R Schwinzer

Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

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Publications (107)352.65 Total impact

  • Annegret Plege, Katja Borns, Reinhard Schwinzer
    Xenotransplantation 01/2007; 14(4):371-371. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD45, the leucocyte common antigen, is a haematopoietic cell specific tyrosine phosphatase. Human polymorphic CD45 variants are associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases and alter the phenotype and function of lymphocytes, establishing CD45 as an important regulator of immune function. Here we report four patients with diverse diseases with unusual clinical features. All four have the C77G polymorphism of CD45 exon 4, which alters the splicing and CD45RA/CD45R0 phenotype of lymphocytes. We suggest that C77G may be a contributing factor in these unusual cases.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 01/2007; 146(3):448-54. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Xenotransplantation 01/2007; 14(4):371-372. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The applicability of tightly regulated transgenesis in domesticated animals is severely hampered by the present lack of knowledge of regulatory mechanisms and the long generation intervals. To capitalize on the tightly controlled expression of mammalian genes made possible by using prokaryotic control elements, we have used a single-step transduction to introduce an autoregulative tetracycline-responsive bicistronic expression cassette (NTA) into transgenic pigs. Transgenic pigs carrying one NTA cassette showed a mosaic transgene expression restricted to single muscle fibers. In contrast, crossbred animals carrying two NTA cassettes with different transgenes, revealed a broad tissue-independent and tightly regulated expression of one cassette, but not of the other one. The expression pattern correlated inversely with the methylation status of the NTA transcription start sites indicating epigenetic silencing of one NTA cassette. This first approach on tetracycline regulated transgene expression in farm animals will be valuable for developing precisely controlled expression systems for transgenes in large animals relevant for biomedical and agricultural biotechnology.
    The FASEB Journal 07/2006; 20(8):1200-2. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Xenotransplantation 01/2006; 13(6):576-587. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 77C-->G mutation in exon A of the human CD45 gene occurs with low frequency in healthy individuals. An enhanced frequency of 77C-->G individuals has been reported in cohorts of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune hepatitis, and HIV-1. To investigate the mechanisms by which the variant allele may contribute to disease susceptibility, we compared T cell reactivity in heterozygous carriers of the mutation (healthy individuals and multiple sclerosis patients) and wild-type controls. In vitro-generated T cell lines and freshly isolated CD4+CD45R0+ primed/memory T cells from 77C-->G individuals aberrantly expressed CD45RA isoforms and showed enhanced proliferation and IL-2 production when stimulated with anti-TCR/CD3 mAb or Ag. Mutant T cell lines contained a more active pool of p56lck tyrosine kinase and responded with increased phosphorylation of Zap70 and TCR-zeta and an enhanced Ca2+ flux to TCR/CD3 stimulation. These data suggest that 77C-->G may act as a risk factor for certain diseases by increasing the intensity of TCR signaling.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2006; 176(2):931-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) peptide complexes can associate with lipid rafts, and this is a prerequisite for their recruitment to the immunological synapse and for efficient T cell stimulation. One of the most often used criterion for raft association is the resistance to extraction by the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) at low temperature. For MHC II, a variety of detergents have been used under different conditions, leading to variable and often conflicting conclusions about the association of MHC II with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). To clarify whether these inconsistencies were caused by variations in the isolation protocols or reflect different biochemical properties of MHC II lipid complexes, we used two standardized procedures for the isolation of membranes resistant to TX-100, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), or Brij 98. Our results suggest that some of the reported variations in the association of MHC II with DRMs are caused by differences in the methods. We also show that in our hands, specific and efficient flotation of MHC II and the MHC II-associated invariant chain from mouse B-lymphoma cells was only achieved with Brij 98, but not with TX-100 and CHAPS. We furthermore used DRMs prepared from hen egg lysozyme-fed B-lymphoma cells to activate the T cell hybridoma 3A9. In agreement with our biochemical data, T cell activation could only be achieved with Brij 98- but not with TX-100-resistant membranes. Thus, MHC II and also the invariant chain belong to a set of proteins comprising the T cell receptor, prominin, and the prion protein, which reside in membrane environments distinct from conventional lipid rafts.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 12/2005; 78(5):1097-105. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation of porcine organs into human recipients is a potential option for overcoming the dramatic shortage of suitable donor organs. To date, transgenic modification of pig organs has achieved partial or temporal reduction of xenograft rejection by inhibition of hyperacute rejection. Expression of human tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in transgenic pigs might be a strategy for controlling posthyperacute rejection mechanisms mediated by cellular components of the immune system. The objective of this study was generation of a transgenic pig model to evaluate the potential of this strategy for xenotransplantation. Transgenic pigs were generated by microinjection of an expression vector for human TRAIL under control of the murine H-2K promoter. Expression of the transgene was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biologic activity of TRAIL on transgenic porcine lymphocytes was evaluated in co-culture experiments using Jurkat and Hut 78.2 cells as targets. In three lines of transgenic pigs, human TRAIL protein was detected in the membrane fractions of various tissues. Highest expression levels were observed in spleen and lung. Human TRAIL expression on porcine lymphocytes was augmented on activation of cells. Transgenic pig lymphoblasts induced apoptosis in Jurkat and Hut 78.2 cells, which was inhibited by neutralizing anti-TRAIL antibodies, demonstrating a TRAIL-specific effect. Ubiquitous expression of human TRAIL was achieved in transgenic pigs without detrimental side effects. Pigs expressing biologically active human TRAIL will be used for future xenotransplantation experiments to modulate primate anti-pig cellular immune responses.
    Transplantation 08/2005; 80(2):222-30. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • H-T Do, W Baars, R Schwinzer
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2004; 37(1):51-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • T Bedke, W Baars, K Borns, R Schwinzer
    Transplantation 01/2004; 78. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A point mutation in exon A (C to G transversion at position 77) of human PTPRC (CD45) has recently been associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) for at least a subgroup of patients. In the present report, we studied the frequency of the 77C-->G transversion in two other autoimmune diseases namely systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The mutation was found with significantly enhanced frequency in patients suffering from SSc suggesting that PTPRC could play a role as susceptibility gene not only in MS but also in other autoimmune diseases. Further understanding of the mode of interaction of mutant PTPRC with other susceptibility genes may uncover mechanisms common in various autoimmune disorders.
    Genes and Immunity 03/2003; 4(2):168-9. · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • Tanja Bedke, Wiebke Baars, Reinhard Schwinzer
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-mediated targeting of pig costimulatory molecules is assumed to be a possible strategy to achieve donor-specific tolerance after xenotransplantation. However, porcine molecules of the B7 family (e.g. CD86) are expressed on typical antigen presenting cells (APC) and also on vascular endothelial cells. Thus, in vascularized porcine xenografts the usage of therapeutic anti-B7 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) might be associated with damage of the endothelium. In the present study we asked whether modulation of human T cell reactivity can be obtained by targeting molecules selectively expressed on pig leucocytes. MAb directed to pig CD45 were tested for their capacity to modulate the in vitro activation of human T cells induced by porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Porcine stimulatory cells induced significant proliferation of human T cells. In the presence of porcine CD45 mAb human T cell responses were reduced by 30-40%. The inhibitory effects were most pronounced when CD45RA mAb were used whereas mAb directed to CD45RC isoforms only moderately inhibited human T cell activation. The tested antibodies had no effects on human T cell activation induced by mitogens or by alloantigen. Manipulation of CD45 molecules on pig leucocytes may reduce their potential to stimulate human T cells. In recipients of vascularized porcine xenografts the usage of anti-pig CD45 mAb could be an approach to block the direct pathway of T cell activation initiated by porcine APC without affecting the endothelium of the graft.
    Annals of transplantation: quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society 02/2003; 8(3):35-8. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after liver transplantation is uncommon, and the outcome is almost always fatal. Since 1987, about 30 cases have been described, and patient survival is mostly exceptional. A 29-year-old man underwent retransplantation due to chronic cholestatic syndrome, 5 years after his first liver transplantation. Indication for the first liver transplantation was acute liver failure caused by exsiccosis. After the second transplantation, the patient had an initially uneventful course, developing thrombocytopenia at day 21 followed by skin rash and septic complications. Diagnosis of acute GVHD was made by using serological techniques for HLA-A and HLA-DRB and subsequently by fluorogenic sequence-specific primed polymerase chain reaction. In addition, donor lymphocytes were marked by immunohistochemical methods via biopsies of the skin. Immunosuppressive therapy was withdrawn to allow the patient's own immune system to eliminate donor cells. By withdrawing the immunosuppressive therapy, clinical and morphological signs of GVHD vanished. The patient is doing well without recurrence 13 months after transplantation. Withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy is a promising approach in the treatment of acute GVHD to allow the patient's immune system to reconstitute itself, reject offending lymphocytes, and avoid lethal septic complications.
    Transplantation 02/2002; 73(2):307-10. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The critical shortage of human donor organs has generated growing interest for porcine to human xenotransplantation. The major immunological barrier to xenotransplantation is the hyperacute rejection (HAR) response that is mediated by preformed xenoreactive antibodies and complement. A promising strategy to control the complement activation, is the expression of human complement regulatory proteins in transgenic animals. We have used the human early cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter to drive expression of the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) in transgenic pigs. A total of eight live transgenic founder animals was born from which five transgenic lines could be established. mRNA analysis and Western blotting revealed high expression of hCD59 in heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and skin in animals of lines 1 and 5, as well as in the pancreas of four lines. This pattern of expression was confirmed by immunhistological staining. A cell-specific expression in heart and kidney tissue of transgenic lines 1 and 5 was determined. Primary fibroblasts and endothelial cell cultures derived from the aorta of transgenic pigs showed a significantly diminished sensitivity against the challenge with xenoreactive human antibodies and complement whereas non-transgenic control cells were highly susceptible to complement mediated lysis. Ex vivo perfusion of kidneys with pooled human blood revealed a significant protective effect of hCD59 against HAR. The average survival of transgenic kidneys was significantly extended (P<0.05) over nontransgenic controls (207.5+/-54.6 vs. 57.5+/-64.5 min). These data support the concept that hCD59 protects nonprimate cells against human complement mediated lysis and suggest that donor pigs transgenic for hCD59 could play a crucial role in clinical xenotransplantation. Two of five hCD59 transgenic lines showed strong hCD59 expression in several organs relevant for xenotransplantation and a protective effect against HAR. This indicates that the use of the CMV-promoter can facilitate the selection process for optimized transgene expression.
    Transplantation 12/2001; 72(12):1898-906. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transgenic expression of apoptosis-inducing molecules could be a strategy to protect cells and tissues from destruction by apoptosis-susceptible effector T cells. Some evidence for the potency of this approach has been obtained in mouse and rat transplantation models. However, limited data are available on the capacity of apoptosis-inducing molecules to modulate human alloimmune responses. In this study we analyzed the in vitro consequences of an interaction of human T cells with allogeneic 293 cells and 293 transfectants stably expressing high levels of the apoptosis-inducing CD95 ligand (CD95L). Both, CD95L(-) and CD95L(+) 293 cells were able to activate allogeneic T cells as demonstrated by comparable CD25 expression at day 2 of culture. The analysis of viable T cells at day 7, however, revealed anti-293 cytotoxic activity only in cultures that had been stimulated with CD95L(-) 293 cells. Alloactivated effector T cells lysed CD95L(-) and CD95L(+) 293 targets with similar efficiency when tested in a 4-h 51Cr-release assay. Prolongation of the effector phase to 20 h resulted in a further increase in the destruction of CD95L(-) target cells, whereas lysis of CD95L(+) targets remained low. These data suggest that genetically engineered expression of CD95L on cells or tissues could be an approach to control human T cell reactivity towards allografts. During the induction of an alloimmune response depletion of cytotoxic precursor cells may be obtained by overexpressing CD95L on stimulatory cells; CD95L expression on graft tissue might limit T cell-mediated destruction of the transplant during the effector phase of the response.
    European Journal of Immunology 08/2001; 31(7):2217-26. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is widely accepted that a dysregulated immune response against brain resident antigens is central to its yet unknown pathogenesis. Although there is evidence that the development of MS has a genetic component, specific genetic factors are largely unknown. Here we investigated the role of a point mutation in the gene (PTPRC) encoding protein-tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type C (also known as CD45) in the heterozygous state in the development of MS. The nucleotide transition in exon 4 of the gene locus interferes with mRNA splicing and results in altered expression of CD45 isoforms on immune cells. In three of four independent case-control studies, we demonstrated an association of the mutation with MS. We found the PTPRC mutation to be linked to and associated with the disease in three MS nuclear families. In one additional family, we found the same variant CD45 phenotype, with an as-yet-unknown origin, among the members affected with MS. Our findings suggest an association of the mutation in PTPRC with the development of MS in some families.
    Nature Genetics 01/2001; 26(4):495-9. · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • H J Dulat, W Baars, K Wonigeit, R Schwinzer
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2001; 33(1-2):262-3. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • R Schwinzer, W Baars, R Siefken
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2001; 33(1-2):433-4. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 09/2000; 32(5):866. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulation of resting human T cells with the CD28-specific mAb BW 828 induces proliferation and cytokine synthesis without further requirement for TCR coengagement. This observation prompted us to postulate that signal 2 (costimulatory signal) alone without signal 1 (TCR signal) can activate T cells. To test whether this putative function of CD28 is mediated via a particular signaling pathway, we compared early signaling events initiated in resting T cells by the stimulatory mAb BW 828 with signals triggered by the nonstimulating CD28 mAb 9.3. Stimulation of T cells with BW 828 induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+, but did not lead to detectable activation of the protein kinases p56(lck) and c-Raf-1. This pathway resulted in the induction of the transcription factors NF-kappa B, NF-AT, and proteins binding to the CD28 response element of the IL-2 promoter. On the other hand, stimulation of T cells with mAb 9.3 increased the level of intracellular Ca2+ and triggered the activation of p56(lck) and c-Raf-1, but was unable to induce the binding of transcription factors to the IL-2 promoter. In contrast to the differential signaling of BW 828 and 9.3 in resting T cells, the two mAbs exhibited a similar pattern of early signaling events in activated T cells and Jurkat cells (p56(lck) activation, association of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with CD28), indicating that the signaling capacity of CD28 changes with activation. These data support the view that stimulation through CD28 can induce some effector functions in T cells and suggest that this capacity is associated with a particular pattern of early signaling events.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/1998; 161(4):1645-51. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
352.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2012
    • Friedrich Loeffler Institute
      • Institute of Farm Animal Genetics
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2005–2012
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • • Department of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology
      • • Chair for Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1987–2010
    • Hannover Medical School
      • • Clinic for General, Abdominal and Transplant Surgery
      • • Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology
      • • Institute of Pharmacology
      Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1989–1991
    • Hochschule Hannover
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1990
    • The Institute for Molecular Medicine
      Huntington Beach, California, United States