Anuradha Chakraborti

Biomedical Informatics Centre, Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India

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Publications (58)113.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is multifactorial. There is sparse literature on the role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and toll like receptor (TLR) signaling in NAFLD. Present study evaluated the relationship of SIBO with expression of TLR signaling genes in patients with NAFLD. 142 subjects comprised of NAFLD (n=60, mean age 38.7± 10.4 yrs), chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) (n=32, mean age 36.56±4.2 yrs) and healthy volunteers (HVs) (n=50, mean age 36.56 ± 4.2 yrs). Duodenal fluid was taken endoscopically in 32 prospective patients with NAFLD for evaluation of SIBO. Hepatic mRNA expression of TLR4, CD14, TLR2, NF-κβ, MD2 and protein expression of TLR4 and TLR2 was studied in 64 patients (NAFLD=32, CVH=32) by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Serum levels of TNF-α, adiponectin, insulin and endotoxins were also evaluated. SIBO was present in 12 (37.5%) out of 32 patients with NAFLD with Escherichia coli as the predominant bacterium. In comparison to those without SIBO, patients with SIBO had significantly higher endotoxin levels, higher CD14 mRNA, NFκβ mRNA and TLR4 protein expression. Patients with NASH had significantly higher endotoxin levels and higher intensity of TLR4 protein expression in comparison to patients without NASH. Serum levels of TNF-α, endotoxins and insulin were significantly higher and of adiponectin lower in NAFLD in comparison CVH and HVs. Our study provides the first direct evidence of role of SIBO and endotoxemia and its relation with TLR signaling genes and liver histology in patients with NAFLD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2015; 5. DOI:10.1111/jgh.13058 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) is gaining recognition as the potential diagnostic agent for cancer. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that this lectin could interact specifically with the cells and biopsy samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) origin but not with normal lung fibroblast cells. Moreover, this lectin was also found to induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Further, the biological activity of this lectin was shown to survive gastrointestinal proteolysis and inhibit malignant cell growth and tumorigenesis in mice model of melanoma thereby indicating the therapeutic potential of this lectin. Paclitaxel is one of the widely used traditional chemotherapeutic drugs for treatment of NSCLC but it exerts side-effects on normal healthy cells too. Studies have revealed that lectins have potential to act as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent in cancer of different origin. Thus, in the present study, an attempt was made to assess the chemo-adjuvant role of MAA in three types of NSCLC cell lines [adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), squamous cell carcinoma cell line (NCI-H520) and large cell carcinoma cell line (NCI-H460)]. We have observed that the non-cytotoxic concentration of this lectin was able to enhance the cytotoxic activity of Paclitaxel even at low dose by inducing apoptosis through intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway in all the three types of NSCLC cell lines, although the involvement of extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in case of NCI-H460 cell line could not be ruled out. Further, this lectin was also found to augment the chemo-preventive activity of this drug by arresting cells in G2-M phase of the cell cycle. Collectively, our results have suggested that Maackia amurensis agglutinin may have the potential to be used as adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent in case of NSCLC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimie 05/2015; 115. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2015.05.002 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Response to nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy against HBV infection depends on a number of factors. One of them is appearance of drug resistance mutations. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ETV and TDF as anti-HBV agents and to analyze role of HBV-RT mutations in reducing the efficacy of mentioned drugs. Sixty nine treatment naïve CHB patients (mean age 33.8±11.9 years) were enrolled and treated with ETV or TDF for one year. Complete virological response (CVR) was defined as undetectable serum HBV DNA after 12 months of therapy. Amino acid and nucleotide sequence analysis of HBV-RT region was performed using Geno2pheno HBV drug resistance tool. The 3D model of HBV-RT protein was built by I-TASSER server and RMSD was calculated between wild type and mutated HBV-RT protein. After 12 months of treatment, four CHB patients did not achieved CVR and all of them were with HBV genotype D. HBeAg seroconversion was achieved in 56% HBeAg positive patients after 12 months of antiviral therapy. The HBV-RT amino acid sequences from these four patients were used for in-silico analysis. It was found that the presence of many mutations in HBV-RT region of HBV isolated from these patients led to a high degree of variation in configuration of atoms of HBV-RT protein and also caused displacement of active site of this protein. The efficacy of antiviral drugs in inhibiting HBV replication may be reduced by combined effect of many HBV-RT mutations; however, an in vitro study is needed to validate the findings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Gene 04/2015; 567(1). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.04.060 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Manu Goyal · Meenu Singh · Pallab Ray · Radhika Srinivasan · Anuradha Chakraborti ·
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    ABSTRACT: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infections, resulting in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite its pathogenic potential, little is known regarding role of intracellular NTHi in pathogenesis of pulmonary infection. Kinetics of NTHi internalization was studied using gentamicin protection assays. NTHi strains isolated from COPD patients efficiently adhere to and invade type II alveolar (A549) cells. During early stages i.e. 6h postinfection, we noted substantial increase in NTHi invasion with no evidence of intracellular replication. Electron microscopy revealed that majority of internalized NTHi resided within membrane bound acidic endocytic vacuoles. However, at later stages i.e. 8h postinfection significant reduction in viable intracellular NTHi was observed and vacuoles were found to be empty with NTHi escape into the cytosol. By 12h, cytopathic changes of cells were evident with massive vacuolization of cytoplasm, intense chromatin condensation and intact plasma membrane. Furthermore, analysis of apoptotic markers confirmed that infected A549 cells underwent apoptosis at later stages. In addition, inhibition of internalization of NTHi by cytochalasin D prevented apoptosis of cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that internalization of NTHi and its escape from vacuolar compartments triggers cytotoxicity of alveolar cells via apoptosis during the infection process.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pathogens and Disease 09/2014; 73(2). DOI:10.1111/2049-632X.12215 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) type emm1 is widely associated with streptococcal invasive disease. This type is prevalent worldwide but is rare in India. Instead, emm1-2 type which is closely related to emm1 but is a distinct type is more prevalent. Although emm1 has been well characterized, information available on emm1-2 is rare. In this study we present a comparative study of both types. DNA microarray analysis showed segregation of emm1 and emm1-2 isolates into two distinct clusters. Out of 229 arrayed genes, 83-87% were present, 6-9% absent and 4-8% genes were ambiguous in emm1 isolates. emm1-2 strains harbored only 68-77%, 11-13% were absent and 10-20% ambiguous genes. Fourteen genes, present in all emm1, were completely absent in the emm1-2 isolates. sfb1 is a gene which encodes for Streptococcal fibronectin binding adhesin and invasin which has restricted distribution among different emm types of GAS. A variant of sfb1 (sfb1-2) was the only gene which was present in all emm1-2 isolates, but absent from all emm1 strains. Sfb1 and Sfb1-2 differ in sequences in the aromatic domain and the proline rich repeat region, whereas the fibronectin binding region was conserved and exhibited similar fibronectin binding activity. The presence of Sfb1-2 in emm1-2 strains was concomitant with significantly higher fibronectin-binding and invasion efficiency of HEp-2 cells when compared to emm1 isolates. The role of Sfb1-2 in invasion was confirmed by latex bead assay. emm1-2 isolates follow membrane ruffling mechanism during invasion and intracellularly follow classical endocytic pathway. Further studies are required to understand the correlation between the presence of emm1-2 isolates and the disease pattern in North India.
    International Journal of Medical Microbiology 07/2014; 304(5-6). DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.04.011 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    Amit Agarwal · meenu singh · b p chatterjee · Anil Chauhan · Anuradha Chakraborti ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background. There is evidence that Tregs are important to prevent allergic diseases like asthma but limited literature exists on role of TH17 cells in allergic diseases. Methods. Fifty children with asthma and respiratory allergy (study group) and twenty healthy children (control group) were recruited in this study. Total IgE levels and pulmonary function tests were assessed. The expression of Tregs and cytokines was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The average level of total IgE in study group (316.8 ± 189.8 IU/mL) was significantly higher than controls (50 ± 17.5 IU/mL, P < 0.0001). The frequency of TH17 cells and culture supernatant level of IL-17 in study group (12.09 ± 8.67 pg/mL) was significantly higher than control group (2.01 ± 1.27 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Alternatively, the frequency of FOXP3 level was significantly lower in study group [(49.00 ± 13.47)%] than in control group [(95.91 ± 2.63)%] and CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) to CD4(+)CD25(+) ratio was also significantly decreased in study group [(6.33 ± 2.18)%] compared to control group [(38.61 ± 11.04)%]. The total serum IgE level is negatively correlated with FOXP3 level (r = -0.5273, P < 0.0001). The FOXP3 expression is negatively correlated with the IL-17 levels (r = -0.5631, P < 0.0001) and IL-4 levels (r = -0.2836, P = 0.0460). Conclusions. Imbalance in TH17/Tregs, elevated IL-17, and IL-4 response and downregulation of FOXP3 were associated with allergic asthma.
    International Journal of Pediatrics 06/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/636238
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) cccDNA levels is an absolute marker of HBV replication in the liver of HBV infected patients. This study aimed to quantify the HBV cccDNA levels in sera and liver tissue samples of treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B. Eighty one chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment naïve patients were enrolled from January 2009 to June 2011. Total HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA levels were quantified using sensitive real time PCR assay. The mean age of recruited patients was 34 ± 11.5 years. Fifty four (66.7 %) patients were HBeAg negative. Liver tissue samples were available from 2 HBeAg positive and 21 HBeAg negative CHB patients. The amount of total intrahepatic HBV DNA ranged from 0.09 to 1508.92 copies/cell. The median intrahepatic HBV cccDNA was 0.31 and 0.20 copies/cell in HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative cases, respectively. Serum HBV cccDNA was detectable in 85.2 % HBeAg positive and 48.1 % HBeAg negative CHB patients. Median serum HBV cccDNA was 46,000 and 26,350 copies/mL in HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative subjects, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the levels of intrahepatic total HBV DNA and intrahepatic HBV cccDNA (r = 0.533, p = 0.009). A positive correlation was also seen between serum HBV cccDNA levels and serum HBV DNA levels (r = 0.871, p < 0.001). It was concluded that serum HBV cccDNA could be detectable in higher proportion of HBeAg positive patients compared to HBeAg negative patients. Moreover, the median level of serum HBV cccDNA was significantly higher in HBeAg positive patients in contrast to HBeAg negative subjects.
    Molecular Biology Reports 04/2014; 41(7). DOI:10.1007/s11033-014-3339-7 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    Subodh Kumar · Yogesh Kumar Chawla · Sujata Ghosh · Anuradha Chakraborti ·
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Hepatitis C virus (genotype-3) causes acute and chronic hepatitis infection predomination in India. The infectious phase of the virus requires various host factors for its survival and subsequent viral particle production. Small RNA molecules like microRNA-122 (miR-122) are one such factor mostly present in the liver and play a supportive role in viral replication. Objective. In this study, diagnostic potential of miR-122 is evaluated in the sera of chronic hepatitis C patients. Methods. miRNAs were isolated from the sera samples of patients as well as controls and miR-122 expression was quantified by real-time PCR. Results. A significant augmentation was observed in the level of circulating miR-122 (median level, 0.66 versus 0.29, P = 0.001) in patients compared to controls with ROC value of 0.929 ± 0.034 (P < 0.001). Interestingly, miR-122 level also depicted a significant positive correlation with serum ALT (r = 0.53), AST (r = 0.44), and viral load (r = 0.52). Conclusion. The study thus unveiled the role of miR-122 as a plausible diagnostic biomarker during HCV genotype-3 infection in India.
    Disease markers 02/2014; 2014:435476. DOI:10.1155/2014/435476 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that reduced astrocytic uptake of neuronally released glutamate, alterations in expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) contribute to brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF). However, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these alterations occur in patients with ALF. We analyzed the mRNA expression of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT-1, EAAT-2), GFAP and AQP-4 in the cerebral cortex obtained at autopsy from 8 patients with ALF and from 7 patients with no evidence of hepatic or neurological disorders by real-time PCR, and protein expression was assessed using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated a significant decrease in GFAP mRNA and protein levels in ALF patients compared to controls. While the loss of EAAT-2 protein in ALF samples was post-translational in nature, EAAT-1 protein remained within normal limits. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that, in all cases, the losses of EAAT-2 and GFAP were uniquely astrocytic in their localization. AQP-4 mRNA expression was significantly increased and its immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased AQP-4 immunoreactivity in the glial end-feet process surrounding the microvessels. These findings provide evidence of selective alterations in the expression of genes coding for key astrocytic proteins implicated in central nervous system (CNS) excitability and brain edema in human ALF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2013; 128(5). DOI:10.1111/jnc.12511 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis, a major requirement for tumor growth and metastasis, is regulated by pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of angiogenic (VEGF, HIF-1α, Angiopiotein-2) and anti-angiogenic (endostatin, angiostatin and Thrombospondin-1) factors and to discern their clinical relevance. A total 90 patients (67 HCC, 9 cirrhosis and 14 chronic hepatitis) were enrolled in the study. Tissue transcript levels of angiogenic (VEGF, HIF-1α, Ang-2) and anti-angiogenic (endostatin, angiostatin and TSP-1) factors were analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the tissue samples. The tissue transcript levels of VEGF, HIF-1α and endostatin were found to be significantly higher in HCC in comparison to cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis. Although Ang-2, angiostatin and TSP-1 tissue transcript levels were higher in HCC group than the others groups but the difference was not statistically significant. In univariate analysis both VEGF and HIF-1α were found to be associated with poor survival of HCC patients. Multivariate analysis by the cox proportional hazard model revealed only VEGF as an independent factor predicting poor survival of the HCC patients. Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors are all highly expressed in HCC patients. Upregulation of tissue anti-angiogenic factors indicates the urgency for the alternative of anti-angiogenic therapies.
    Molecular Biology Reports 09/2013; 40(10). DOI:10.1007/s11033-013-2690-4 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    B Singla · Y Chawla · A Chakraborti · S Arora · A Das · R Dhiman · A Duseja ·

    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 09/2013; 20(s3). DOI:10.1111/jvh.12166_36 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prototype tumor wherein angiogenesis plays a vital role in its progression. The role of VEGF, a major angiogenic factor in HCC is known; however, the role of anti-angiogenic factors simultaneously with the angiogenic factors has not been studied before. Hence, in this study, the serum levels of major angiogenic [Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)] and anti-angiogenic (endostatin, angiostatin) factors were analyzed and correlated with clinico-radiological features and with outcome. A total of 150 patients (50 HCC, 50 cirrhosis and 50 chronic hepatitis) and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of VEGF, Ang-2, endostatin, and angiostatin were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HCC shows significantly elevated serum levels of angiogenic factors VEGF and Ang-2 and of anti-angiogenic factors endostatin and angiostatin. ROC curve analysis for serum VEGF yielded an optimal cut-off value of 225.14 pg/ml, with a sensitivity of 78 % and specificity of 84.7 % for a diagnosis of HCC and its distinction from other group. Using this value, the univariate and multivariate analysis revealed significantly poor outcome in patients with higher levels of serum VEGF (p = 0.009). Combinatorial analysis revealed that patients with higher levels of both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors showed poor outcome. Serum VEGF correlates with poor survival of HCC patients and, therefore, serves as a non-invasive biomarker of poor prognosis. Moreover, elevated levels of anti-angiogenic factors occur endogenously in HCC patients.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 08/2013; 383(1). DOI:10.1007/s11010-013-1759-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Ravi Doddapaneni · Yogesh K Chawla · Ashim Das · Jasvinder Kaur · Sujata Ghosh · Anuradha Chakraborti ·
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a versatile class of tiny non-coding RNAs involved in regulation of various biological processes. miRNA-122 (miR-122) is specifically and abundantly expressed in human liver. However, the role of miR-122 in differentiation of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells into hepatocytes remains unclear. In this study, dual positive CD34+/CD117+ expressing human fetal liver stem/progenitor cells was enriched by magnetic cell sorting and cultured in vitro. The level of miR-122 was found to be increased at specific time intervals. Interestingly, during the differentiation process of hepatocyte-like cells, the increase in expression of miR-122 was positively correlated with expression of hepatocyte-specific genes. The status of differentiation process was improved by transfection of miR-122 into enriched stem/progenitor cells. The expression level of hepatic-specific genes as well as liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) was significantly increased by overexpression of miR-122 in fetal liver stem/progenitor cells. Thus, the study delineated the role of hepato-specific miR-122 in differentiation of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells into hepatocyte-like cells which could be used as a therapeutic target molecule to generate abundant hepatocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 07/2013; 114(7). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24499 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome lead to decreased susceptibility to nucleos(t)ide analogs approved for treatment of HBV infection. The aim of this study was to detect and analyze pre-existing HBV RT mutations in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B. Seventy one chronic HBV treatment naïve patients were enrolled from January 2009 to June 2011. HBV RT sequence analysis was done by using direct bidirectional sequencing of semi-nested PCR products. HBV genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. Genotype D was found in 64 patients (90.1%) followed by genotype C and A which were present in 5 (7.0%) and 2 (2.8%) patients respectively. The results of the RT sequence analysis showed mutations in 34 (47.9%) patients. The rtH248N mutation was the most common mutation, accounting for 47.1% patients. Other common mutations included rtD263E/S, rtM129L, rtF122L/V/I, rtS135Y/H, rtQ149K, rtL91I, rtH126R, rtC256S/G, rtY257W, rtS259T and rtE271D, which were present in 26.5% (9/34), 29.4% (10/34), 20.6% (7/34), 20.6% (7/34), 20.6% (7/34), 17.6% (6/34), 14.7% (5/34), 14.7% (5/34), 11.8% (4/34), 11.8% (4/34) and 11.8% (4/34) patients respectively. The known primary drug resistance mutations were found in 3 (8.8%) patients. The present study shows the presence of RT amino acid substitutions in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B, which may decrease susceptibility to available oral antiviral drugs. On the basis of the finding of this study, genotypic testing is recommended before the start of therapy in naïve patients, so that suitable antiviral drugs can be prescribed. J. Med. Virol. 85:1155-1162, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 07/2013; 85(7):1155-62. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23608 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Anjali Priyadarshini · Anuradha Chakraborti · Arup K Mandal · Shrawan K Singh ·
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    ABSTRACT: The etiological factors associated with prostate cancer (CaP) have not been completely understood as yet. Genetic predisposition and inflammation is fast emerging as risk factors for CaP is a key player in the innate immune response and plays role in immune- surveillance and inflammation. The present study was conducted to evaluate TLR-4 gene polymorphism in patients with CaP. DNA was isolated from blood samples of 198 patients with CaP, 200 cases of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and 119 controls. TLR-4 gene polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile were determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique using Nco1 and Hinf 1 restriction enzymes. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS for windows, version 13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). A significantly high proportion of patients with CaP had AG genotype (16.6%) as compared to control (4.2%) [OR-4.4, 95% CI (1.57-13.26), P =0.0013] with respect to Asp299Gly single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). AA genotype showed a protective effect towards CaP development [OR-0.39, 95% CI (0.18-0.83), P=0.007). A trend was observed towards development of BPH with respect to AG genotype (P=0.06). Thr399Ile SNP was not significantly different among the population groups studied. This finding highlights the genetic predispositions to CaP with respect to TLR-4 gene. Individuals with Asp299Gly polymorphism having AG genotype appear to have four fold higher risk for development of Prostate cancer.
    Indian Journal of Urology 03/2013; 29(1):37-41. DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109982
  • Shweta Kapil · Ajay Duseja · Pallab Ray · Ashim Das · Anuradha Chakraborti · Radha K. Dhiman · Yogesh K. Chawla ·

    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology 03/2013; 3(1):S27–S28. DOI:10.1016/j.jceh.2013.03.057

  • Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology 03/2013; 3(1):S12. DOI:10.1016/j.jceh.2013.03.027

  • Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology 03/2012; 2(1):S22. DOI:10.1016/S0973-6883(12)60037-1
  • SK Goyal · YK Chawla · RK Vashista · A Chakraborti · RK Dhiman ·

    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology 03/2012; 2(1):S29. DOI:10.1016/S0973-6883(12)60052-8
  • S Kumar · YK Chawla · S Ghosh · A Chakraborti ·

    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology 03/2012; 2(1):S26. DOI:10.1016/S0973-6883(12)60045-0