential radial margin (CRM) after rectal cancer surgery is an important predictor of local recurrence. The definition of a positive CRM differs internationally, and reported rates vary greatly in the literature. This study used time-series population-based data to assess positive CRM rates in a region over time and to inform future methods of CRM analysis in a defined geographic area.
Chart reviews provided relevant data from consecutive patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery between 2006 and 2012 in all hospitals of the authors' region. Outcomes included rates for pathologic examination of CRM, CRM distance reporting, and positive CRM. The rate of positive CRM was calculated using various definitions. The variations included positive margin cutoffs of CRM at 1 mm or less versus 2 mm or less and inclusion or exclusion of cases without CRM assessment.
In this study, 1222 consecutive rectal cancer cases were analyzed. The rate for pathology reporting of CRM distance increased from 54.7 to 93.2 % during the study. Depending on how the rate of positive CRM was defined, its value varied 8.5 to 19.4 % in 2006 and 6.0 to 12.5 % in 2012. Using a pre-specified definition, the rate of positive CRM decreased over time from 14.0 to 6.3 %.
A marked increase in CRM distance reporting was observed, whereas the rates of positive CRM dropped, suggesting improved pathologist and surgeon performance over time. Changing definitions greatly influenced the rates of positive CRM, indicating the need for more transparency when such population-based rates are reported in the literature.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 10/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-015-4893-5 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Opioid use disorder is a serious international concern with limited treatment success. Men and women differ in their susceptibility to opioid use disorder and response to methadone treatment and can therefore benefit from sex-specific treatment. We performed a systematic review of the literature on outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder in men and women related to drug use, health status and social functioning.
We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL for observational or randomized controlled studies involving adults 18 years of age or older undergoing methadone treatment for opioid use disorder. Studies were included if they investigated sex differences in methadone treatment outcomes. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data. Meta-analyses were performed when possible; risk of bias and quality of evidence were also assessed.
Twenty studies with 9732 participants were included, of which 18 were observational and 2 were randomized controlled trials. Men and women differed significantly in alcohol use (odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31 to 0.86), amphetamine use (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.94), legal involvement (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.84) and employment during treatment (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.73). Opioid use patterns were similar among men and women. Risk of bias was moderate, and quality of evidence was generally low.
Sex differences were evident in polysubstance use, legal involvement and employment status among men and women receiving methadone treatment for opioid use disorders. Although the quality of evidence was low, our review highlights the need for improved implementation of sex-specific treatment strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Immigrant women are at increased risk for postpartum depression (PPD). The factors that influence PPD among immigrant women are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify individual- and community-level factors predictive of PPD among immigrant women living in a large Ontario city at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postpartum.
The study involved a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, The Ontario Mother and Infant Study 3. This study included 519 immigrant women who were recruited from two hospitals in one urban city and delivered full-term singleton infants. Women completed a written questionnaire in hospital, followed by structured telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after hospital discharge. Generalized estimating equations were used to explore factors associated with PPD, measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and two thresholds for depression (≥12 and ≥9).
Rates of PPD at all time points were 8%-10% for EPDS scores of ≥12. For EPDS scores of ≥9, rates of PPD more than doubled at all time points. A lack of social support was strongly associated with PPD in all analyses. Living in Canada for ≤2 years, poor perceptions of health, and lower mental health functioning were other important predictors of PPD. Living in communities with a high prevalence of immigrants and low income also was associated with PPD.
Complex individual and community-level factors are associated with PPD in immigrant women. Understanding these contextual factors can inform a multifaceted approach to addressing PPD.
Journal of Women's Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1089/jwh.2015.5292 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that orthopaedic trauma injuries represent a serious cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, there are few data in low-middle income countries quantifying the burden of fractures and describing current treatment practices. To address this critical knowledge gap, a large multinational prospective observational study of 40,000 patients with musculoskeletal trauma in Africa, Asia, and Latin America is proposed. The International Orthopaedic Multicentre Study in Fracture Care (INORMUS) study seeks to determine the incidence of major complications (mortality, reoperation, and infection) within 30 days after a musculoskeletal injury and to determine patient, treatment, and system factors associated with these major complications in low-middle income countries. This study coincides with the World Health Organization's Global Road Traffic Safety Decade (2011-2020) and other international efforts to reduce the burden of injury on developing populations. Insight gained from the INORMUS study will not only inform the global burden of orthopaedic trauma but also drive the development of future randomized trials to evaluate simple solutions and practical interventions to decrease deaths and improve the quality of life for trauma patients worldwide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Many strong recommendations issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) are based on low or very low quality (low certainty) evidence (discordant recommendations). Many such discordant recommendations are inconsistent with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidance. We sought to understand why WHO makes discordant recommendations inconsistent with GRADE guidance.
Study design and setting:
We interviewed panel members involved in guidelines approved by WHO (2007-2012) that included discordant recommendations. Interviews, recorded and transcribed, focused on use of GRADE including the reasoning underlying, and factors contributing to, discordant recommendations.
Four themes emerged: strengths of GRADE, challenges and barriers to GRADE, strategies to improve GRADE application, and explanations for discordant recommendations. Reasons for discordant recommendations included skepticism about the value of making conditional recommendations; political considerations; high certainty in benefits (sometimes warranted, sometimes not) despite assessing evidence as low certainty; and concerns that conditional recommendations will be ignored.
WHO panelists make discordant recommendations inconsistent with GRADE guidance for reasons that include limitations in their understanding of GRADE. Ensuring optimal application of GRADE at WHO and elsewhere likely requires selecting panelists who have a commitment to GRADE principles, additional training of panellists, and formal processes to maximize adherence to GRADE principles.
Journal of clinical epidemiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.09.006 · 3.42 Impact Factor