[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental agencies must monitor an ever increasing range of contaminants of emerging concern, including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). An alternative to using ultra-trace chemical analysis of samples for EDCs is to test for biological activity using in vitro screening assays, then use these assay results to direct analytical chemistry approaches. In this study, we used both analytical approaches and in vitro bioassays to characterize the EDCs present in treated wastewater from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ontario, Canada. Estrogen-mediated activity was assessed using a yeast estrogenicity screening (YES) assay. An in vitro competitive binding assay was used to assess capacity to interfere with binding of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4) to the recombinant human thyroid hormone transport protein, transthyretin (i.e. hTTR). An in vitro binding assay with a rat peroxisome proliferator responsive element transfected into a rainbow trout gill cell line was used to evaluate binding and subsequent gene expression via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR). Analyses of a suite of contaminants known to be EDCs in extracts from treated wastewater were conducted using either gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Estrogenic activity was detected in the YES assay only in those extracts that contained detectable amounts of estradiol (E2). There was a positive relationship between the degree of response in the T4-hTTR assay and the amounts of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99, triclosan and the PBDE metabolite, 4-OH-BDE17. Several wastewater extracts gave a positive response in the PPAR assay, but these responses were not correlated with the amounts of any of the EDCs analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Overall, these data indicate that a step-wise approach is feasible using a combination of in vitro testing and instrumental analysis to monitor for EDCs in wastewater and other environmental matrixes.
Science of The Total Environment 03/2013; 454-455C:132-140. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A land application of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) was conducted on an agricultural field in fall 2008 at a rate of 22Mg dry weight (dw) ha(-1). Pre- and post- application, hormone, sterol and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were measured in tile drainage water, groundwater (2, 4, 6m depth), surface soil cores, and DMB aggregates incorporated in the soil (∼0.2m depth) for a period of roughly 1year post-application. Hormones and sterols were detected up to 1year post-application in soil and in DMB aggregates. Hormone (androsterone, desogestrel, estrone) contamination was detected briefly in tile water samples (22d and ∼2months post-app), at lowngL(-1) concentrations (2-34ngL(-1)). Hormones were not detected in groundwater. Sterols were detected in tile water throughout the study period post-application, and multiple fecal sterol ratios suggested biosolids as the source. Coprostanol concentrations in tile water peaked at >1000ngL(-1) (22d post-app) and were still >100ngL(-1) at 6months post-application. Fecal indicator bacteria were detected throughout the study period in tile water, groundwater (⩽2m depth), soil and DMB aggregate samples. These bacteria were strongly linearly related to coprostanol in tile water (R(2)>0.92, p<0.05). The limited transport of hormones and sterols to tile drainage networks may be attributed to a combination of the hydrophobicity of these compounds and limited macroporosity of the field soil. This transitory contamination from hormones and sterols is unlikely to result in any significant pulse exposure risk in subsurface drainage and groundwater.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMBs) were applied to a field at a rate of ~22 Mg dw ha(-1) in October 2008. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were monitored in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-land application, and in the grain of wheat grown on the field for a period of ~1 year following application. Over 80 PPCPs were analyzed in the source DMB. PPCPs selected for in-depth monitoring included: antibiotics (tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones), bacteriocides (triclosan, triclocarban), beta-blockers (atenolol, propranolol, metaprolol), antidepressants (fluoxetine, citalopram, venlafaxine, sertraline), antifungals (miconazole), analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen) and anticonvulsants (carbamazepine). PPCPs in tile were observed twice, ~3 weeks and 2 months post-application. Of all PPCPs measured in tile drainage, only carbamazepine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, triclosan, triclocarban, venlafaxine, and citalopram were detected (5-74 ng L(-1)). PPCPs were not detected in groundwater >2 m depth below the soil surface, and concentrations above detection limits at 2 m depth were only observed once just after the first rain event post-application. In groundwater, all compounds found in tile, except carbamazepine, acetaminophen and citalopram, were detected (10-19 ng L(-1)). PPCPs were detected in DMB aggregates incorporated in soil up to 1 year post-application, with miconazole and fluoxetine having the lowest percent reductions over 1 year (~50%). For several compounds in these aggregates, concentration declines were of exponential decay form. No PPCPs were detected in the grain of wheat planted post-application on the field. No PPCPs were ever detected in water, soil or grain samples from the reference plot, where no DMB was applied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) conducted a survey in 2006 on emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) which included pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A (BPA). The survey collected 258 samples over a 16 month period from selected source waters and 17 drinking water systems (DWSs), and analyzed them for 48 EOCs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for the highest precision and accuracy of analytical data possible. 27 of the 48 target EOCs were detected in source water, finished drinking water, or both. DWSs using river and lake source water accounted for>90% detections. Of the 27 EOCs found, we also reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in environmental samples. The most frequently detected compounds (≥ 10%) in finished drinking water were carbamazepine (CBZ), gemfibrozil (GFB), ibuprofen (IBU), and BPA; with their concentrations accurately determined by using IDMS and calculated to be 4 to 10 times lower than those measured in the source water. Comparison of plant specific data allowed us to determine removal efficiency (RE) of these four most frequently detected compounds in Ontario DWSs. The RE of CBZ was determined to be from 71 to 93% for DWSs using granulated activated carbon (GAC); and was 75% for DWSs using GAC followed by ultraviolet irradiation (UV). The observed RE of GFB was between 44 and 55% in DWSs using GAC and increased to 82% when GAC was followed by UV. The use of GAC or GAC followed by UV provided an RE improvement of BPA from 80 to 99%. These detected concentration levels are well below the predicted no effect concentration or total allowable concentration reported in the literature. Additional targeted, site specific comparative research is required to fully assess the effectiveness of Ontario DWSs to remove particular compounds of concern.
Science of The Total Environment 02/2011; 409(8):1481-8. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS), and metals were monitored in tile drainage and groundwater following liquid (LMB) and dewatered municipal biosolid (DMB) applications to silty-clay loam agricultural field plots. LMB was applied (93,500 L ha(-1)) in late fall 2005 via surface spreading on un-tilled soil (SS(LMB)), and a one-pass aerator-based pre-tillage prior to surface spreading (AerWay SSD) (A). The DMB was applied (8 Mg d wha(-1)) in early summer 2006 on the same plots by injecting DMB beneath the soil surface (DI), and surface spreading on un-tilled soil (SS(DMB)). Key PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) comprising 97% of total PBDE in LMB, had maximum tile effluent concentrations ranging from 6 to 320 ng L(-1) during application-induced tile flow. SS(LMB) application-induced tile mass loads for these PBDE congeners were significantly higher than those for control (C) plots (no LMB) (p<0.05), but not A plots (p>0.05). PBDE mass loss via tile (0-2h post-application) as a percent of mass applied was approximately 0.04-0.1% and approximately 0.8-1.7% for A and SS(LMB), respectively. Total PBDE loading to soil via LMB and DMB application was 0.0018 and 0.02 kg total PBDE ha(-1)yr(-1), respectively. Total PBDE concentration in soil (0-0.2m) after both applications was 115 ng g(-1)dw, (sampled 599 days and 340 days post LMB and DMB applications respectively). Of all the PFAS compounds, only PFOS (max concentration=17 ng L(-1)) and PFOA (12 ng L(-1)) were found above detectable limits in tile drainage from the application plots. Mass loads of metals in tile for the LMB application-induced tile hydrograph event, and post-application concentrations of metals in groundwater, showed significant (p<0.05) land application treatment effects (SS(LMB)>A>C for tile and SS(LMB) and A>C for groundwater for most results). Following DMB application, no significant differences in metal mass loads in tile were found between SS(DMB) and DI treatments (PBDE/PFAS were not measured). But for many metals (Cu, Se, Cd, Mo, Hg and Pb) both SS(DMB) and DI loads were significantly higher than those from C, but only during <100 days post DMB application. Clearly, pre-tilling the soil (e.g., A) prior to surface application of LMB will reduce application-based PBDE and metal contamination to tile drainage and shallow groundwater. Directly injecting DMB in soil does not significantly increase metal loading to tile drains relative to SS(DMB), thus, DI should be considered a DMB land application option.
Science of The Total Environment 12/2009; 408(4):873-83. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Municipal biosolids are a useful source of nutrients for crop production, and commonly used in agriculture. In this field study, we applied dewatered municipal biosolids at a commercial rate using broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 21 and 34 days following the application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of various pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), namely atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, caffeine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and triclocarban. There was little temporal coherence in the detection of PPCPs in runoff, various compounds being detected maximally on days 1, 3, 7 or 36. Maximum concentrations in runoff ranged from below detection limit (gemfibrozil) to 109.7 ng L(-1) (triclosan). Expressing the total mass exported as a percentage of that applied, some analytes revealed little transport potential (<1% exported; triclocarban, triclosan, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, naproxen and gemfibrozil) whereas others were readily exported (>1% exported; acetaminophen, carbamazepine, caffeine, cotinine, atenolol). Those compounds with little transport potential had log K(ow) values of 3.18 or greater, whereas those that were readily mobilized had K(ow) values of 2.45 or less. Maximal concentrations of all analytes were below toxic concentrations using a variety of endpoints available in the literature. In summary, this study has quantified the transport potential in surface runoff of PPCPs from land receiving biosolids, identified that log K(ow) may be a determinant of runoff transport potential of these analytes, and found maximal concentrations of all chemicals tested to be below toxic concentrations using a variety of endpoints.
Science of The Total Environment 08/2009; 407(16):4596-604. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Land application of municipal biosolids can be a source of environmental contamination by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined PPCP concentrations/temporally discrete mass loads in agricultural tile drainage systems where two applications of biosolids had previously taken place. The field plots received liquid municipal biosolids (LMB) in the fall of 2005 at an application rate of approximately 93,500 L ha (-1), and a second land application was conducted using dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) applied at a rate of approximately 8Mg dw ha (-1) in the summer of 2006 [corrected].The DMB land application treatments consisted of direct injection (DI) of the DMB beneath the soil surface at a nominal depth of approximately 0.11 m, and surface spreading (SS) plus subsequent tillage incorporation of DMB in the topsoil (approximately 0.10 m depth). The PPCPs examined included eight pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethoxazole), the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and two antibacterial personal care products triclosan and triclocarban. Residues of naproxen, cotinine, atenolol and triclosan originating from the fall 2005 LMB application were detected in tile water nearly nine months after application (triclocarban was not measured in 2005). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in PPCP mass loads among the two DMB land application treatments (i.e., SS vs. DI); although, average PPCP mass loads late in the study season (>100 days after application) were consistently higher for the DI treatment relative to the SS treatment. While the concentration of triclosan (approximately 14,000 ng g(-1) dw) in DMB was about twice that of triclocarban (approximately 8000 ng g(-1) dw), the average tile water concentrations for triclosan were much higher (43+/-5 ng L(-1)) than they were for triclocarban (0.73+/-0.14 ng L(-1)). Triclosan concentrations (maximum observed in 2006 approximately 235 ng L(-1)) in tile water resulting from land applications may warrant attention from a toxicological perspective.
Science of The Total Environment 04/2009; 407(14):4220-30. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 22, 36 and 266 days post-application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of 9 model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan. In runoff from the injected plots, concentrations of the model PPCPs were generally below the limits of quantitation. In contrast, in the broadcast application treatment, the concentrations of atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan on the day following application ranged from 70-1477 ng L(-1) in runoff and generally declined thereafter with first order kinetics. The total mass of PPCPs mobilized in surface runoff per m(2) of the field ranged from 0.63 microg for atenolol to 21.1 microg for ibuprofen. For ibuprofen and acetaminophen, concentrations in runoff first decreased and then increased, suggesting that these drugs were initially chemically or physically sequestered in the biosolids slurry, and subsequently released in the soil. Carbamazepine and triclosan were detected at low concentrations in a runoff event 266 days after broadcast application. Overall, this study showed that injection of biosolids slurry below the soil surface could effectively eliminate surface runoff of PPCPs.
Science of The Total Environment 07/2008; 396(1):52-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic and nitro musk (PNM) fragrances in personal care products persist and bioaccumulate in the environment following wastewater discharges and land application of biosolids. Influent and effluent concentrations, seasonal variations, and process removal efficiencies of 11 PNMs were investigated at six wastewater treatment plants representing four typical Canadian treatment processes: lagoon, oxidation ditch, extended aeration, and conventional activated sludge. Influent concentrations were as high as 40 000 ng/L for polycyclic musks and 400 ng/L for nitro musks, and showed some seasonal fluctuation. Effluent concentrations were as high as 4000 ng/L and 150 ng/L for polycyclic and nitro musks, respectively. Lagoon treatment produced the highest percent removal (>95%) and the lowest effluent concentrations of PNMs, with process temperature exerting some influence on removal. Results indicate that simple hydraulic or solids retention time are not strong predictors of PNM removals from wastewater. Effluent PNM concentrations were extrapolated to all treatment plants in the watershed to estimate concentrations along the Grand River and its tributaries.Les fragrances de musc nitré et polycyclique (MNP) dans les produits d'hygiène personnelle persistent et s'accumulent dans l'environnement après rejets des eaux usées et épandage de biosolides. Les concentrations des influents et des effluents, les variations saisonnières, et l'efficacité des processus d'élimination de 11 MNPs ont été étudiées dans six stations d'épuration représentant quatre processus de traitement Canadiens typiques : lagune, fosse d'oxydation, aération prolongée, et boues activées classiques. Les concentrations des influents atteignaient 40 000 ng/L pour les muscs polycycliques, et 400 ng/L pour les muscs nitrés, et montraient certaines fluctuations saisonnières. Les concentrations des effluents atteignaient 4000 ng/L et 150 ng/L respectivement pour les muscs polycycliques et nitrés. Le traitement en lagune produit le pourcentage d'élimination le plus élevé (>95 %) et la plus faible concentration en effluent de MNPs, la température du processus exerçant une certaine influence sur l'élimination. Les résultats indiquent que le temps de rétention hydraulique ou le temps de rétention des solides ne sont pas de bons prédicteurs des éliminations de MNP des eaux usées. Les concentrations d'effluents en MNP ont été extrapolées à l'ensemble des usines de traitement dans le bassin afin d'estimer les concentrations le long de la Rivière Grand et de ses affluents.
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 06/2008; 7(4):299-317. · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined bacteria and nutrient quality in tile drainage and shallow ground water resulting from a fall land application of liquid municipal biosolids (LMB), at field application rates of 93,500 L ha(-1), to silt-clay loam agricultural field plots using two different land application approaches. The land application methods were a one-pass AerWay SSD approach (A), and surface spreading plus subsequent incorporation (SS). For both treatments, it took between 3 and 39 min for LMB to reach tile drains after land application. The A treatment significantly (p < 0.1) reduced application-induced LMB contamination of tile drains relative to the SS treatment, as shown by mass loads of total Kjeldahl N (TKN), NH(4)-N, Total P (TP), PO(4)-P, E. coli., and Clostridium perfringens. E. coli contamination resulting from application occurred to at least 2.0-m depth in ground water, but was more notable in ground water immediately beneath tile depth (1.2 m). Treatment ground water concentrations of selected nutrients and bacteria for the study period ( approximately 46 d) at 1.2-m depth were significantly higher in the treatment plots, relative to control plots. The TKN and TP ground water concentrations at 1.2-m depth were significantly (p < 0.1) higher for the SS treatment, relative to the A treatment, but there were no significant (p > 0.1) treatment differences for the bacteria. For the macroporous field conditions observed, pre-tillage by equipment such as the AerWay SSD, will reduce LMB-induced tile and shallow ground water contamination compared to surface spreading over non-tilled soil, followed by incorporation.
Journal of Environmental Quality 01/2008; 37(3):925-36. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) enter municipal wastewater after use by consumers, and may be degraded during the wastewater treatment process, remain unchanged in effluent, or partition to solids. Their detection in environmental matrices is a result of wastewater effluent discharges and land application of digested biosolids. Results of environmental effects research to date indicate that some PPCPs exhibit detrimental effects such as endocrine disruption or inhibition of an organism's ability to excrete xenobiotics.In 2002 Environment Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Environment embarked on a large-scale research study to generate information for development of risk management strategies to control the release of PPCPs into the Canadian environment. This study included development of analytical methods; surveys of PPCPs in influents, effluents, and solids; and controlled bench-scale studies. This presentation provides an overview of these recent Canadian research activities.
Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation. 12/2007;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analytical technology is continuously improving, developing better methods for isolating and concentrating trace compounds in environmental samples. Polycyclic and nitro musks (PNMs) are one group of emerging trace compounds detected in municipal wastewater. Differences in sample storage, preparation, and extraction methods for their measurement have led to variability in results. We analyzed 11 PNMs by GC/MS and compared the results of different storage times and extraction methods (supercritical fluid (SFE) or microwave-assisted (MAE)) for 202 samples of primary sludge, waste activated sludge (WAS), raw sludge, and aerobically/anaerobically digested biosolids collected from Canadian municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sixty-three air-dried samples were extracted by SFE, and 139 air-dried, centrifuged, or filtered samples were extracted by MAE. The mean surrogate recoveries were 89% (standard deviation (SD)=11%) for d(10)-anthracene by SFE and 88% (SD=14%) for d(10)-phenanthrene by MAE. Storage study results showed that PNM concentrations changed by a mean of 7% and 9% for primary sludge and WAS respectively after four weeks and decreased up to 25% after 13.5 months of storage in amber glass containers at -18 degrees C. Air-drying of sludge at room temperature caused losses of about 50% of PNM concentrations compared to centrifugation. The proportions of PNMs present in the liquid phase of sludge samples were less than 5% compared to proportions in the sludge solids. The most complete liquid-solid separation was achieved by filtration of frozen/thawed sludge samples, producing a liquid phase that contained less than 1% of the total musk content of the sample.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic and nitro musks (PNM) enter the environment through wastewater discharges and land application of digested sludge (biosolids). PNMs are persistent and bioaccumulative, with some reports of toxicity. Musks tend to partition to solids during wastewater treatment; therefore understanding their fate during sludge digestion is essential to reducing discharges to the environment. The concentrations of six polycyclic and five nitro musks in raw sludge and digested biosolids are assessed, and PNM removal during aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes at five Canadian wastewater treatment plants are described. Polycyclic musks were present in raw sludge at concentrations up to 47000 ng/g dry weight (dw) (Galaxolide, HHCB), while nitro musks were present up to 600 ng/g dw (Musk Ketone, MK). Polycyclic musks were present in digested biosolids up to 68000 ng/g dw (HHCB), while nitro musks were present up to 300 ng/g dw (MK and Musk Xylene). PNMs decreased proportionally with destruction of volatile solids (VS) during aerobic digestion. Concentrations of polycyclic musks increased proportionally with VS destruction during anaerobic digestion. Nitro musks showed no significant change as VS decreased during anaerobic digestion. The fate of PNMs during sludge digestion is shown to depend on both musk type and digestion process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last ten years there have been reports of pharmaceuticals and personal care product (PPCP) residuals in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The principle goal of this study was specifically to expand and in some cases establish a Canadian database for the presence of selected acidic drugs, triclosan, polycyclic musks, and selected estrogens in MWWTP influent and effluent. The impact of treatment configuration (e.g. lagoons, conventional activated sludge (CAS), and CAS followed by media filtration (CAS+filtration)) was also examined. For CAS systems, the most prevalent treatment type, the effect of operating temperature and SRT was evaluated. Selected PPCPs included ten acidic pharmaceuticals (i.e. a group of pharmaceuticals that are extractable at a pH of 2 or less), triclosan, five polycyclic musks and two estrogens. The pharmaceuticals and musks were selected on the basis of levels of use in Canada; reported aquatic toxicity effects; and the ability to analyze for the compounds at low levels. Twelve MWWTPs discharging into the Thames River, the second largest river in southwestern Ontario, were surveyed. The only common characteristic of acidic drugs is their extraction pH as they differ in their intended biological function and chemical structure. Many organics degraded by WWTP processes benefit from warm temperatures and long SRTs so the impact of these variables warranted additional attention. Influent concentrations and reductions for acidic drugs reported by this study were compared to other Canadian studies, when available, and European investigations. The data of this study seems consistent with other reports. Ten acidic drugs were considered by this study. Three were consistently present at non-quantifiable levels (e.g. CLF, FNP and FNF). Additionally, one analyte, SYL, presented results that were so inconsistent that the values were not analysed. The remaining six acidic pharmaceuticals were placed into three categories. IBU and NPX members of the first category had consistently high reductions. At the level of reduction achieved (i.e. median reduction of greater than 93%) and any effect of treatment type or operating characteristics would be subtle and non-discernable given the analytical noise. In the second group are KTP and IND, and definitive comments are difficult to make on the impact of treatment type and operational considerations due to a sparse data set (i.e. many influent values were at non-quantifiable concentrations). Median reductions were in the 23% to 44% range. In the last category are GMF and DCF which have median reductions of 66% and -34%, respectively. Several negative reduction values in the data set (i.e. twelve of twenty six sampling events) suggest that DCF may be deconjugated under certain conditions. This warrants further evaluation when analytical methods for measuring human metabolites of DCF are available. For both GMF and DCF, reduction does not appear to be strongly influenced by SRTs up to 15 days, while SRTs over 30 days were associated with more frequent non-quantifiable effluent levels of DCF. This would suggest that better treatment would be provided by lagoons and CAS systems with extended aeration. Preliminary data suggests that temperature does not play a strong role in the reduction of these compounds. Triclosan (TCL) was detected at concentrations of 0.01-4.01 microg/L in influent samples and 0.01-0.324 microg/L in effluent samples. Reduction of TCL ranged from 74% to 98%. Lagoon treatment seems to be the best TCL reduction as it was present in the influent and effluent at quantifiable and non-quantifiable concentrations, respectively, on nine of nine sampling occasions. Influent and reduction values of five polycyclic musks (e.g. ADBI, AHMI, ATII, HHCB, and AHTN) were examined over the course of this study. AHMI was predominantly present at non-quantifiable concentrations. HHCB and AHTN were present at the highest concentrations. A comparison between Canadian values and those of European studies indicate that in general polycyclic musk concentrations in Canadian MWWTP effluents are 5-10 times lower. More extensive European and Canadian databases would be useful in confirming this initial observation. Median reductions for the five remaining musks range between 37% and 65% in CAS systems. CAS+filtration systems would be expected to have higher reductions if musks were bound to the effluent solids. This trend is not apparent but this may be due to the small size of the data set. In lagoon systems, musk reduction for HHCB and AHTN are approximately 98-99%. For ADBI and ATII musk, there are no numerical reduction values as most often the effluent concentration was non-quantifiable. In some instances, both the influent and effluent concentrations were non-quantifiable. The hormones 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were detected at concentrations of 0.006 to 0.014 and 0.016 to 0.049 microg/L, respectively. E2 was not detected in any effluent samples (<0.005 microg/L) whereas E1 was detected in effluent samples from CAS treatment plants (median of 0.008 microg/L), and in one sample from lagoons. These data demonstrate that there are detectable levels of PPCPs entering Canadian waterways at trace levels, and that only some of these compounds are being reduced in a significant proportion by municipal wastewater treatment processes.
Science of The Total Environment 08/2006; 367(2-3):544-58. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method was developed, validated and used to characterize pharmaceutical inputs in the Grand River watershed, Ontario, Canada. Twenty-seven antibiotics and neutral pharmaceuticals were extracted from aqueous environmental samples in a single step using 13C6-labeled sulfamethazine phenyl as a method surrogate and analyzed by LC/MS-MS. Method detection limits were in the range of 20-1,400 ng/L for the compounds of interest with recoveries from 51 to 130%. Using this method, pharmaceutical profiles in tributaries flowing into the Grand River were investigated using samples collected from seven agricultural sites and one urban site. Quality control data collected during the 5-month field study period showed good method performance. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in source water with heavy agricultural input and surface waters downstream with urban inputs were determined to examine the effect of agricultural and urban inputs to surface water quality. Only human prescription drugs were found from urban site samples taken at both high-flow (spring and fall) and low-flow (summer) events in 2003, indicating minimal agricultural input. We also found for the first time the presence of the ionophore monensin in the environment as well as the occurrence of the human prescription drug carbamazepine in surface waters receiving primarily agricultural inputs. Possible causes and analytical solutions for some poor recoveries are discussed with respect to extraction pH, total organic carbon and metal ions in the water samples. The ability to extract 27 pharmaceuticals in a single solid-phase extraction step from diverse environmental matrices such as agricultural tile drain, tributary and surface water samples, followed by a single LC/MS-MS analysis, enabled the effective delivery of quality data.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2006; 384(2):505-13. · 3.66 Impact Factor