Lehana Thabane

St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (417)1547.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is responsible for a large proportion of hospital admissions and antibiotic utilization. Physician adherence to evidence-based pneumonia management guidelines is poor. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are an effective intervention to mitigate against unwarranted variation from these guidelines. Despite this benefit, ASPs have not been shown to reduce the length of stay of hospitalized patients with pneumonia. In immune-competent adult patients admitted to a hospital ward with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, does a multi-faceted ASP utilizing prospective chart audit and feedback reduce the length of stay, compared with usual care, without increasing the risk of death or readmission 30 days after discharge from hospital? Starting on 1 April 2013, all consecutive immune-competent adult patients (>18 years old) admitted to a hospital ward with a positive febrile respiratory illness screening questionnaire and a diagnosis of pneumonia by the attending physician will be eligible for inclusion in this non-randomized study. All eligible patients who fulfill the ASP review criteria will undergo a prospective chart audit, followed by an ASP recommendation provided to the attending physician. The attending physician is responsible for implementing or rejecting the ASP recommendation. This is a modified stepped-wedge design with a baseline data collection period of 3 months, followed by non-random sequential introduction of the ASP intervention on each of four hospital wards in a single community-based, academic-affiliated 339-bed acute-care hospital in Barrie, ON, Canada. The primary outcome measure is hospital length of stay; secondary outcome measures include days and duration of antibiotic therapy, and inadvertent adverse outcomes of 30 day post-discharge mortality and hospital readmission rates. Differences in outcome measures will be assessed using extended Cox regression analysis. Time to ASP intervention is included as a time-dependent covariate in the final model, to account for time-dependent bias. By designing a pragmatic clinical trial with unique design and analytic features, we not only expect to demonstrate the effectiveness of a real-world ASP, but also provide a model for program evaluation that can be used more broadly to improve patient safety and quality of care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02264756 .
    Trials 12/2015; 16(1):355. DOI:10.1186/s13063-015-0871-2 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Suicidal behavior is a growing public health concern resulting in morbidity and premature death. Although certain factors such as age, sex, and psychiatric disorders have been consistently reported to be associated with suicidal behavior, other factors including biological markers, diet, and physical activity may also influence suicidal behavior. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a full-scale study to identify the conventional and novel risk factors of suicidal behavior in individuals who made a recent suicide attempt. This pilot study was a case-control study of participants with recent (within 1 month of admission) suicide attempts admitted to hospital and compared to two control groups: 1) psychiatric inpatient participants without a history of suicide attempts and 2) community-based controls. We collected information on demographic variables, circumstances of suicide attempts (for cases), medical and psychiatric diagnoses, behavioral patterns, physical measurements, and social factors. Blood and urine samples were also collected for biological markers. Feasibility outcomes are as follows: 1) 50 % of all eligible cases will consent to participate, 2) 50 cases and 100 controls per year can be recruited, and 3) at least 80 % of the participants will provide blood samples for DNA and biological markers. We recruited 179 participants in total; 51 cases, 57 psychiatric controls without suicide attempt, and 71 non-psychiatric controls in Hamilton, Ontario. Recruitment rate was 70 % (213/304), and we obtained urine and blood specimens from 90 % (191/213) of participants. Questionnaire completion rates were high, and data quality was very good with few data-related queries to resolve. We learned that cases tended to be hospitalized for long periods of time and the suicide attempt occurred more than a month ago in many of the cases; therefore, we expanded our inclusion criterion related to timing of suicide attempt to 3 months instead of 1 month. The study procedures needed certain modifications including extending the time between suicide attempt and date of recruitment, and more detailed questionnaires related to diet were necessary while other questionnaires such as social support needed to be shortened. Overall, this study showed that it is feasible to conduct a larger-scale study.
    12/2015; 1(1). DOI:10.1186/s40814-015-0012-4
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    ABSTRACT: Background The consequences of opioid relapse among patients being treated with opioid substitution treatment (OST) are serious and can result in abnormal cardiovascular function, overdose, and mortality. Chronic pain is a major risk factor for opioid relapse within the addiction treatment setting. There exist a number of opioid maintenance therapies including methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone, and levomethadyl acetate (LAAM), of which the mediating effects of pain on treatment attrition, substance use behavior, and social functioning may differ across therapies. We aim to 1) evaluate the impact of pain on the treatment outcomes of addiction patients being managed with OST and 2) identify the most recently published opioid maintenance treatment guidelines from the United States, Canada, and the UK to determine how the evidence is being translated into clinical practice. Methods/design The authors will search Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest Dissertations and theses Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and the National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry. We will search www.guidelines.gov and the National Institute for Care and Excellence (NICE) databases to identify the most recently published OST guidelines. All screening and data extraction will be completed in duplicate. Provided the data are suitable, we will perform a multiple treatment comparison using Bayesian meta-analytic methods to produce summary statistics estimating the effect of chronic pain on all OSTs. Our primary outcome is substance use behavior, which includes opioid and non-opioid substance use. We will also evaluate secondary endpoints such as treatment retention, general physical health, intervention adherence, personal and social functioning, as well as psychiatric symptoms. Discussion This review will capture the experience of treatment outcomes for a sub-population of opioid addiction patients and provide an opportunity to distinguish the best quality guidelines for OST. If chronic pain truly does result in negative consequences for opioid addiction patients, it is important we identify which OSTs are most appropriate for chronic pain patients as well as ensure the treatment guidelines incorporate this information. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014014015 http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42014014015#.VS1Qw1wkKGM
    Systematic Reviews 12/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1186/s13643-015-0042-2
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    ABSTRACT: The lumbar transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has become an optional part of multimodal analgesia following several abdominal surgeries. There remains a lack of consensus regarding the extent of dermatomal blockade following lumber TAP block, as well as the optimal local anesthetic volumes and concentrations. The objectives of this pilot trial were to assess the feasibility of conducting a similar full-scale trial and gather information on relevant clinical outcomes, namely whether greater local anesthetic volumes would lead to more cephalad dermatomal blockade. The study was a prospective, double-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three arms, each representing different local anesthetic volumes: 20 ml 0.5% ropivacaine, 30 ml 0.33% ropivacaine, and 40 ml 0.25% ropivacaine. We planned to recruit 30 females undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy for non-malignant pathology, who would then receive bilateral ultrasound-guided midaxillary TAP blocks at the completion of surgery. Randomized patients would be followed for 48 h post-block and would receive multimodal analgesia. The primary outcomes were measurements of patient recruitment and safety, to inform the feasibility of a larger trial. The main secondary outcome was the clinically pertinent endpoint of dermatomal blockade, which was assessed by loss of sensation to ice and pinprick. Our target sample size was reached in 8 months, and the recruitment rate was 52% (31/60). A total of 58 TAP blocks were performed among 29 patients. All but one of the patients who received interventions were successfully followed and assessed up to 48 h. No patient safety-related adverse events were reported during the study period. The mean highest dermatome blocked in each group at any time point was T8. The 20 ml 0.5% ropivacaine group achieved a T9–L1 block that lasted for 48 h. The 30 ml 0.33% ropivacaine group had a sensory block from T9–L1 that regressed to T10–T12 between 24 and 48 h. The 40 ml 0.25% ropivacaine group reported an initial sensory block from T9–T12 that regressed by 24 h to include only the T12 dermatome. This pilot study demonstrated that the study design is feasible and safe to be carried to a full-scale RCT. The preliminary clinical findings showed that increasing the volume, while maintaining a constant dose, of local anesthetic does not appear to extend the height of dermatomal blockade following midaxillary TAP block. This finding needs to be confirmed in future studies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registration is: NCT01307215.
    12/2015; 1(1). DOI:10.1186/s40814-015-0002-6
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hemodialysis patients are often advised not to shower if they have a central ve-nous catheter (catheter). We developed a shower technique catheter protocol for hemodialysis patients with healed catheter exit sites, designed to permit showering but not increase catheter-related infection risk. Research question: Is it feasible to conduct a randomized control trial comparing the rate of catheter related bacteremia in adult satellite hemodialysis patients using the shower technique protocol versus standard catheter care alone with 6 month follow up? Study Design: This pilot study is a multi-centre randomized control trial. Eligible participants will be randomized to shower technique protocol versus standard care after meeting predefined criteria to confirm healed tunneled catheter exit site. Primary Outcome: Feasibility will be determined by 5 outcome measures: 1) accuracy of the catheter related bacteremia rate documentation in the satellite hemodialysis centre setting, percentage of patients 2) screened, 3) recruited, 4) educated successfully in the shower technique protocol (intervention arm), and 5) treatment contamination of study groups. Study Setting: In 2 academic and 3 community based satellite hemodialysis centres in south central Ontario, Canada. Patient Population: Adult satellite hemodialysis patients dialyzing via tunneled central venous catheters with healed catheter exit sites. Intervention: Shower technique protocol and standard catheter care or control (standard cath-eter care only). Analysis: Each measure of feasibility has its own statistical threshold for success. If the threshold is reached in 4 of the 5 measures, the full study will be deemed feasible. Discussion: A pilot feasibility study of the larger study is critical due to the potential challenges associated with recruitment, compliance and participant ascertainment bias.
  • C Chai-Adisaksopha · C Hillis · L Thabane · A Iorio
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    ABSTRACT: Bleeding frequency is an important outcome commonly used in haemophilia studies. There is a variation in practice in how bleeding is measured and defined. The primary objective of this study was to determine how investigators define and report bleeding outcome measures. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the CENTRAL were searched from January 1990 to January 2014. We retrieved all published studies that included patients with haemophilia A or B and reported some measures of bleeding. Two reviewers independently performed title and abstract screening, full-text review and data abstraction of the identified studies. A total of 118 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Study designs were randomized controlled trials (RCT; 14%), cohort (68%), cross-sectional (5%) and others design (11%). The median duration of follow-up (Q1, Q3) was 20 (7.9, 50) months. We found 10 different bleeding outcomes reported [absolute number of bleeding 60 (50.8%) studies, annualized bleeding rate 60 (50.8%) studies, bleed per month 10 (8.5%) studies and others 11 (9.3%) studies]. Of these, 32 (27%) studies reported only mean or median without dispersion and 33 (28%) studies did not report any measures of central tendency (dispersion). There is substantial variation in definitions and measures of bleeding outcomes in the haemophilia literature. This creates difficulty and limitations in comparing the outcomes between studies and in performing meta-analysis. The haemophilia research community needs to develop a consensus on a clear definition of bleeding and how to address the limitations associated with variations in measures of bleeding between centres and studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Haemophilia 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/hae.12750 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sub-Saharan Africa has a shortage of well-trained biomedical research methodologists, in particular, biostatisticians. In July 2014, a group of biostatisticians and researchers from the region attended a brainstorming workshop to identify ways in which to reduce the deficit in this critical skill. The workshop recognized that recommendations from previous workshops on building biostatistics capacity in sub-Saharan Africa had not been implemented. The discussions culminated with a proposal to setup an Africa Center for Biostatistical Excellence, a collaborative effort across academic and researcher institutions within the region, as a vehicle for promoting biostatistics capacity building through specialized academic masters programs as well as regular workshops targeting researchers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Statistics in Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/sim.6572 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pilot trials are smaller randomized controlled trials conducted to inform the design and assess the feasibility of a large-scale trials. The objectives of this systematic review were to describe pilot trials in pediatric critical care, their conclusions about the clinical implications of the results, and the need for future research and to determine the frequency of large follow-up trials. The Evidence in Pediatric Intensive Care database (http://epicc.mcmaster.ca), a comprehensive repository of published pediatric critical care randomized controlled trials and the World Health Organization's Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Randomized controlled trials described in the publication as "pilot," "feasibility," "proof-of-concept," "exploratory," "phase 2," "vanguard," or "preliminary." Pairs of reviewers screened studies for eligibility and abstracted data independently. We found 32 pilot trials (12.2% of all pediatric critical care randomized controlled trials) published before July 2014, varying in size from 6 to 165 children. Pilot trials were significantly smaller than those not described as pilots, but other key characteristics were not significantly different. The authors of 16 publications (48.4%) included explicit and specific conclusions about the design or feasibility of larger trials based on the results of the pilot trial. In 20 publications (64.5%), the authors made conclusions about clinical efficacy based on results of the pilot trial. Four of the 32 pilot trials (12.9%) led to larger trials, two of which have been published. Published pilot trials in pediatric critical care often focus on clinical outcomes. They uncommonly report explicit feasibility outcomes, criteria for success, or rationale for the pilot sample size. These pilot trials infrequently lead to larger trials. Understanding and addressing the reasons for this are key to the success of pediatric critical care research.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000475 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with ruptured brain aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage suffer neurological damage from primary injury of the aneurysm rupture itself, as well as a number of secondary injurious processes that can further worsen the affected individual's neurological state. In addition, other body systems can be affected in a number of brain-body associations. This systematic review synthesizes prospective and retrospective cohort studies that investigate brain-body associations in patients with ruptured brain aneurysms. The methodologic quality of these studies will be appraised. Six cohort studies were included in this systemic review. The methodologic quality of each study was assessed. They had representative patient populations, clear selection criteria and clear descriptions of study designs. Reproducible study protocols with ethics board approval were present. Clinical results were described in sufficient detail and were applicable to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients in clinical practice. There were few withdrawals from the study. Limitations included small sample sizes and between-study differences in diagnostic tests and clinical outcome endpoints. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of brain-body associations in ruptured brain aneurysms were clarified through this systematic review. Sympathetic activation of the cardiovascular system in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage not only triggers the release of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides it can also lead to increased pulmonary venous pressures and permeability causing hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Natriuretic states can herald the onset or worsening of clinical vasospasm as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is activated in a delayed manner. This systematic review synthesizes the most current evidence of underlying mechanisms of brain related associations with body systems in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results gained from these studies are clinically useful and shed light on how ruptured brain aneurysms affect the cardiopulmonary system. Subsequent neuro-cardio-endocrine responses then interact with other body systems as part of the secondary responses to primary injury.
    Surgical Neurology International 06/2015; 6(1). DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.162677 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical prediction tools assist in clinical outcome prediction. They quantify the relative contributions of certain variables and condense information that identifies important indicators or predictors to a targeted condition. This systematic review synthesizes and critically appraises the methodologic quality of studies that derive both clinical predictors and clinical predictor tools used to determine outcome prognosis in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This systematic review included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating prognostic factors and clinical prediction tools associated with determining the neurologic outcome in adult patients with aneurysmal SAH. Twenty-two studies were included in this systemic review. Independent, confounding, and outcome variables were studied. Methodologic quality of individual studies was also analyzed. Included were 3 studies analyzing databases from RCTs, 8 prospective cohort studies, and 11 retrospective cohort studies. The most frequently retained significant clinical prognostic factors for long-term neurologic outcome prediction include age, neurological grade, blood clot thickness, and aneurysm size. Systematic reviews for clinical prognostic factors and clinical prediction tools in aneurysmal SAH face a number of methodological challenges. These include within and between study patient heterogeneity, regional variations in treatment protocols, patient referral biases, and differences in treatment, and prognosis viewpoints across different cultures.
    Surgical Neurology International 06/2015; 6(1). DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.162676 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Heart failure (HF) is the commonest cause of hospitalization in older adults. Compared to routine hospitalization (RH), hospital at home (HaH)—substitutive hospital-level care in the patient’s home—improves outcomes and reduces costs in patients with general medical conditions. The efficacy of HaH in HF is unknown. Methods and Results We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL, for publications from January 1990 to October 2014. We included prospective studies comparing substitutive models of hospitalization to RH in HF. At least 2 reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data, and assessed quality. We meta-analyzed results from 3 RCTs (n = 203) and narrative- ly synthesized results from 3 observational studies (n = 329). Study quality was modest. In RCTs, HaH increased time to first readmission (mean difference (MD) 14.13 days [95% CI 10.36 to 17.91]), and improved health-related quality of life (HrQOL) at both, 6 months (stan- dardized MD (SMD) -0.31 [-0.45 to -0.18]) and 12 months (SMD -0.17 [-0.31 to -0.02]). In RCTs, HaH demonstrated a trend to decreased readmissions (risk ratio (RR) 0.68 [0.42 to 1.09]), and had no effect on all-cause mortality (RR 0.94 [0.67 to 1.32]). HaH decreased costs of index hospitalization in all RCTs. HaH reduced readmissions and emergency de- partment visits per patient in all 3 observational studies. Conclusions In the context of a limited number of modest-quality studies, HaH appears to increase time to readmission, reduce index costs, and improve HrQOL among patients requiring hospital-level care for HF. Larger RCTs are necessary to assess the effect of HaH on read- missions, mortality, and long-term costs.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0129282. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129282 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • V Romanov · M Marcucci · J Cheng · L Thabane · A Iorio
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    ABSTRACT: There is no prospective evidence on inhibitor recurrence among haemophilia A patients with low titre inhibitors or history of inhibitors, and whether or how therapeutic choices affect the risk of recurrence. The aims of this study were to synthesise safety data in patients with moderate-severe haemophilia A and with low titre inhibitors or inhibitor history enrolled in the rAHF PFM (ADVATE) - Post-Authorization Safety Studies (ADVATE-PASS) international programme. The study was conducted in clinics participating to the ADVATE PASS programme. The patient population consisted of patients entering the studies with low titre (≤ 5 BU) inhibitors or a positive personal history of inhibitors. Patients on Immune Tolerance Induction at study entry were excluded. Primary outcome was new or recurrent inhibitor titre > 5 BU. Secondary outcomes were any increase of inhibitor titre not reaching 5 BU; any unexplained change in treatment regimen. Primary analysis was done by two-stage random effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis was done by a hierarchical Bayesian random effects logistic model. A total of 219 patients from seven studies were included. Of these 214 (97.7 %) patients had been previously treated for more than 50 exposure days. Two hundred ten patients had positive history for inhibitors, nine a baseline measurable titre. No patient presented a primary outcome event (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0-1.6 %). Six patients with previous history developed a low titre recurrence (overall rate 2.2, 95 %CI 0-4.8 %). When any increase of inhibitor titre or any treatment change was accounted for, overall 3.7 % (95 % CI 0 %-8.0 %) of patients experienced the outcome. In conclusion, the observed rate of events does not support the definition of this population as at high risk for inhibitor development.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2015; 114(1). DOI:10.1160/TH14-10-0882 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have systematically examined whether knowledge translation (KT) strategies can be successfully implemented within the long-term care (LTC) setting. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a multifaceted, interdisciplinary KT intervention for improving the prescribing of vitamin D, calcium and osteoporosis medications over 12-months. We conducted a pilot, cluster randomized controlled trial in 40 LTC homes (21 control; 19 intervention) in Ontario, Canada. LTC homes were eligible if they had more than one prescribing physician and received services from a large pharmacy provider. Participants were interdisciplinary care teams (physicians, nurses, consultant pharmacists, and other staff) who met quarterly. Intervention homes participated in three educational meetings over 12 months, including a standardized presentation led by expert opinion leaders, action planning for quality improvement, and audit and feedback review. Control homes did not receive any additional intervention. Resident-level prescribing and clinical outcomes were collected from the pharmacy database; data collectors and analysts were blinded. In addition to feasibility measures, study outcomes were the proportion of residents taking vitamin D (≥800 IU/daily; primary), calcium ≥500 mg/day and osteoporosis medications (high-risk residents) over 12 months. Data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equations technique accounting for clustering within the LTC homes. At baseline, 5,478 residents, mean age 84.4 (standard deviation (SD) 10.9), 71% female, resided in 40 LTC homes, mean size = 137 beds (SD 76.7). In the intention-to-treat analysis (21 control; 19 intervention clusters), the intervention resulted in a significantly greater increase in prescribing from baseline to 12 months between intervention versus control arms for vitamin D (odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 2.96) and calcium (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.74), but not for osteoporosis medications (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.51). In secondary analyses, excluding seven nonparticipating intervention homes, ORs were 3.06 (95% CI: 2.18, 4.29), 1.57 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.21), 1.20 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.60) for vitamin D, calcium and osteoporosis medications, respectively. Our KT intervention significantly improved the prescribing of vitamin D and calcium and is a model that could potentially be applied to other areas requiring quality improvement. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01398527 . Registered: 19 July 2011.
    Trials 05/2015; 16(1):214. DOI:10.1186/s13063-015-0720-3 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is little data in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) quantifying the burden of fractures and describing current practices. The aim of the study was describe the severity of musculoskeletal injuries in LMICS and identify modifiable factors that predict subsequent early all-cause mortality. We did a multicentre, prospective, observational study of patients who presented to 14 hospitals across India for musculoskeletal trauma (fractures or dislocations). Patients were recruited during an 8-week period, between November, 2011, and June, 2012, and were followed for 30-days or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality with secondary outcomes of reoperation and infection. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with all-cause mortality. We enrolled 4822 patients, but restricted analyses to 4612 (96%) patients who had complete follow-up. The majority (56·2% younger than 40 years old) of trauma patients were young (mean age 40·9 years [SD 16·9]) and 3148 (68%) were men. 2344 (518%) patients sustained trauma as a result of a road traffic accident. The most common musculoskeletal injury was a fracture (4514 [98%]) and 707 patients (15%) incurred an open fracture. Less than a third of musculoskeletal trauma patients (1374 [29%]) were transported to hospital by ambulance, and one in six patients (18%) arrived at the hospital later than 24 h after sustaining their injury. Over a third (239 [35%] of 707) of open fractures were definitively stabilised later than 24 h. 30-day mortality was 1·7% (95% CI 1·4-2·2) for all patients and 2·1% (95% CI 1·5-2·7) among road traffic victims (p=0·005). Musculoskeletal trauma severity including the number of fractures (3·1 [95% CI 2·4-3·9]) and presence of an open fracture (2·1 [95% CI 1·2-3·4]) significantly increased the odds of all-cause mortality. Musculoskeletal trauma severity, particularly road related, is a key predictor of subsequent mortality. Improvement in road safety policies, and improvements in access to emergency medical services and timely orthopaedic care are critical to mitigate the burden of injury worldwide. Regional Medical Associates, AO International, Hamilton Health Sciences Trauma Fund. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 04/2015; 385(2):S30. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60825-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation could quantify and predict the risk of fractures based on the degree of frailty in the elderly. We aimed to compare the predictive powers between the FI and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) in predicting risk of major osteoporotic fracture (hip, upper arm or shoulder, spine, or wrist) and hip fracture, using the data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) 3-year Hamilton cohort. There were 3,985 women included in the study, with the mean age of 69.4 years (standard deviation [SD] = 8.89). During the follow-up, there were 149 (3.98%) incident major osteoporotic fractures and 18 (0.48%) hip fractures reported. The FRAX and FI were significantly related to each other. Both FRAX and FI significantly predicted risk of major osteoporotic fracture, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.05) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.04) for per-0.01 increment for the FRAX and FI respectively. The HRs were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19 - 1.58) and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12 - 1.42) for an increase of per-0.10 (approximately one SD) in the FRAX and FI respectively. Similar discriminative ability of the models was found: c-index = 0.62 for the FRAX and c-index = 0.61 for the FI. When cut-points were chosen to trichotomize participants into low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk groups, a significant increase in fracture risk was found in the high-risk group (HR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.36-3.07) but not in the medium-risk group (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.82-1.84) compared with the low-risk women for the FI, while for FRAX the medium-risk (HR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.09-3.68) and high-risk groups (HR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.48-4.58) predicted risk of major osteoporotic fracture significantly only when survival time exceeded 18 months (550 days). Similar findings were observed for hip fracture and in sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, the FI is comparable with FRAX in the prediction of risk of future fractures, indicating that measures of frailty status may aid in fracture risk assessment and fracture prevention in the elderly. Further evidence from randomized controlled trials of osteoporosis medication interventions is needed to support the FI and FRAX as validated measures of fracture risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 04/2015; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.04.028 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluid resuscitation, along with the early administration of antibiotics, is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with sepsis. However, whether differences in resuscitation fluids impact on the requirements for renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains unclear. To examine this issue, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA), including direct and indirect comparisons, that addressed the effect of different resuscitation fluids on the use of RRT in patients with sepsis. The data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, ACPJC, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register were searched up to March 2014. Eligible studies included randomized trials reported in any language that enrolled adult patients with sepsis or septic shock and addressed the use of RRT associated with alternative resuscitation fluids. The risk of bias for individual studies and the overall certainty of the evidence were assessed. Ten studies (6664 patients) that included a total of nine direct comparisons were assessed. NMA at the four-node level showed that an increased risk of receiving RRT was associated with fluid resuscitation with starch versus crystalloid [odds ratio (OR) 1.39, 95 % credibility interval (CrI) 1.17-1.66, high certainty]. The data suggested no difference between fluid resuscitation with albumin and crystalloid (OR 1.04, 95 % CrI 0.78-1.38, moderate certainty) or starch (OR 0.74, 95 % CrI 0.53-1.04, low certainty). NMA at the six-node level showed a decreased risk of receiving RRT with balanced crystalloid compared to heavy starch (OR 0.50, 95 % CrI 0.34-0.74, moderate certainty) or light starch (OR 0.70, 95 % CrI 0.49-0.99, high certainty). There was no significant difference between balanced crystalloid and saline (OR 0.85, 95 % CrI 0.56-1.30, low certainty) or albumin (OR 0.82, 95 % CrI 0.49-1.37, low certainty). Of note, these trials vary in terms of case mix, fluids evaluated, duration of fluid exposure and risk of bias. Imprecise estimates contributed to low confidence in most estimates of effect. Among the patients with sepsis, fluid resuscitation with crystalloids compared to starch resulted in reduced use of RRT; the same may be true for albumin versus starch.
    Intensive Care Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00134-015-3794-1 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation are more common than completed suicide and are associated with psychological distress. These behaviors are considered risk factors of completed suicide. Considering the psychosocial stigma and medical comorbidities associated with obesity, an accumulating body of studies have investigated body mass index (BMI) as a potential risk factor of suicide. However, several cohort studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between BMI and completed suicide, suggesting a protective effect of increasing BMI against completed suicide. The association between BMI and attempted suicide is more equivocal, with several studies reporting both positive and negative relationships between BMI and attempted suicide. The primary objective of this study is to systematically review the literature to determine the association between BMI and suicidal behavior (including completed suicide, attempted suicide, suicidal ideation) in an adult population (18 years and older). The secondary objective is to explore whether sex, age, and the method used in suicide modify the relationship between BMI and suicidal behavior. An electronic search will be conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE using a predefined search strategy; databases will be searched from their inception. Two authors (SP and RE) will independently screen articles using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and will extract pertinent data using a pilot tested extraction form. At all levels of screening, discrepancies between the two authors will be resolved by consensus, and in the case of disagreement, by consulting a third author (ZS). The primary outcomes include the association between BMI and completed suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidal ideation. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be conducted. Risk of bias and quality of evidence will be assessed. The results of this systematic review will inform health care professionals and researchers about whether BMI has a significant role in suicidal behavior and psychological well-being. PROSPERO CRD42014014739 .
    Systematic Reviews 04/2015; 4(1):52. DOI:10.1186/s13643-015-0038-y
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional meta-analyses quantify the relative effectiveness of two interventions based on direct (that is, head-to-head) evidence typically derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). For many medical conditions, however, multiple treatment options exist and not all have been compared directly. This issue limits the utility of traditional synthetic techniques such as meta-analyses, since these approaches can only pool and compare evidence across interventions that have been compared directly by source studies. Network meta-analyses (NMA) use direct and indirect comparisons to quantify the relative effectiveness of three or more treatment options. Interpreting the methodologic quality and results of NMAs may be challenging, as they use complex methods that may be unfamiliar to surgeons; yet for these surgeons to use these studies in their practices, they need to be able to determine whether they can trust the results of NMAs. The first judgment of trust requires an assessment of the credibility of the NMA methodology; the second judgment of trust requires a determination of certainty in effect sizes and directions. In this Users' Guide for Surgeons, Part I, we show the application of evaluation criteria for determining the credibility of a NMA through an example pertinent to clinical orthopaedics. In the subsequent article (Part II), we help readers evaluate the level of certainty NMAs can provide in terms of treatment effect sizes and directions.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 04/2015; 473(7). DOI:10.1007/s11999-015-4286-x · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the previous article (Network Meta-analysis: Users' Guide for Surgeons-Part I, Credibility), we presented an approach to evaluating the credibility or methodologic rigor of network meta-analyses (NMA), an innovative approach to simultaneously addressing the relative effectiveness of three or more treatment options for a given medical condition or disease state. In the second part of the Users' Guide for Surgeons, we discuss and demonstrate the application of criteria for determining the certainty in effect sizes and directions associated with a given treatment option through an example pertinent to clinical orthopaedics.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 04/2015; 473(7). DOI:10.1007/s11999-015-4287-9 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RÉSUMÉ Cette étude décrit les tendances de prescrire avant et après la mise en œuvre d'une stratégie provinciale visant à améliorer la prévention de l'ostéoporose et de la fracture dans les foyers de soins de longue durée (SLD) de l'Ontario. Les données ont été obtenues à partir d'une pharmacie qui a fourni pour 10 centres de SLD en 2007 et 166 foyers en 2012. Nos analyses ont utilisés la régression linéaire multiple et pondérée pour examiner les changements dans les niveaux ou les taux de prescriptions dans les établissements pour la vitamine D, le calcium et les médicaments pour l'ostéoporose de 2007 à 2012. Après cinq ans, l'augmentation des taux estimés pour la prescription de vitamine D, calcium et les médicaments pour l'ostéoporose, respectivement, était de 38,2 pour cent, 4 pour cent et 0,2 pour cent. Bien que l'étude n'a pas évalué la causalité, les résultats suggèrent que les activités à grande échelle dans le transfert des connaissances ont effectué des taux ameliorés de la prescription de vitamine D, bien que des efforts continus sont nécessaires pour cibler les foyers don’t les capacités de traduire les connaissances en pratique sont faibles.
    Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue canadienne du vieillissement 04/2015; 34(02):1-12. DOI:10.1017/S0714980815000057

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,547.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003–2015
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013–2014
    • Population Health Research Institute
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2012
    • Hamilton Health Sciences
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1999
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences
      London, Ontario, Canada