Moran Benhar

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel

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Publications (21)184.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system, which is best known for its essential role in antioxidant defense and redox homeostasis, is increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways. In the present study, we asked if the thioredoxin system in macrophages might regulate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent gene expression and consequent responses.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Protein S-nitrosylation, the nitric oxide-mediated posttranslational modification of cysteine residues, has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism in diverse cellular processes. Yet, knowledge about the S-nitrosoproteome in different cell types and cellular contexts is still limited and many questions remain regarding the precise roles of protein S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation. Here we present a novel strategy to identify reversibly nitrosylated proteins. Our approach is based on nitrosothiol capture and enrichment using a thioredoxin trap mutant, followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry. Employing this approach, we identified more than 400 putative nitroso-proteins in S-nitrosocysteine-treated human monocytes and about 200 nitrosylation substrates in endotoxin/cytokine-stimulated mouse macrophages. The large majority of these represent novel nitrosylation targets and they include many proteins with key functions in cellular homeostasis and signaling. Biochemical and functional experiments in vitro and in cells validated the proteomic results and further suggested a role for thioredoxin in the denitrosylation and activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the protein kinase MEK1. Our findings contribute to better understanding of the macrophage S-nitrosoproteome and the role of thioredoxin-mediated denitrosylation in nitric oxide signaling. The approach described here may prove generally useful for the identification and exploration of nitroso-proteomes under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica is a gastrointestinal protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis, a disease which has a worldwide distribution with substantial morbidity and mortality. Nitrosative stress, which is generated by innate immune cells, is one of the various environmental challenges that E. histolytica encounters during its life cycle. Although the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the regulation of gene expression in this parasite have been previously investigated, our knowledge on S-nitrosylated proteins in E.histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale detection of S-nitrosylated (SNO) proteins in E.histolytica trophozoites that were treated with the NO donor, S-nitrosocysteine by resin-assisted capture (RAC). We found that proteins involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, translation, protein transport, and adherence to target cells such as the heavy subunit of Gal/GalNac lectin are among the S-nitrosylated proteins that were enriched by SNO-RAC. We also found that the S-nitrosylated cysteine residues in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of Gal/GalNAc lectin impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E.histolytica adherence to host cells. Collectively, these results advance our understanding of the mechanism of reduced E.histolytica adherence to mammalian cells by NO and emphasize the importance of NO as a regulator of key physiological functions in E.histolytica.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91518. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), formed by nitric oxide (NO)-mediated S-nitrosylation, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a prominent reactive oxygen species, are implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes. Recent research has shown that the cellular action and metabolism of SNOs and H2O2 involve overlapping, thiol-based mechanisms, but how these reactive species may affect each other's fate and function is not well understood. In the present study we investigated how NO/SNO may affect the redox cycle of mammalian peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1), a representative of the 2-Cys Prxs, a group of thioredoxin (Trx)-dependent peroxidases. We found that, both in a cell-free system and in cells, NO/SNO donors, such as S-nitrosocysteine and S-nitrosoglutathione, readily induced the S-nitrosylation of Prx1, causing structural and functional alterations. In particular, nitrosylation promoted disulfide formation involving the pair of catalytic cysteines (Cys52 and Cys173) and disrupted the oligomeric structure of Prx1, leading to loss of peroxidase activity. A highly potent inhibition of the peroxidase catalytic reaction by NO/SNO was seen in assays employing the coupled Prx-Trx system. In this setting, S-nitrosocysteine (10 microM) effectively blocked the Trx-mediated regeneration of oxidized Prx1. This effect appeared to be due to both competition between S-nitrosocysteine and Prx1 for the Trx system and direct modulation by S-nitrosocysteine of Trx reductase activity. Our findings, that NO/SNO target both Prx and Trx reductase, may have implications for understanding the impact of nitrosylation on cellular redox homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system (TrxR/Trx1) plays a major role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Disruption of the TrxR-Trx1 system keeps Trx1 in the oxidized state leading to cell death through activation of the ASK1-Trx1 apoptotic pathway. The potential mechanism and ability of tri- and tetra oligopeptides derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site to mimic and enhance Trx1 cellular activity, was examined. The Trx mimetics peptides (TXM) protected insulinoma INS832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability. The TXM peptides were effective in inhibiting AuF-induced MAPK, JNK and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, in correlation with preventing caspase-3 cleavage and thereby PARP-1 dissociation. The ability to form a disulfide-bridge-like conformation was estimated from molecular dynamics simulations. The TXM peptides restored insulin secretion and displayed Trx1 denitrosylase activity. Their potency was 10 to 100 fold higher than redox reagents like NAC, AD4, or ascorbic acid. Unable to reverse ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TXM-CB3 (NAc-Cys-Pro-Cys amide) appeared to function in part, through inhibiting ASK1-Trx dissociation. These highly effective anti-apoptotic effects of Trx1 mimetic peptides exhibited in INS832/13 cells could become valuable in treating adverse oxidative-stress related disorders such as diabetes.
    Biochemical pharmacology 01/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein S-nitrosylation is a reversible protein modification implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological regulation of protein function. In obesity, skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with increased S-nitrosylation of insulin-signaling proteins. However, whether adipose tissue is similarly affected in obesity and, if so, what are the causes and functional consequences of increased S-nitrosylation in this tissue are unknown. Total protein S-nitrosylation was increased in intra-abdominal adipose tissue of obese humans and in high fat-fed or leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Both the insulin receptor β-subunit and Akt were S-nitrosylated, correlating with body weight. Elevated protein and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and decreased protein levels of thioredoxin reductase were associated with increased adipose tissue S-nitrosylation. Cultured differentiated pre-adipocyte cell lines exposed to the NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) or S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine exhibited diminished insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt but not of GSK3 nor of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Yet the anti-lipolytic action of insulin was markedly impaired in both cultured adipocytes and in mice injected with GSNO prior to administration of insulin. In cells, impaired ability of insulin to diminish phosphorylated PKA substrates in response to isoproterenol suggested impaired insulin-induced activation of PDE3B. Consistently, increased S-nitrosylation of PDE3B was detected in adipose tissue of high fat-fed obese mice. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Cys-768 and Cys-1040, two putative sites for S-nitrosylation adjacent to the substrate-binding site of PDE3B, accounted for ∼50% of its GSNO-induced S-nitrosylation. Collectively, PDE3B and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin may constitute novel targets for increased S-nitrosylation of adipose tissue in obesity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2011; 286(35):30433-30443. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein S-nitrosylation is a reversible protein modification implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological regulation of protein function. In obesity, skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with increased S-nitrosylation of insulin-signaling proteins. However, whether adipose tissue is similarly affected in obesity and, if so, what are the causes and functional consequences of increased S-nitrosylation in this tissue are unknown. Total protein S-nitrosylation was increased in intra-abdominal adipose tissue of obese humans and in high fat-fed or leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Both the insulin receptor β-subunit and Akt were S-nitrosylated, correlating with body weight. Elevated protein and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and decreased protein levels of thioredoxin reductase were associated with increased adipose tissue S-nitrosylation. Cultured differentiated pre-adipocyte cell lines exposed to the NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) or S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine exhibited diminished insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt but not of GSK3 nor of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Yet the anti-lipolytic action of insulin was markedly impaired in both cultured adipocytes and in mice injected with GSNO prior to administration of insulin. In cells, impaired ability of insulin to diminish phosphorylated PKA substrates in response to isoproterenol suggested impaired insulin-induced activation of PDE3B. Consistently, increased S-nitrosylation of PDE3B was detected in adipose tissue of high fat-fed obese mice. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Cys-768 and Cys-1040, two putative sites for S-nitrosylation adjacent to the substrate-binding site of PDE3B, accounted for ∼50% of its GSNO-induced S-nitrosylation. Collectively, PDE3B and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin may constitute novel targets for increased S-nitrosylation of adipose tissue in obesity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(35):30433-43. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible protein cysteine nitrosylation (S-nitrosylation) is a common mechanism utilized in signal transduction and other diverse cellular processes. Protein denitrosylation is largely mediated by cysteine denitrosylases, but the functional scope and significance of these enzymes are incompletely defined, in part due to limited information on their cognate substrates. Here, using Jurkat cells, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), coupled to the biotin switch technique and mass spectrometry, to identify 46 new substrates of one denitrosylase, thioredoxin 1. These substrates are involved in a wide range of cellular functions including cytoskeletal organization, cellular metabolism, signal transduction, and redox homeostasis. We also identified multiple S-nitrosylated proteins that are not substrates of thioredoxin 1. A verification of our principal findings was made in a second cell type (RAW264.7 cells). Our results point to thioredoxin 1 as a major protein denitrosylase in mammalian cells and demonstrate the utility of quantitative proteomics for large-scale identification of denitrosylase substrates.
    Biochemistry 08/2010; 49(32):6963-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide exerts a plethora of biological effects via protein S-nitrosylation, a redox-based reaction that converts a protein Cys thiol to a S-nitrosothiol. However, although the regulation of protein S-nitrosylation has been the subject of extensive study, much less is known about the systems governing protein denitrosylation. Most recently, thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductases were shown to mediate both basal and stimulus-coupled protein denitrosylation. We now demonstrate that protein denitrosylation by thioredoxin is regulated dynamically by thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), a thioredoxin inhibitor. Endogenously synthesized nitric oxide represses Txnip, thereby facilitating thioredoxin-mediated denitrosylation. Autoregulation of denitrosylation thus allows cells to survive nitrosative stress. Our findings reveal that denitrosylation of proteins is dynamically regulated, establish a physiological role for thioredoxin in protection from nitrosative stress, and suggest new approaches to manipulate cellular S-nitrosylation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(52):36160-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S-Nitrosylation, the redox-based modification of Cys thiol side chains by nitric oxide, is a common mechanism in signal transduction. Dysregulated S-nitrosylation contributes to a range of human pathologies. New roles for protein denitrosylation in regulating S-nitrosylation are being revealed. Recently, several denitrosylases - the enzymes that mediate Cys denitrosylation - have been discovered, of which two enzyme systems in particular, the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase and thioredoxin systems, have been shown to be physiologically relevant. These highly conserved enzymes regulate signalling through multiple classes of receptors and influence diverse cellular responses. In addition, they protect from nitrosative stress in microorganisms, mammals and plants, thereby exerting profound effects on host-microbe interactions and innate immunity.
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 10/2009; 10(10):721-32. · 37.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein S-nitrosylation, the posttranslational modification of cysteine thiols to form S-nitrosothiols, is a principle mechanism of nitric oxide-based signaling. Studies have demonstrated myriad roles for S-nitrosylation in organisms from bacteria to humans, and recent efforts have greatly advanced our scientific understanding of how this redox-based modification is dynamically regulated during physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The focus of this review is the biotin-switch technique (BST), which has become a mainstay assay for detecting S-nitrosylated proteins in complex biological systems. Potential pitfalls and modern adaptations of the BST are discussed, as are future directions for this assay in the burgeoning field of protein S-nitrosylation.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide acts substantially in cellular signal transduction through stimulus-coupled S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. The mechanisms that might subserve protein denitrosylation in cellular signaling remain uncharacterized. Our search for denitrosylase activities focused on caspase-3, an exemplar of stimulus-dependent denitrosylation, and identified thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase in a biochemical screen. In resting human lymphocytes, thioredoxin-1 actively denitrosylated cytosolic caspase-3 and thereby maintained a low steady-state amount of S-nitrosylation. Upon stimulation of Fas, thioredoxin-2 mediated denitrosylation of mitochondria-associated caspase-3, a process required for caspase-3 activation, and promoted apoptosis. Inhibition of thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductases enabled identification of additional substrates subject to endogenous S-nitrosylation. Thus, specific enzymatic mechanisms may regulate basal and stimulus-induced denitrosylation in mammalian cells.
    Science 06/2008; 320(5879):1050-4. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs), prototypic G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), play a critical role in regulating numerous physiological processes. The GPCR kinases (GRKs) curtail G-protein signaling and target receptors for internalization. Nitric oxide (NO) and/or S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) can prevent the loss of beta-AR signaling in vivo, but the molecular details are unknown. Here we show in mice that SNOs increase beta-AR expression and prevent agonist-stimulated receptor downregulation; and in cells, SNOs decrease GRK2-mediated beta-AR phosphorylation and subsequent recruitment of beta-arrestin to the receptor, resulting in the attenuation of receptor desensitization and internalization. In both cells and tissues, GRK2 is S-nitrosylated by SNOs as well as by NO synthases, and GRK2 S-nitrosylation increases following stimulation of multiple GPCRs with agonists. Cys340 of GRK2 is identified as a principal locus of inhibition by S-nitrosylation. Our studies thus reveal a central molecular mechanism through which GPCR signaling is regulated.
    Cell 06/2007; 129(3):511-22. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S-Nitrosylation, the covalent addition of a nitrogen monoxide group to a cysteine thiol, has been shown to modify the function of a broad spectrum of mammalian, plant, and microbial proteins and thereby to convey the ubiquitous influence of nitric oxide on cellular signal transduction and host defense. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysregulated, diminished, or excessive S-nitrosylation may be implicated in a wide range of pathophysiological conditions. A recent study establishes a functional relationship between inhibitory S-nitrosylation of the redox enzyme protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), defects in regulation of protein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and neurodegeneration. Further, an examination of human brains afflicted with Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease supports a causal role for the S-nitrosylation of PDI and consequent ER stress in these prevalent neurodegenerative disorders.
    ACS Chemical Biology 08/2006; 1(6):355-8. · 5.44 Impact Factor
  • Moran Benhar, Jonathan S Stamler
    Nature Cell Biology 08/2005; 7(7):645-6. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates the MAP kinases, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK (p38). These phosphorylated intermediates at the stress-activated pathway induce expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to inflammatory responses and pathological damages involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we report that N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB), chelates Cu(2+), which catalyzes free radical formation, and prevents ROS-induced activation of JNK, p38 and MMP-9. In the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, oral administration of AD4 drastically reduced the clinical signs, inflammation, MMP-9 activity, and protected axons from demylination damages. In agreement with the in vitro studies, we propose that ROS scavenging by AD4 in MOG-treated animals prevented MMP's induction and subsequent damages through inhibition of MAPK pathway. The low toxicity of AD4 coupled with BBB penetration makes this compound an excellent potential candidate for the therapy of MS and other neurodegenerative disorders.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2004; 89(5):1241-51. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (CDDP) is an efficient DNA-damaging antitumor agent employed for the treatment of various human cancers. CDDP activates nuclear as well as cytoplasmatic signaling pathways involved in regulation of the cell cycle, damage repair and programmed cell death. Here we report that CDDP also activates a membrane-integrated protein, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We show that EGFR is activated in response to CDDP in various types of cells that overexpress the receptor, including transformed human glioma cells and human breast tumor cells. CDDP-induced EGFR activation requires its kinase activity, as it can be blocked by an EGFR kinase inhibitor or by expression of a kinase dead receptor. We also show that CDDP-induced EGFR activation is independent of receptor ligand. CDDP induces the activation of c-Src, and EGFR activation is blocked by Src-family inhibitor PP1, suggesting that Src kinases mediate CDDP-induced EGFR activation. We propose that EGFR activation in response to CDDP is a survival response, since inhibition of EGFR activation enhances CDDP-induced death. These findings show that signals generated by DNA damage can modulate EGFR activity, and argue that interfering with CDDP-induced EGFR activation in tumor cells might be a useful approach to sensitize these cells to genotoxic agents.
    Oncogene 01/2003; 21(57):8723-31. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase B/Akt (PKB) is an anti-apoptotic protein kinase that has strongly elevated activity in human malignancies. We therefore initiated a program to develop PKB inhibitors, "Aktstatins". We screened about 500 compounds for PKB inhibitors, using a radioactive assay and an ELISA assay that we established for this purpose. These compounds were produced as combinatorial libraries, designed using the structure of the selective PKA inhibitor H-89 as a starting point. We have identified a successful lead compound, which inhibits PKB activity in vitro and in cells overexpressing active PKB. The new compound shows reversed selectivity to H-89: In contrast to H-89, which inhibits PKA 70 times better than PKB, the new compound, NL-71-101, inhibits PKB 2.4-fold better than PKA. The new compound, but not H-89, induces apoptosis in tumor cells in which PKB is amplified. We have identified structural features in NL-71-101 that are significant for the specificity and that can be used for future development and optimization of PKB inhibitors.
    Biochemistry 09/2002; 41(32):10304-14. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anticancer therapy is frequently efficient in early stages of the disease, whereas advanced tumors are usually resistant to the same treatments. The molecular basis for this change is not entirely understood. Many anticancer agents are DNA- or cytoskeleton-damaging drugs that show some specificity towards dividing cells. However, recent studies show that these agents also activate stress-signaling cascades that may play a role in eliciting the observed therapeutic effects. We discuss recent findings that suggest that induction of stress signaling in oncogenically transformed cells is integrated into apoptotic pathways. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), which are potentiated in recently transformed cells, emerge as key effectors of cell death. In advanced tumors, however, these agents are downregulated and, consequently, death signaling is suppressed. Such changes in ROS and SAPK activity levels during the course of tumor development may underlie the changes in responsiveness to anticancer therapy.
    EMBO Reports 06/2002; 3(5):420-5. · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many primary tumors as well as transformed cell lines display high sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this sensitivity are largely unknown. Here we show that the sensitization of transformed cells to stress stimuli is due to the potentiation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Activation of these pathways by the antitumor drug cis-platin (CDDP) and by other stress agents is markedly enhanced and is induced by lower stress doses in NIH 3T3 cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor, HER1-2 kinase, or oncogenic Ras than in nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. Inhibition of stress kinase activity by specific inhibitors reduces CDDP-mediated cell death in transformed cells, whereas overactivation of stress kinase pathways augments cells death. Potentiation of stress kinases is a common feature of cells transformed by different oncogenes, including cells derived from human tumors, and is shown here to be independent of the activity of the particular transforming oncoprotein. We further show that the mechanism that underlies potentiation of stress kinases in transformed cells involves reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose production is elevated in these cells. JNK/p38 activation is inhibited by antioxidants and in particular by inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and NADPH oxidase. Conversely, by artificially elevating ROS levels in nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells we were able to induce potentiation of JNK/p38 activation. Taken together, our findings suggest that ROS-dependent potentiation of stress kinase pathways accounts for the sensitization of transformed cells to stress and anticancer drugs.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 11/2001; 21(20):6913-26. · 5.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
184.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      • Department of Biochemistry
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 2006–2009
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2001–2004
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • Department of Biological Chemistry
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel