[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop parameters using a combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and videokeratography to detect early keratoconus.
Videokeratography, wavefront analysis, and measured OCT indices were performed on 180 normal eyes, 46 eyes with moderate keratoconus, 54 eyes with early keratoconus, 7 eyes with forme fruste keratoconus, and 16 eyes with keratoconus "suspect" to determine the most sensitive parameters for separating these groups.
A combination of videokeratography and OCT indices (inferior-superior [I-S] value and minimum pachymetry) was statistically the most significant in separating the keratoconus groups from normal eyes (P < .001). Using a newly derived index, the minimum pachymetry divided by the I-S value (pachymetry/asymmetry [PA]/I-S index) with a cut-off of 100, 100% of early and forme fruste keratoconus could be identified as being abnormal with 7 normals misclassified (misclassification rate 2.7%). By adding keratoconus "suspect" to the analysis and an I-S value of 1.2 as a cut-off point, 5 "suspects" were classified as normal and 11 normals as abnormal (misclassification rate 7.8%). The PA/I-S index, with a cut-off point of 100, reduced this misclassification rate to 4.4%.
These results suggest that OCT combined with videokeratography may be more useful for differentiating mild forms of keratoconus than videokeratography alone. [J Refract Surg. 2014;30(2):80-86.].
Journal of refractive surgery (Thorofare, N.J.: 1995) 02/2014; 30(2):80-7. DOI:10.3928/1081597X-20140120-02 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A c.57 C > T mutation in the seed region of MIR184 located at the 15q25.1 chromosomal region has been independently associated with autosomal dominant keratoconus with early-onset anterior polar cataract in the Northern Irish family and with autosomal dominant EDICT (Endothelial Dystrophy, Iris hypoplasia, Congenital cataracts, and stromal Thinning) syndrome. In this study we report a five-generation family originating in Galicia, Spain with early onset cataracts and variable corneal abnormalities which include non-ectatic corneal thinning and severe early-onset keratoconus. We identified a heterozygous c.57 C > T mutation in miR-184 in the proband and two additional affected relatives on the maternal side. This finding represents a third independent occurrence of this mutation in familiar ocular disease thus strengthening the link between miR-184 abnormalities and inherited eye defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located near or within the COL5A1 gene, at 9q34.2-q34.3 chromosomal region have been reported in association with central corneal thickness (CCT). Using family linkage analysis, we identified a keratoconus susceptibility locus at 9q34. These findings led us to perform an association study between COL5A1 variation and keratoconus susceptibility.
A Caucasian case-control cohort of 222 keratoconus patients and 3324 controls was selected as the discovery panel. An independent case-control panel of 304 cases and 518 controls and a family panel of 186 subjects were replicated for genotyping and association. Forty-four SNPs (21 for discovery and 23 for fine-mapping) spanning 300 kilobases in and around COL5A1 were genotyped and tested for genetic association. Logistic regression models implemented in PLINK were used to test for association in case controls. Generalized estimating equation models accounting for familial correlations implemented in genome-wide interaction analyses with family data were used for association testing in families.
Two CCT associated SNPs (rs1536482 and rs7044529 near and within COL5A1) were identified in the keratoconus discovery cohort (P values of 6.5 × 10(-3) and 7.4 × 10(-3)). SNP rs1536482 was replicated in the second case-control sample (P = 0.02), and SNP rs7044529 was replicated in a keratoconus family panel (P = 0.03). Meta P values of rs1536482 and rs7044529 in the keratoconus cohorts were 1.5 × 10(-4) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30) and 2.9 × 10(-3) (OR = 1.39). After Bonferroni correction, the association of SNP rs1536482 remained significant (P = 6.5 × 10(-3)).
SNPs in the COL5A1 region, which regulate normal variation in CCT, may play a role in the thinning associated with keratoconus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Keratoconus (KC) is a genetically heterogeneous corneal dystrophy. Previously, we performed 2 genome-wide linkage scans in a 4-generation autosomal dominant pedigree and repeatedly mapped a KC locus to a genomic region located on chromosome 5q overlapping the gene encoding the inhibitor of calpains, calpastatin (CAST). To test whether variants in CAST gene are involved in genetic susceptibility to KC, we performed genetic testing of polymorphic markers in CAST gene in family and case-control panels of patients with KC.
We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in CAST gene in 262 patients in 40 white KC families and in a white case-control panel with 304 cases and 518 controls. Generalized estimating equation models accounting for familial correlations implemented in GWAF program were used for association testing in families. Logistic regression models implemented in PLINK were performed to test the associations in case-control samples.
Genetic testing of the first set of 7 SNPs in familial samples revealed 2 tentative nominally significant markers (rs4869307, P = 0.03; rs27654, P = 0.07). Additional genotyping of 12 tightly spaced SNPs identified CAST SNP rs4434401 to be associated with KC in both familial and case-control panels with P values of 0.005 and 0.05, respectively, and with combined meta P value of familial and case-control cohorts of 0.002 or after Bonferroni correction of 0.04.
Linkage analysis and genetic association support involvement of CAST gene in the genetic susceptibility to KC. In silico analysis of CAST expression suggests differential regulation of calpain/calpastatin system in cornea as a potential mechanism of functional defect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central corneal thickness (CCT) is associated with eye conditions including keratoconus and glaucoma. We performed a meta-analysis on >20,000 individuals in European and Asian populations that identified 16 new loci associated with CCT at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). We further showed that 2 CCT-associated loci, FOXO1 and FNDC3B, conferred relatively large risks for keratoconus in 2 cohorts with 874 cases and 6,085 controls (rs2721051 near FOXO1 had odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-1.88, P = 2.7 × 10(-10), and rs4894535 in FNDC3B had OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.29-1.68, P = 4.9 × 10(-9)). FNDC3B was also associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (P = 5.6 × 10(-4); tested in 3 cohorts with 2,979 cases and 7,399 controls). Further analyses implicate the collagen and extracellular matrix pathways in the regulation of CCT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A r t i c l e s Human ocular biometric parameters comprise a set of highly herit-able and often correlated quantitative traits. One notable example is CCT, which has an estimated heritability of up to 95% (ref. 1). Whereas extreme corneal thinning is a dramatic clinical feature for rare congenital connective tissue disorders, including brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) and several types of osteogenesis imperfecta 2,3 , mildly reduced CCT is involved in more common and late-onset eye diseases. It is a hallmark of keratoconus and a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in individuals with ocular hypertension 4,5 . Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted on both European and Asian populations have identi-fied 11 CCT-associated loci 6–9 . Among these loci, mutations in ZNF469 (refs. 10–12), COL5A1 (ref. 13) and COL8A2 (refs. 14,15) are known to cause rare disorders of BCS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and corneal dystrophy, respectively. However, none was found to be associated with common eye diseases. Keratoconus is a common corneal ectasia, affecting 1 in 2,000 in the general population 16 . It is a progressive eye disease character-ized by thinning and asymmetrical conical protrusion of the cornea, which causes variable and severe visual impairment. Owing to the limited availability of medical treatments, keratoconus is one of the leading causes of corneal transplantation worldwide 17 . Two GWAS have been conducted on susceptibility for keratoconus, and these studies suggested some new genetic associations, but neither study reported genome-wide significant loci 18,19 . POAG is the most com-mon form of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blind-ness worldwide 20 . Several risk loci for POAG have been identified through early linkage and candidate gene studies 21,22 and recent Genome-wide association analyses identify multiple loci associated with central corneal thickness and keratoconus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratoconus is a bilateral noninflammatory progressive corneal disorder with complex genetic inheritance and a common cause for cornea transplantation in young adults. A genomewide linkage scan in keratoconus families identified a locus at 5q23.2, overlapping the gene coding for the lysyl oxidase (LOX). LOX encodes an enzyme responsible for collagen cross-linking in a variety of tissues including the cornea. Corneal collagen cross-linking with long-wave ultraviolet light and riboflavin is a promising new treatment for keratoconus. To determine whether LOX is a genetic determinant of the pathogenesis of keratoconus, we analyzed association results of LOX polymorphisms in two independent case-control samples and in keratoconus families.
Association results were analyzed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOX gene from a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) investigation in two independent panels of patients with keratoconus and controls and in keratoconus families.
Evidence of association was found at SNPs rs10519694 and rs2956540 located in intron 4 of LOX in the GWAS discovery case-control panel with P values of 2.3×10(-3) and 7×10(-3), respectively. The same two SNPs were found to be associated with keratoconus by family-based association testing with P values of 2.7×10(-3) and 7.7×10(-4), respectively. Meta P values of 4.0×10(-5) and 4.0×10(-7) were calculated for SNPs rs10519694 and rs2956540 by analyzing case-control and family samples simultaneously. Sequencing of LOX exons in a subset of keratoconus patients identified two polymorphisms, rs1800449 and rs2288393, located in LOX transcripts I and II, associated with keratoconus in case-control and family samples with a meta P value of 0.02.
Results provided strong genetic evidence that LOX variants lead to increased susceptibility to developing of keratoconus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratoconus is a condition in which the cornea progressively thins over time, and is a major cause for cornea transplantation. To identify keratoconus susceptibility regions, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a discovery and replication design. A discovery panel of 222 keratoconus Caucasian patients and 3324 Caucasian controls was genotyped using Illumina 370K beadchips. Further associated and fine-mapping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n= 4905) were genotyped in an independent replication case-control panel of 304 cases and 518 controls and a family panel of 307 subjects in 70 families. Logistic regression models implemented in PLINK were performed to test associations in case-control samples with and without principal component (PC) adjustments. Generalized estimation equation models accounting for familial correlations implemented in GWAF were used for association testing in families. No genome-wide associations were identified in the discovery GWAS panel. From the initial testing without adjustments for PCs, the top three SNPs located at 3p26 (rs6442925), 2q21.3 (rs4954218) and 19q13.3 (rs1428642) were identified with unadjusted P-values of 6.5 × 10(-8), 2.4 × 10(-7) and 3.1 × 10(-7), respectively. After adjustments for PCs, rs1428642 became the most significant through the genome with a P-value of 1.4 × 10(-6), while rs6442925 and rs4954218 were less significant (P= 1.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4)). SNP rs4954218 was confirmed in two independent replication panels with P-values of 0.004 and 0.009, respectively. Meta-analysis revealed a highest association at rs4954218 with adjusted P= 1.6 × 10(-7) (unadjusted P= 1.2 × 10(-9)). These findings suggest SNP rs4954218, located near the RAB3GAP1 gene, previously reported to be associated with corneal malformation, is a potential susceptibility locus for keratoconus.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2012; 21(2):421-9. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddr460 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratoconus is a progressive disorder of the cornea that can lead to severe visual impairment or blindness. Although several genomic regions have been linked to rare familial forms of keratoconus, no genes have yet been definitively identified for common forms of the disease.
Two genome-wide association scans were undertaken in parallel. The first used pooled DNA from an Australian cohort, followed by typing of top-ranked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in individual DNA samples. The second was conducted in individually genotyped patients, and controls from the USA. Tag SNPs around the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene were typed in three additional replication cohorts. Serum levels of HGF protein in normal individuals were assessed with ELISA and correlated with genotype.
The only SNP observed to be associated in both the pooled discovery and primary replication cohort was rs1014091, located upstream of the HGF gene. The nearby SNP rs3735520 was found to be associated in the individually typed discovery cohort (P = 6.1 × 10(-7)). Genotyping of tag SNPs around HGF revealed association at rs3735520 and rs17501108/rs1014091 in four of the five cohorts. Meta-analysis of all five datasets together yielded suggestive P values for rs3735520 (P = 9.9 × 10(-7)) and rs17501108 (P = 9.9 × 10(-5)). In addition, SNP rs3735520 was found to be associated with serum HGF level in normal individuals (P = 0.036).
Taken together, these results implicate genetic variation at the HGF locus with keratoconus susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The homoplasmic mitochondrial A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene leads to a mitochondrial translation disorder associated with deafness. The absence of disease in non-cochlear tissues in all patients, and in the cochlea in some patients, is not well understood. We used a system-based approach, including whole genome expression and biological function analysis, to elucidate the pathways underlying tissue specificity and clinical severity of this condition. Levels of over 48K RNA transcripts from EBV-transformed lymphoblasts of deaf and hearing individuals with the A1555G mutation and controls were obtained. Differentially expressed transcripts were functionally grouped using gene set enrichment analysis. Over 50 RNA binding proteins were differentially expressed between deaf and hearing individuals with the A1555G mutation (P-value of 2.56E-7), confirming previous genetic data implicating this pathway in the determination of the severity of hearing loss. Unexpectedly, the majority of cytoplasmic ribosomal genes were up-regulated in a coordinated fashion in individuals with the A1555G mutation versus controls (P-value of 3.91E-135). This finding was verified through real time RT-PCR, and through measuring of protein levels by flow cytometry. Analysis of expression levels of other differentially expressed genes suggests that this coordinated over-expression of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins might occur through the Myc/Max pathway. We propose that expression levels of RNA binding proteins help determine the severity of the cochlear phenotype, and that coordinated up-regulation of the cytoplasmic translation apparatus operates as a compensation mechanism in unaffected tissues of patients with maternal deafness associated with the A1555G mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tissue specificity of mitochondrial diseases is poorly understood. Recently, tissue-specific quantitative differences of the components of the mitochondrial translation system have been found to correlate with disease presentation in fatal hepatopathy caused by mutations in mitochondrial translation factor EFG1. MLASA is an autosomal recessive inherited progressive oxidative phosphorylation disorder that affects muscle and erythroid cells. The disease is caused by the homozygous point mutation C656T (R116W) in the catalytic domain of the pseudouridylate synthase 1 (PUS1) gene, which leads to a complete lack of pseudouridylation at the expected sites in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNAs. Despite the presence of these altered tRNAs, most tissues are unaffected, and even in muscle and erythroid cells the disease phenotype only slowly emerges over the course of years. In order to elucidate intracellular pathways through which the homozygous mutation leads to tissue-restricted phenotype, we performed microarray expression analysis of EBV-transformed lymphoblasts from MLASA patients, heterozygous parents, and controls using human Beadchip microarray with 47,296 transcripts. Genes coding for proteins involved in DNA transcription and its regulation, and metal binding proteins, demonstrated major differences in expression between patients and all other individuals with normal phenotype. Genes coding for ribosomal proteins differed significantly between individual with at least one copy of the mutated PUS1 gene and controls. These findings indicate that the lack of tRNA pseudouridylation can be overcome by compensatory changes in levels of ribosomal proteins, and that the disease phenotype in affected tissues is likely due to pleiotropic effects of PUS1p on non-tRNA molecules involved in DNA transcription and iron metabolism. Similar combinations of mechanisms may play a role in the tissue specificity of other mitochondrial disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) A1555G mutation has been associated with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic deafness in many families worldwide. Our previous investigation revealed that the A1555G mutation is a primary factor underlying the development of deafness but is not sufficient to produce a deafness phenotype. However, it has been proposed that nuclear-modifier genes modulate the phenotypic manifestation of the A1555G mutation. Here, we identified the nuclear-modifier gene TRMU, which encodes a highly conserved mitochondrial protein related to transfer RNA (tRNA) modification. Genotyping analysis of TRMU in 613 subjects from 1 Arab-Israeli kindred, 210 European (Italian pedigrees and Spanish pedigrees) families, and 31 Chinese pedigrees carrying the A1555G or the C1494T mutation revealed a missense mutation (G28T) altering an invariant amino acid residue (A10S) in the evolutionarily conserved N-terminal region of the TRMU protein. Interestingly, all 18 Arab-Israeli/Italian-Spanish matrilineal relatives carrying both the TRMU A10S and 12S rRNA A1555G mutations exhibited prelingual profound deafness. Functional analysis showed that this mutation did not affect importation of TRMU precursors into mitochondria. However, the homozygous A10S mutation leads to a marked failure in mitochondrial tRNA metabolisms, specifically reducing the steady-state levels of mitochondrial tRNA. As a consequence, these defects contribute to the impairment of mitochondrial-protein synthesis. Resultant biochemical defects aggravate the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with the A1555G mutation, exceeding the threshold for expressing the deafness phenotype. These findings indicate that the mutated TRMU, acting as a modifier factor, modulates the phenotypic manifestation of the deafness-associated 12S rRNA mutations.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2006; 79(2):291-302. DOI:10.1086/506389 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear modifier genes have been proposed to modulate the phenotypic manifestation of human mitochondrial 12S rRNA A1491G mutation associated with deafness in many families world-wide. Here we identified and characterized the putative nuclear modifier gene TRMU encoding a highly conserved mitochondrial protein related to tRNA modification. A 1937bp TRMU cDNA has been isolated and the genomic organization of TRMU has been elucidated. The human TRMU gene containing 11 exons encodes a 421 residue protein with a strong homology to the TRMU-like proteins of bacteria and other homologs. TRMU is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, but abundantly in tissues with high metabolic rates including heart, liver, kidney, and brain. Immunofluorescence analysis of human 143B cells expressing TRMU-GFP fusion protein demonstrated that the human Trmu localizes and functions in mitochondrion. Furthermore, we show that in families with the deafness-associated 12S rRNA A1491G mutation there is highly suggestive linkage and linkage disequilibrium between microsatellite markers adjacent to TRMU and the presence of deafness. These observations suggest that human TRMU may modulate the phenotypic manifestation of the deafness-associated mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutations.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2006; 342(4):1130-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.02.078 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A missense mutation in the PUS1 gene affecting a highly conserved amino acid has been associated with mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA), a rare autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder. The PUS1 gene encodes the enzyme pseudouridine synthase 1 (Pus1p) that is known to pseudouridylate tRNAs in other species. Total RNA was isolated from lymphoblastoid cell lines established from patients, parents, unaffected siblings, and unrelated controls, and the tRNAs were assayed for the presence of pseudouridine (Psi) at the expected positions. Mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNAs from MLASA patients are lacking modification at sites normally modified by Pus1p, whereas tRNAs from controls, unaffected siblings, or parents all have Psi at these positions. In addition, there was no Pus1p activity in an extract made from a cell line derived from a patient with MLASA. Immunohistochemical staining of Pus1p in cell lines showed nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial distribution of the protein, and there is no difference in staining between patients and unaffected family members. MLASA is thus associated with absent or greatly reduced tRNA pseudouridylation at specific sites, implicating this pathway in its molecular pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ALR/Lt, a mouse strain with strong resistance to type 1 diabetes, is closely related to autoimmune type 1 diabetes-prone NOD/Lt mice. ALR pancreatic beta cells are resistant to the beta cell toxin alloxan, combinations of cytotoxic cytokines, and diabetogenic NOD T-cell lines. Reciprocal F1 hybrids between either ALR and NOD or ALR and NON/Lt, showed that alloxan resistance was transmitted to F1 progeny only when ALR was the maternal parent. Here we show that the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of ALR mice contributes resistance to diabetes.
When F1 progeny from reciprocal outcrosses between ALR and NOD were backcrossed to NOD, a four-fold lower frequency of spontaneous type 1 diabetes development occurred when ALR contributed the mtDNA. Because of the apparent interaction between nuclear and mtDNA, the mitochondrial genomes were sequenced.
An ALR-specific sequence variation in the mt-Nd2 gene producing a leucine to methionine substitution at amino acid residue 276 in the NADH dehydrogenase 2 was discovered. An isoleucine to valine mutation in the mt-Co3 gene encoding COX3 distinguished ALR and NOD from NON and ALS. All four strains were distinguished by variation in a mt-encoded arginyl tRNA polyadenine tract. Shared alleles of mt-Co3 and mt-Tr comparing NOD and ALR allowed for exclusion of these two genes as candidates, implicating the mt-Nd2 variation as a potential ALR-derived type 1 diabetes protective gene.
The unusual resistance of ALR mice to both ROS-mediated and autoimmune type 1 diabete stresses reflects an interaction between the nuclear and mt genomes. The latter contribution is most likely via a single nucleotide polymorphism in mt-Nd2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenotypic expression of the deafness-associated mitochondrial A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene is influenced by aminoglycosides and complex inheritance of nuclear-encoded modifier genes. The position of a major nuclear modifier gene has been localized to chromosome 8p23.1, but the identification of this gene has remained elusive. Recently, we identified a second modifier gene, mitochondrial transcription factor B1 (TFB1M), involved in mitochondrial rRNA modification. In the present study, we tested three genes involved in mitochondrial tRNA or rRNA modification, and two genes associated with non-syndromic deafness, for linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 214 DNA samples from Spanish, Italian, and Arab-Israeli families with maternally inherited non-syndromic hearing loss. The multipoint non-parametric linkage analysis and transmission disequilibrium test testing were done using all families combined as well as divided based on linkage to the chromosome 8 locus and ethnicity. Two genes, MTO1 and GTPBP3, showed strongly suggestive linkage and significant LD results. Since both genes, as well as TFB1M, are involved in the process of mitochondrial RNA modification, it appears that the modification of mitochondrial RNA is an important regulatory pathway in the phenotypic expression of the deafness-associated mitochondrial A1555G mutation. This conclusion was supported by comparing linkage results of simulated genotypes with actual results for the four genes involved in mitochondrial RNA modification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is a rare, autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow. Linkage analysis and homozygosity testing of two families with MLASA localized the candidate region to 1.2 Mb on 12q24.33. Sequence analysis of each of the six known genes in this region, as well as four putative genes with expression in bone marrow or muscle, identified a homozygous missense mutation in the pseudouridine synthase 1 gene (PUS1) in all patients with MLASA from these families. The mutation is the only amino acid coding change in these 10 genes that is not a known polymorphism, and it is not found in 934 controls. The amino acid change affects a highly conserved amino acid, and appears to be in the catalytic center of the protein, PUS1p. PUS1 is widely expressed, and quantitative expression analysis of RNAs from liver, brain, heart, bone marrow, and skeletal muscle showed elevated levels of expression in skeletal muscle and brain. We propose deficient pseudouridylation of mitochondrial tRNAs as an etiology of MLASA. Identification of the pathophysiologic pathways of the mutation in these families may shed light on the tissue specificity of oxidative phosphorylation disorders.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2004; 74(6):1303-8. DOI:10.1086/421530 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenotypic expression of the deafness-associated homoplasmic A1555G mutation in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene varies from profound congenital hearing loss to normal hearing. It has been shown that this variability in clinical expression in most patients is due to the complex inheritance of multiple nuclear-encoded modifier genes. Human mitochondrial transcription factor B1 (TFB1M) has been proposed as a candidate for being such a modifier, since it methylates adenine residues in the adjacent loop of the A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene. Polymorphic markers within and adjacent to the TFB1M gene were genotyped in 214 individuals from 41 multiplex families with the A1555G mutation of Spanish, Italian, and Arab-Israeli origin. Multipoint non-parametric linkage analysis of all families combined revealed an NPL score of 1.7 (P = 0.05), and a Lod score of 1.4 (P = 0.04). Linkage disequilibrium by the Transmission Disequilibrium Test at D6S1577, a microsatellite adjacent to TFB1M, showed preferential non-transmission of an allele to affected individuals with chi2 = 8.76; P = 0.003. Sequence analysis of the coding region of the gene and testing of all intragenic SNPs did not reveal a putative causative mutation. These data provide suggestive evidence that TFB1M is a nuclear-encoded modifier gene for phenotypic expression of the A1555G mutation, and that the effect may occur through a regulatory or splicing mutation.