Shaohui Cai

University of Jinan (Jinan, China), Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China

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Publications (26)69.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence has revealed a negative correlation between Forkhead box-O (FOXO) expression and prostate cancer grade and spread, indicating its role as a suppressor of prostate cancer metastasis. However, there is still incomplete understanding about the role of FOXO transcription factors in prostate cancer progression. In this investigation, we demonstrate that FOXO3a significantly inhibits the expression β-catenin in prostate cancer cells. The mechanism of inhibiting β-catenin expression involves the FOXO3a-mediated transactivated microRNA-34b/c, which consequently suppressed β-catenin mRNA expression by targeting the untranslated regions (UTRs) of β-catenin. Additionally, FOXO3a can directly bind to β-catenin, and competes with TCF for interaction with β-catenin, thereby inhibiting β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity and reducing the expression of β-catenin target genes. Furthermore, prostate cancer cells expressing FOXO3a shRNAs display mesenchymal characteristics, including enhanced cell migration and differential regulation of the EMT markers, whereas knockdown of β-catenin results in reversal of shFOXO3a-mediated EMT phenotypic changes. Collectively, these observations demonstrated that FOXO3a inhibits malignant phenotypes that are dependent on β-catenin-dependent modulation of EMT-related genes, and provided fresh insight into the mechanisms by which a FOXO3a-miR-34b/c axis restrains canonical β-catenin signaling cascades in prostate cancer cell. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Cellular Signalling 01/2015; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trichostatin A (TSA) is a kind of classical histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. In this study, we reported the reversal effects of TSA on EMT and investigated the possible involved molecular mechanisms in SW480 and PC3 cells. Firstly, we observed that TSA induced the reversal process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SW480 and PC3 cells, resulting in attenuated cell invasion and migration abilities. TSA-induced EMT reversal was characterized by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of Vimentin. Then, treatment with TSA also decreased the expression of transcription factor Slug. Furthermore, over-expression of Slug significantly caused down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin. Meanwhile, TSA treatment in Slug-expressing cells could prevent these changes. These findings suggested that Slug played a crucial role in TSA-induced EMT reversal. Additionally, the study showed that TSA could induce the increase of HDAC1 and HDAC2 on the Slug gene promoter, which might be responsible for the suppression of Slug. Overall, TSA could reverse EMT in SW480 and PC3 cells and TSA-mediated down-regulation of Slug was involved in the reversal process. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112132. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are heterogeneous and plastic populations that are an essential component of inflammation and host defense. To understand how macrophages respond to cytokine signals, we used 2-DE to identify protein profiles in macrophages stimulated with interleukin 4 (M2) and those stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon γ (M1). In total, 32 differentially expressed proteins in THP-1 cells were identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis. The different proteins were mainly involved in cellular structure, protein metabolism, stress response, oxidative response, and nitric oxide production during macrophage polarization. In particular, proteins playing important roles in production of nitric oxide (NO) were down-regulated in M2 macrophages. Many antioxidant and heat shock proteins, which are related to oxidative response, were up-regulated in M2 macrophages. More importantly, a remarkable decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO production were detected in M2 macrophages. Our results provide a proteomic profile of differentially polarized macrophages and validate the function of the identified proteins, which may indicate possible mechanism of macrophage polarization process.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Proteomics 11/2014; 15(4). · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nodal, an important embryonic morphogen, has been reported to function in tumorigenesis. Here we report for the first time that Nodal promotes malignancy by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in B16 murine melanoma. These cells displayed increased migration and invasion abilities upon treating with Nodal, accompanying with typical phenotype changes of EMT. In contrast, Nodal knockdown or blocking Nodal signaling using a specific antagonist SB431542 repressed the EMT phenotype as well as reduced cell motility and invasiveness. Treatment with Nodal also induced expression of transcription factor Snail. Snail knockdown abolished the Nodal-induced EMT in B16 cells. We further show that Snail expression is mediated by the Nodal-regulated AKT/GSK-3β signaling. Taken together, these results revealed that Nodal promotes the aggressive phenotype of B16 murine melanoma cells by inducing EMT via up-regulation of Snail. This study provides a better understanding of Nodal function in melanoma, and suggests a potential novel target for clinical therapeutic research.
    Cancer letters 01/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAPα) is a tumor-associated antigen uniquely expressed by reactive stromal fibroblasts in the majority of human epithelial tumors. FAPα also possesses both post-prolyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. Consequently, FAPα is increasingly considered as a potential pan-tumor target for designing tumor-targeted prodrugs. We previously conjugated Doxorubicin (Dox) with a FAPα-specific dipeptide (Z-Gly-Pro) to develop a FAPα-targeting prodrug of Dox (FTPD). The aim of current work was to validate the tumor targeting of this targeted-delivery strategy. The results demonstrated that FTPD could effectually release Dox upon the hydrolysis of FAPα as well as the incubation with tumor homogenate of FAPα-positive tumor (4T1 tumor), while it was highly stable in mouse plasma and a variety of tissue homogenates including heart, liver, and so on. And the FAPα-cleaved FTPD exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against 4T1 cells in vitro than the uncatalyzed prodrug. Additionally, FTPD produced similar antitumor efficacy in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice to free Dox without obvious cardiotoxic effect. Moreover, subsequent study indicated that the accumulation of FTPD reduced significantly in the heart compared to free Dox. These findings suggest that such FAPα-based prodrug strategy is promising to achieve targeted delivery of antitumor agents.
    Journal of Drug Targeting 02/2011; 19(7):487-96. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Andrographolide derivatives were shown to inhibit alpha-glucosidase. To investigate the relationship between activities and structures of andrographolide derivatives, a training set was chosen from 25 andrographolide derivatives by the principal component analysis (PCA) method, and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was established by 2D and 3D QSAR methods. The cross-validation r(2) (0.731) and standard error (0.225) illustrated that the 2D-QSAR model was able to identify the important molecular fragments and the cross-validation r(2) (0.794) and standard error (0.127) demonstrated that the 3D-QSAR model was capable of exploring the spatial distribution of important fragments. The obtained results suggested that proposed combination of 2D and 3D QSAR models could be useful in predicting the alpha-glucosidase inhibiting activity of andrographolide derivatives.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2010; 11(3):880-95. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.
    Experimental Cell Research 02/2010; 316(20):3329-41. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated an immunotherapeutic strategy for rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene (ret)-associated carcinomas in a transgenic MT/ret 304/B6 mouse model in which spontaneous tumors develop due to overexpression of the ret gene. A Ret peptide vaccine comprising an extracellular fragment of Ret protein and Th1-polarized immunoregulator CpG oligonucleotide (1826) induced strong and specific cellular and humoral immune responses in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, showing that the Ret peptide has a strong immunogenic potential as part of an antitumor vaccine. In MT/ret 304/B6 mice, however, the vaccine was only modestly effective as an inducer of the humoral immune response, and it failed to elicit a T-cell response. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed marked indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression after immunization with Ret peptide vaccine in the lymph nodes and spleens of MT/ret 304/B6 mice. The systemic administration of the potent inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1-methyl tryptophan (1MT) along with Ret vaccine produced a significant increase in tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. A delay in spontaneous tumor development was also observed in the MT/ret 304/B6 mice to which the Ret vaccine and 1MT were administered. These results indicate that an improved Ret vaccine composed of Ret peptide plus CpG oligonucleotide plus 1MT is a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of ret-associated carcinomas.
    Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(9):3963-70. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of sodium butyrate (NaB) and ganciclovir (GCV) was considered to be a noteworthy therapeutic strategy in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancers. However, clinical studies have indicated that an extremely high dose of NaB is required to obtain the expected curative efficacy. This obviously limits the practical clinical application of the two drugs combined. In this study, we investigated the possibility of sensitizing tumor cells to NaB and GCV mediated cytotoxicity by modulating intracellular signal pathways. The results showed that the disruption of Ras/Raf activity by expressing dominant negative forms of both Ras and Raf-1 did not alter the potency of the NaB and GCV combination in the EBV-positive cell line, B95-8. However, blocking Akt activity by expressing its dominant negative form remarkably promoted NaB and GCV-mediated cytotoxicity via a thymidine kinase (TK)-independent mechanism. Interestingly, it was found that the constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) dramatically enhanced the sensitization of the cells to the combination of NaB and GCV, accompanied with an increase in TK expression in B95-8 cells. These results suggest that interfering with either the Akt or MEKK1 signaling pathway may be a useful therapeutic strategy to increase the sensitivity of EBV-positive tumor cells to the combination of NaB and GCV.
    Virus Research 08/2008; 135(1):175-80. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An albumin-binding prodrug of the extremely potent CC-1065 analog, (+)-FDI-CBI, has been synthesized. This analog, (+)-FDI-CBIM, formed an albumin conjugate when added to human albumin in vitro. A greater amount (>3-fold) of the prodrug can be administered to animals compared to the free drug. The prodrug had significantly improved antitumor efficacy compared to the free drug in animal models using syngeneic animal tumors and human ovarian xenografted tumor cells. Antitumor drug delivery by in situ formation of drug-albumin conjugate is a promising strategy to improve antitumor efficacy.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2008; 16(13):6552-9. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of phenotypic knockout of CXCR4 on Molt-4 cells via intrakine technology,the C-terminal alpha-helix gene SDF-1alpha/54/KDEL of human stromal cell-derived Faceor-1 deletion is fused to a retention signal 4-peptide -KDEL that retains the newly synthesized receptor within the Molt-4 cells endoplasimc reticulum. Subsequently, PCR is used to amplify the target gene SDF-1alpha/54/ KDEL from the constructed plasmid SDF-WT-Gly x 4-Dec/PET-30a(+) at its C-terminal and subclone it into eukaryotic expression vectors pEGFP-C3 for generating recombinant vector cells by lipEGFP-C3/SDF-1alpha/54/KDEL, and then have it sequenced. After the transfection of recombinant plasmids into COS-7 posome, SDF-1alpha/54/KDEL protein is confirmed with Western blot. The recombinant plasmids pEGFP-C3/SDF-1alpha/54/KDEL are isolated and transiently transfected in Molt-4 cells by electroporation. Flow cytometric analysis shows a dramatic reduction of CXCR4 expression on Molt-4 cells. The conclusion is that SDF-1alpha/54/KDEL could assume a role in the phenotypic knockout of CXCR4, and the findings suggest that the inhibiting effect of SDF-1alpha/54 against CXCR4 is not influenced by the deletion of SDF-1alpha helix at the C terminal.
    Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi 07/2008; 25(3):647-51, 677.
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines are currently being evaluated as novel anti-tumor vaccination strategies, but in some cases, they are demonstrated to have poor clinical efficacies than anticipated. A potential reason is immune tolerance due to the immunosuppressive enzyme, indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The aim of this study was to determine whether blocking the activity of IDO might improve the anti-tumor efficacy of DC/Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) fusion vaccine applied to the mouse LLC model. To prepare the DC/LLC fusion vaccine, DCs were fused with LLC using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as described. The IDO expression in the DC/LLC fusion vaccine and in the vaccinated mice was detected by western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. This fusion vaccine, as a single agent or in combination with 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT, an IDO inhibitor), was administered to LLC mice. The anti-tumor efficacy in different treatment was determined by regular observation of tumor development and the level of splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, which was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. In the LLC mice, we observed that IDO-positive cells were extensively accumulated in tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). Furthermore, WB and IHC analysis results showed that vaccination with fusion DC/LLC cells alone caused significant up-regulation of IDO in spleens. 1-MT enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy elicited by DC/LLC fusion vaccine via delaying the tumor development and inducing stronger splenic CTL responses. Our results indicate an IDO-mediated immunosuppressive mechanism might be involved in weakening the anti-tumor efficacy elicited by DC/LLC fusion vaccine, and specific inhibition of IDO activity might be required for development of cancer vaccines.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 06/2008; 134(5):525-33. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that the interaction of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is closely involved in the directional migration of some tumors toward specific organs, which provides a new pathway against cancer metastasis. We previously developed an alpha-helix-defective mutant of SDF-1alpha, SDF-1/54 that displays obvious antagonistic activity to CXCR4. But it is necessary to ensure the targeting of SDF-1/54 to tumors in vivo since many normal tissues also express CXCR4. It is known that most tumor cells highly express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Meanwhile, decorin (DCN), a specific antagonist of EGFR, can target the tumor cells enriched in EGFR and cause a significant downregulation of EGFR. Hereby, we further generated a fusion construct of SDF-1/54 and DCN to expect to enhance the targeting of SDF-1/54 to tumors by dual blocking effects on CXCR4 and EGFR. This study focused on expression of recombinant chimera SDF-1/54-DCN in Escherichia coli, purification and bioactivity to inhibit the physiological functions mediated by CXCR4 and EGFR respectively in various tumor cell lines in vitro. Results indicated that SDF-1/54-DCN could inhibit both chemotaxis and proliferation of the tumor cells we used, which may be attributed to its blocking to CXCR4 and EGFR. These findings suggest that this strategy to link SDF-1/54 with DCN may be a promising approach to increase the targeting of SDF-1/54 to the tumors coexpressing CXCR4 and EGFR.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 06/2008; 31(6):1086-91. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 01/2008; 61(1):123-123. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4, have been implicated in organ-specific metastases of several malignancies. CXCR4 expression has recently been characterized in many cancer cell types and is thought to play a pivotal role in directing the migration of metastasizing tumor cells to SDF-1-rich tissues. SDF-1, which is highly expressed in the organs where breast cancers preferentially metastasize, has been shown to promote cancer cell migration. The tumor cells use chemotaxis which occurred between CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 to direct migration from their primary sites via the circulation to the preferential sites of metastases, and further studies on the mechanism involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways are beneficial to tumor therapy.
    Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi 11/2007; 24(5):1180-3.
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    ABSTRACT: CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been reported to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including ovarian, breast, lung and prostate. The over-expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with the majority of ovarian cancer and has been implicated in the process of malignant transformation by promoting cell proliferation, survival, and motility. In this research, the result first showed that epidermis growth factor (EGF) enhanced the expression of CXCR4 and the migration of ovarian cancer cells, moreover, both stromal cell derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) and EGF-induced high matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) expressions. Molecular analysis indicated that augmented CXCR4 and MMP9 expression was regulated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)/Akt signal transduction pathway. These results suggested a possible important "cross-talk" between CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that might link signals of tumor deteriorated and provided a plausible explanation for the poor overall survival rate of patients whose co-expression of CXCR4 and EGFR was detected in their tissue sections. It enlightened that, compared to the respective inhibition of the EGFR or CXCR4 signaling, the simultaneous inhibition of them might be a more useful therapeutic strategy of cancer.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 11/2007; 60(1):1-6. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decorin (DCN) is a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan gene family. Many studies indicated that DCN inhibited fibrosis and scar-formation by neutralization of TGF-P and interfering the binding of TGF-beta with its receptor, which induced ectopic deposition of extracellular matrix. Additionally, DCN can prevent the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells by activating EGFR/MAPK/p21 signal pathway and inhibiting the cell proliferation pathway mediated by EGF-EGFR. It is suggested that the recombinant DCN had potential pharmaceutical potency in treatment of chronic fibrosis and neoplasm for its critical biological activities and low immunogenicity.
    Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi 03/2007; 24(1):222-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel C-terminal alpha-helix-defective mutant of human stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), hSDF-154, was designed and produced in order to develop an optimal CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist. Human native SDF-1 and alpha-helix defective SDF-1 (hSDF-154) were cloned from human bone marrow stromal cells by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, inserted into vector pET-30a(+), and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The recombinant hSDF-154 was purified and refolded under optimized conditions and its functional characteristics were compared with the native form of SDF-1. Functional evaluation includes migration of Jurkat and MOLT4 cells assessed by chemotaxis assay, intracellular calcium influx in these cells measured by flow cytometry, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation analyzed by Western blot assay, receptor binding affinity examined by sequential concentrations of unlabeled SDF-1alpha, hSDF-154 competition with (125)I- SDF-1alpha, and internalization of CXCR4 on the cell surface detected by flow cytometry. hSDF-154 had significantly decreased chemotaxic ability, such as cell migration, as compared to the native hSDF-1. hSDF-154 failed to trigger CXCR4 to induce transient calcium influx and ERK phosphorylation. However, both hSDF-154 and the native hSDF-1 have similar binding affinity to CXCR4 and a similar ability to induce CXCR4 internalization. These results indicate that hSDF-154, which has a defective C-terminal alpha-helix, a normal N-terminus, and a normal central beta-strand scaffold structure, retains normal binding affinity to CXCR4 and normal induction of CXCR4 internalization, but fails to activate CXCR4-mediated cellular signaling and chemotaxis. Therefore, the C-terminal alpha-helix of hSDF-1 plays a critical role for CXCR4 stimulation. The hSDF-154, which efficiently binds to and induces internalization of CXCR4 without activating CXCR4-related intracellular signaling and cell migration, may serve as an optimal CXCR4 antagonist.
    Experimental Hematology 12/2006; 34(11):1553-62. · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Wenjun Li, Shaohui Cai, Lu Cai, Xiaokun Li
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    ABSTRACT: Actinomycin D (ActD) is a well-known cytotoxic chemotherapeutic reagent and the prevention of ActD-induced apoptotic cell death has been an attractive issue for biomedical investigators. Since phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is essential for cell survival, the present study has examined whether the preventive effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on ActD-induced apoptotic cell death in a human hepatocyte-derived cell line (HL7702) is associated with PI3K/Akt activation. Apoptotic cell death was measured by several methods including Hoechst 33342 staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry. We found that ActD caused a significant increase in apoptotic cell death, an effect significantly prevented by pre-addition of HGF in the cultures. HGF was found to significantly activate Akt phosphorylation while pre-treatment with PI3K specific inhibitor wortmannin further enhanced ActD-induced apoptotic effect, and also significantly prevented HGF's protection against ActD-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that HGF's prevention of ActD-induced apoptotic cell death in HL7702 cells is associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling.
    Toxicology Letters 09/2006; 165(2):142-8. · 3.36 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

166 Citations
69.77 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • University of Jinan (Jinan, China)
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2006–2014
    • Jinan University (Guangzhou, China)
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2006–2009
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • School of Pharmaceutical Science
      Guangzhou, Guangdong Sheng, China
  • 2008
    • Chongqing University
      • Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering under the State Ministry of Education
      Chongqing, Chongqing Shi, China