[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related decline in periosteal adaptation negatively impacts the ability to utilize exercise to enhance bone mass and strength in the elderly. We recently observed that in senescent animals subject to cyclically applied loading, supplementation with Cyclosporin A (CsA) substantially enhanced the periosteal bone formation rates to levels observed in young animals. We therefore speculated that if the CsA supplement could enhance bone response to a variety of types of mechanical stimuli, this approach could readily provide the means to expand the range of mild stimuli that are robustly osteogenic at senescence. Here, we specifically hypothesized that a given CsA supplement would enhance bone formation induced in the senescent skeleton by both cyclic (1-Hz) and rest-inserted loading (wherein a 10-s unloaded rest interval is inserted between each load cycle). To examine this hypothesis, the right tibiae of senescent female C57BL/6 mice (22 Mo) were subjected to cyclic or rest-inserted loading supplemented with CsA at 3.0 mg/kg. As previously, we initially found that while the periosteal bone formation rate (p.BFR) induced by cyclic loading was enhanced when supplemented with 3.0 mg/kg CsA (by 140%), the response to rest-inserted loading was not augmented at this CsA dosage. In follow-up experiments, we observed that while a 30-fold lower CsA dosage (0.1 mg/kg) significantly enhanced p.BFR induced by rest-inserted loading (by 102%), it was ineffective as a supplement with cyclic loading. Additional experiments and statistical analysis confirmed that the dose-response relations were significantly different for cyclic versus rest-inserted loading, only because the two stimuli required distinct CsA dosages for efficacy. While not anticipated a priori, clarifying the complexity underlying the observed interaction between CsA dosage and loading type holds potential for insight into how bone response to a broad range of mechanical stimuli may be substantially enhanced in the senescent skeleton.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84868. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone loss can occur following bed rest, space flight, spinal cord injury, or age-related hormonal changes. The treatment methods for this condition include pharmaceutical interventions and exercise, neither of which is particularly effective. Other technologies include low intensity pulsed ultrasound targeted to the bone, used previously to enhance fracture healing, and whole body vibration. This study attempted to mitigate paralysis-induced bone loss indirectly, by applying pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) to the midbelly of a paralyzed muscle. We employed a mouse model of disuse that utilizes onabotulinumtoxin A, which induces rapid bone loss in 5 days. The pFUS treatments were performed daily for four consecutive days following paralysis. A spherically focused 2-MHz transducer produced 5-microsecond pulses at pulse repetition frequency mimicking motor neuron firing rates during walking (80 Hz) or standing (20 Hz). Two different power levels were used corresponding to peak positive focal pressures of 30 and 18 MPa. The trabecular bone changes were characterized using micro computed tomography. Our results indicated that application of pFUS at pulse repetition frequency of 20 Hz and lower amplitude setting successfully mitigated paralysis-induced bone loss. The targeted muscle tissue did not display any sign of injury. [Work supported by CDMRP SCIRP (SC090510).].
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 11/2013; 134(5):4181. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When the skeleton is catabolically challenged, there is great variability in the timing and extent of bone resorption observed at cancellous and cortical bone sites. It remains unclear whether this resorptive heterogeneity, which is often evident within a single bone, arises from increased permissiveness of specific sites to bone resorption or localized resorptive events of varied robustness. To explore this question, we used the mouse model of calf paralysis induced bone loss, which results in metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption of different timing and magnitude. Given this phenotypic pattern of resorption, we hypothesized that bone loss in the proximal tibia metaphysis and diaphysis occurs through resorption events that are spatially and temporally distinct. To test this hypothesis, we undertook three complimentary in vivo/μCT imaging studies. Specifically, we defined spatiotemporal variations in endocortical bone resorption during the 3weeks following calf paralysis, applied a novel image registration approach to determine the location where bone resorption initiates within the proximal tibia metaphysis, and explored the role of varied basal osteoclast activity on the magnitude of bone loss initiation in the metaphysis using μCT based bone resorption parameters. A differential response of metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption was observed throughout each study. Acute endocortical bone loss following muscle paralysis occurred almost exclusively within the metaphyseal compartment (96.5% of total endocortical bone loss within 6days). Using our trabecular image registration approach, we further resolved the initiation of metaphyseal bone loss to a focused region of significant basal osteoclast function (0.03mm(3)) adjacent to the growth plate. This correlative observation of paralysis induced bone loss mediated by basal growth plate cell dynamics was supported by the acute metaphyseal osteoclastic response of 5-wk vs. 13- month-old mice. Specifically, μCT based bone resorption rates normalized to initial trabecular surface (BRRBS) was 3.7-fold greater in Young vs. Aged mice (2.27±0.27μm(3)/μm(2)/day vs. 0.60±0.44μm(3)/μm(2)/day). In contrast with the focused bone loss initiation in the metaphysis, diaphyseal bone loss initiated homogeneously throughout the long axis of the tibia predominantly in the second week following paralysis (81.3% of diaphyseal endocortical expansion between days 6 and 13). The timing and homogenous nature is consistent with de novo osteoclastogenesis mediating the diaphyseal resorption. Taken together, our data suggests that tibial metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss induced by transient calf paralysis are spatially and temporally discrete events. In a broader context, these findings are an essential first step toward clarifying the timing and origins of multiple resorptive events that would require targeting to fully inhibit bone loss following neuromuscular trauma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including MET and VEGFR2. In a phase II clinical trial in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), cabozantinib treatment improved bone scans in 68% of evaluable patients. Our studies aimed to determine the expression of cabozantinib targets during PCa progression and to evaluate its efficacy in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant PCa in preclinical models while delineating its effects on tumor and bone. Using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays containing normal prostate, primary PCa, and soft tissue and bone metastases, our data show that levels of MET, P-MET, and VEGFR2 are increasing during PCa progression. Our data also show that the expression of cabozantinib targets are particularly pronounced in bone metastases. To evaluate cabozantinib efficacy on PCa growth in the bone environment and in soft tissues we used androgen-sensitive LuCaP 23.1 and castration-resistant C4-2B PCa tumors. In vivo, cabozantinib inhibited the growth of PCa in bone as well as growth of subcutaneous tumors. Furthermore, cabozantinib treatment attenuated the bone response to the tumor and resulted in increased normal bone volume. In summary, the expression pattern of cabozantinib targets in primary and castration-resistant metastatic PCa, and its efficacy in two different models of PCa suggest that this agent has a strong potential for the effective treatment of PCa at different stages of the disease.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78881. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone has long been established to be a highly mechanosensitive tissue. When subjected to mechanical loading, bone exhibits profoundly different anabolic responses depending on the temporal pattern in which the stimulus is applied. This phenomenon has been termed temporal processing, and involves complex signal amplification mechanisms that are largely unidentified. In this study, our goal was to characterize transcriptomic perturbations arising from the insertion of intermittent rest periods (a temporal variation with profound effects on bone anabolism) in osteoblastic cells subjected to fluid flow, and assess the utility of these perturbations to identify signaling pathways that are differentially activated by this temporal variation. At the level of the genome, we found that the common and differential alterations in gene expression arising from the two flow conditions were distributionally distinct, with the differential alterations characterized by many small changes in a large number of genes. Using bioinformatics analysis, we identified distinct up- and down-regulation transcriptomic signatures associated with the insertion of rest intervals, and found that the up-regulation signature was significantly associated with MAPK signaling. Confirming the involvement of the MAPK pathway, we found that the insertion of rest intervals significantly elevated flow-induced p-ERK1/2 levels by enabling a second spike in activity that was not observed in response to continuous flow. Collectively, these studies are the first to characterize distinct transcriptomic perturbations in bone cells subjected to continuous and intermittent stimulation, and directly demonstrate the utility of systems-based transcriptomic analysis to identify novel acute signaling pathways underlying temporal processing in bone cells.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74205. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice lacking the large zinc finger protein Schnurri-3 (Shn3) display increased bone mass, in part, attributable to augmented osteoblastic bone formation. Here, we show that in addition to regulating bone formation, Shn3 indirectly controls bone resorption by osteoclasts in vivo. Although Shn3 plays no cell-intrinsic role in osteoclasts, Shn3-deficient animals show decreased serum markers of bone turnover. Mesenchymal cells lacking Shn3 are defective in promoting osteoclastogenesis in response to selective stimuli, likely attributable to reduced expression of the key osteoclastogenic factor receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. The bone phenotype of Shn3-deficient mice becomes more pronounced with age, and mice lacking Shn3 are completely resistant to disuse osteopenia, a process that requires functional osteoclasts. Finally, selective deletion of Shn3 in the mesenchymal lineage recapitulates the high bone mass phenotype of global Shn3 KO mice, including reduced osteoclastic bone catabolism in vivo, indicating that Shn3 expression in mesenchymal cells directly controls osteoblastic bone formation and indirectly regulates osteoclastic bone resorption.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2012; 109(21):8173-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical exercise is thought to hold promise as a non-invasive countermeasure against skeletal fragility arising from post-menopausal and age-related osteoporosis. Importantly, mechanical loading and exercise are capable of increasing bone size via periosteal expansion, which by far, is the most effective means of strengthening the structure of a given bone. The focus of this review was to therefore explore whether exercise has the potential to increase periosteal modeling and bone size in the senescent skeleton. A survey of exercise trials in humans suggests that exercise interventions that enhance periosteal modeling in the young skeleton fail to do the same in the elderly skeleton. Underlying this ineffectiveness, in vitro studies indicate that aging lowers basal levels of cell function and degrades bone mechanotransduction at a variety of levels from altered second messenger signaling to gene expression driving proliferation and/or differentiation. Given these age-related alterations, the ultimate efficacy of an exercise intervention may depend upon concurrent supplementation that directly address deficits in signaling and/or cell function. In this context, in vivo animal models of mechanical loading that simulate the muted periosteal adaptation in the elderly hold potential to examine the efficacy of countermeasures. Preliminary in vivo experiments suggest that pharmacologically counteracting age-related deficits in cellular function can restore exercise induced periosteal modeling in the senescent skeleton to levels observed in young animals. If the safety and efficacy of this strategy were to be confirmed for human use, it would enable the utilization of exercise as a viable countermeasure against skeletal fragility at senescence.
Ageing research reviews 01/2012; 11(3):353-60. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A unilateral injection of botulinum toxin A (BTxA) in the calf induces paralysis and profound loss of ipsalateral trabecular bone within days. However, the cellular mechanism underlying acute muscle paralysis-induced bone loss (MPIBL) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that MPIBL arises via rapid and extensive osteoclastogenesis. We performed a series of in vivo experiments to explore this thesis. First, we observed elevated levels of the proosteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) within the proximal tibia metaphysis at 7 d after muscle paralysis (+113%, P<0.02). Accordingly, osteoclast numbers were increased 122% compared with the contralateral limb at 5 d after paralysis (P=0.04) and MPIBL was completely blocked by treatment with human recombinant osteoprotegerin (hrOPG). Further, conditional deletion of nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1), the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, completely inhibited trabecular bone loss (-2.2±11.9%, P<0.01). All experiments included negative control assessments of contralateral limbs and/or within-animal pre- and postintervention imaging. In summary, transient muscle paralysis induced acute RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis resulting in profound local bone resorption. Elucidation of the pathways that initiate osteoclastogenesis after paralysis may identify novel targets to inhibit bone loss and prevent fractures.
The FASEB Journal 11/2011; 26(3):1110-8. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical loads induce profound anabolic effects in the skeleton, but the molecular mechanisms that transduce such signals are still poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) is acutely up-regulated in response to exogenous mechanical stimuli secondary to prostanoid signaling and Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation. In this context, Hif-1α associates with β-catenin to inhibit Wnt target genes associated with bone anabolic activity. Mice lacking Hif-1α in osteoblasts and osteocytes form more bone when subjected to tibia loading as a result of increased osteoblast activity. Taken together, these studies indicate that Hif-1α serves as a negative regulator of skeletal mechanotransduction to suppress load-induced bone formation by altering the sensitivity of osteoblasts and osteocytes to mechanical signals.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 286(52):44449-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical loading of the skeleton, as induced by muscle function during activity, plays a critical role in maintaining bone homeostasis. It is not understood, however, whether diminished loading (and thus diminished mechanical stimuli) directly mediates the bone resorption that is associated with disuse. Our group has recently developed a murine model in which we have observed rapid and profound bone loss in the tibia following transient paralysis of the calf muscles. As cortical bone loss is achieved via rapid endocortical expansion without alterations in periosteal morphology, we believe this model holds unique potential to explore the spatial relation between altered mechanical stimuli and subsequent bone resorption. Given the available literature, we hypothesized that endocortical resorption following transient muscle paralysis would be spatially homogeneous. To test this hypothesis, we first validated an image registration algorithm that quantified site-specific cortical bone alterations with high precision and accuracy. We then quantified endocortical expansion in the tibial diaphysis within 21 days following transient muscle paralysis and found that, within the analyzed mid-diaphyseal region (3.15 mm), site-specific bone loss was focused on the anterior surface in the proximal region but shifted to the posterior surface at the distal end of the analyzed volume. This site-specific, and highly repeatable biologic response suggests active osteoclast chemotaxis or focal activation of osteoclastic resorption underlies the spatially consistent endocortical resorption induced by transient muscle paralysis. Clarifying this relation holds potential to yield unique insight into how the removal of factors critical for bone homeostasis acutely precipitates local modulation of cellular responses within bone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteocyte sclerostin is regulated by loading and disuse in mouse tibiae but is more closely related to subsequent local osteogenesis than the peak strains engendered.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between loading-related change in osteocyte sclerostin expression, local strain magnitude, and local bone modeling/remodeling.
The right tibiae of 19-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to non-invasive, dynamic axial loading and/or to sciatic neurectomy-induced disuse. The sclerostin status of osteocytes was evaluated immunohistochemically, changes in bone mass by micro-computed tomography, new bone formation by histomorphometry, and loading-induced strain by strain gauges and finite element analysis.
In cortical bone of the tibial shaft, loading engendered strains of similar peak magnitude proximally and distally. Proximally, sclerostin-positive osteocytes decreased and new bone formation increased. Distally, there was neither decrease in sclerostin-positive osteocytes nor increased osteogenesis. In trabecular bone of the proximal secondary spongiosa, loading decreased sclerostin-positive osteocytes and increased bone volume. Neither occurred in the primary spongiosa. Disuse increased sclerostin-positive osteocytes and decreased bone volume at all four sites. Loading reversed this sclerostin upregulation to a level below baseline in the proximal cortex and secondary spongiosa.
Loading-related sclerostin downregulation in osteocytes of the mouse tibia is associated preferentially with regions where new bone formation is stimulated rather than where high peak strains are engendered. The mechanisms involved remain unclear, but could relate to peak surface strains not accurately reflecting the strain-related osteogenic stimulus or that sclerostin regulation occurs after sufficient signal processing to distinguish between local osteogenic and non-osteogenic responses.
Osteoporosis International 05/2011; 23(4):1225-34. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that connexin mediated gap junctional intercellular communication contributes to many aspects of bone biology including bone development, maintenance of bone homeostasis and responsiveness of bone cells to diverse extracellular signals. Deletion of connexin 43, the predominant gap junction protein in bone, is embryonic lethal making it challenging to examine the role of connexin 43 in bone in vivo. However, transgenic murine models in which only osteocytes and osteoblasts are deficient in connexin 43, and which are fully viable, have recently been developed. Unfortunately, the bone phenotype of different connexin 43 deficient models has been variable. To address this issue, we used an osteocalcin driven Cre-lox system to create osteoblast and osteocyte specific connexin 43 deficient mice. These mice displayed bone loss as a result of increased bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. The mechanism underlying this increased osteoclastogenesis included increases in the osteocytic, but not osteoblastic, RANKL/OPG ratio. Previous in vitro studies suggest that connexin 43 deficient bone cells are less responsive to biomechanical signals. Interestingly, and in contrast to in vitro studies, we found that connexin 43 deficient mice displayed an enhanced anabolic response to mechanical load. Our results suggest that transient inhibition of connexin 43 expression and gap junctional intercellular communication may prove a potentially powerful means of enhancing the anabolic response of bone to mechanical loading.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23516. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The critical role that mechanical stimuli serve in mediating bone repair is recognized but incompletely understood. Further, previous attempts to understand this role have utilized application of externally applied mechanical loads to study the tissue's response. In this project, we have therefore endeavored to capitalize on bone's own consistently diverse loading environment to develop a novel model that would enable assessment of the influence of physiologically engendered mechanical stimuli on cortical defect repair. We used an inverse dynamics approach with finite element analysis (FEA) to first quantify normal strain distributions generated in mouse tibia during locomotion. The strain environment of the tibia, as previously reported for other long bones, was found to arise primarily due to bending and was consistent in orientation through the stance phase of gait. Based on these data, we identified three regions within a transverse cross-section of the mid-diaphysis as uniform locations of either peak tension, peak compression, or the neutral axis of bending (i.e. minimal strain magnitude). We then used FEA to quantify the altered strain environment that would be produced by a 0.6mm diameter cylindrical cortical bone defect at each diaphyseal site and, in an in situ study confirmed our ability to accurately place defects at the desired diaphyseal locations. The resulting model will enable the exploration of cortical bone healing within the context of physiologically engendered mechanical strain.
Journal of biomechanics 10/2010; 43(14):2765-70. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little doubt that skeletal development and subsequent maintenance of bone mass and morphology during adulthood is greatly influenced by viable muscle function. In this review, we will summarize human observations that support this concept, then focus on models that have enabled (or may enable in the future) insight into the co-dependency of muscle and bone. Specifically, we will summarize data generated with three types of models: 1) spinal cord injury models, 2) transgenic mice with altered muscle function, and 3) experimental models affecting one hindlimb or a single muscle group. In sum, these data clearly support the concept that muscle function is critical for the successful development of the skeleton and is likely to play an important role in mediating bone health through life. The specific signaling pathways by which this interdependency is achieved, however, remain to be clarified.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing incidence of osteoporosis worldwide requires anabolic treatments that are safe, effective, and, critically, inexpensive given the prevailing overburdened health care systems. While vigorous skeletal loading is anabolic and holds promise, deficits in mechanotransduction accrued with age markedly diminish the efficacy of readily complied, exercise-based strategies to combat osteoporosis in the elderly. Our approach to explore and counteract these age-related deficits was guided by cellular signaling patterns across hierarchical scales and by the insight that cell responses initiated during transient, rare events hold potential to exert high-fidelity control over temporally and spatially distant tissue adaptation. Here, we present an agent-based model of real-time Ca(2+)/NFAT signaling amongst bone cells that fully described periosteal bone formation induced by a wide variety of loading stimuli in young and aged animals. The model predicted age-related pathway alterations underlying the diminished bone formation at senescence, and hence identified critical deficits that were promising targets for therapy. Based upon model predictions, we implemented an in vivo intervention and show for the first time that supplementing mechanical stimuli with low-dose Cyclosporin A can completely rescue loading induced bone formation in the senescent skeleton. These pre-clinical data provide the rationale to consider this approved pharmaceutical alongside mild physical exercise as an inexpensive, yet potent therapy to augment bone mass in the elderly. Our analyses suggested that real-time cellular signaling strongly influences downstream bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli, and quantification of these otherwise inaccessible, transient events in silico yielded a novel intervention with clinical potential.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Post-menopausal and age-related osteoporosis afflicts large segments of the population and can markedly increase skeletal fragility. Bone fractures that occur as a consequence substantially increase health care expenditures and raise levels of morbidity. While strategies that prevent further loss of bone exist, options that compensate for bone loss accrued over age are less numerous. Physical exercise holds promise in this realm. However, in part due to deficits in how cells within bone respond to skeletal loading, readily complied exercise has proved ineffective in enhancing bone mass in the elderly. In this study, we examined whether the ability of physical exercise to increase bone mass can be restored at advanced age. To this end, we developed a computational model describing how a specific aspect (or pathway) activated in bone cells by skeletal loading may be altered with age. Our model proved successful in describing age-related pathway alterations and identified specific deficits that were amenable to therapeutic manipulation. We subsequently discovered that when an extremely inexpensive, currently approved pharmaceutical is used as a supplement, bone response to skeletal loading was completely rescued in aged animals. We believe that this result provides the rationale to consider this approach as a means to increasing bone mass in the elderly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that transient paralysis of murine hindlimb muscles causes profound degradation of both trabecular and cortical bone in the adjacent skeleton within 3 weeks. Morphologically, the acute loss of bone tissue appeared to arise primarily due to osteoclastic bone resorption. Given that the loss of muscle function in this model is transient, we speculated that the stimulus for osteoclastic activation would be rapid and morphologic evidence of bone resorption would appear before 21 days. We therefore utilized high-resolution in vivo serial micro-CT to assess longitudinal alterations in lower hindlimb muscle volume, proximal tibia trabecular, and tibia mid-diaphysis cortical bone morphology in 16-week-old female C57 mice following transient calf paralysis from a single injection of botulinum toxin A (BtA; 2U/100 g body weight). In an acute study, we evaluated muscle and bone alterations at days 0, 3, 5, and 12 following transient calf paralysis. In a chronic study, following day 0 imaging, we assessed the recovery of these tissues following the maximum observed trabecular degradation (day 12) through day 84 post-paralysis. The time course and degree of recovery of muscle, trabecular, and cortical bone varied substantially. Significant atrophy of lower limb muscle was evident by day 5 of paralysis, maximal at day 28 (-34.1+/-0.9%) and partially recovered by day 84. Trabecular degradation within the proximal tibia metaphysis occurred more rapidly, with significant reduction in BV/TV by day 3, maximal loss at day 12 (-76.8+/-2.9%) with only limited recovery by day 84 (-51.7+/-5.1% vs. day 0). Significant cortical bone volume degradation at the tibia mid-diaphysis was first identified at day 12, was maximal at day 28 (-9.6+/-1.2%), but completely recovered by day 84. The timing, magnitude, and morphology of the observed bone erosion induced by transient muscle paralysis were consistent with a rapid recruitment and prolific activation of osteoclastic resorption. In a broader context, understanding how brief paralysis of a single muscle group can precipitate such rapid and profound bone resorption in an adjacent bone is likely to provide new insight into how normal muscle function modulates bone homeostasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: mTOR activity is increased in advanced prostate cancer (CaP) as a result of a high rate of PTEN mutations. RAD001 (Everolimus) is a new orally available mTOR inhibitor. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of RAD001 on the growth of CaP in the bone, both alone and in combination with docetaxel and zoledronic acid.
C4-2 CaP cells were injected into tibiae of mice and the animals were treated with RAD001, docetaxel, and zoledronic acid alone or in combination. Histomorphometrical analysis, serum PSA measurements, bone mineral density (BMD), and microCT were used to determine the effects of treatment on tumor and bone.
All three agents alone decreased tumor volume, and RAD001 and docetaxel also decreased levels of serum PSA by 68% and 65%, respectively (both P < 0.01). Combinations of the agents were more effective in decreasing tumor volume than single agents. Three-drug treatment showed the greatest effect: 64% inhibition versus control (P < 0.01). Treatment with RAD001 interfered with the weight loss associated with growth of this tumor in the bone (non-RAD001 groups: 4.0% decrease in body weight, P = 0.0014; RAD001 groups: increase of 3.6% in body weight, P = 0.0037).
RAD001 inhibited growth of C4-2 cells in bone, an effect augmented by addition of docetaxel and zoledronic acid. Moreover RAD001 had a significant impact on maintenance of body weight. RAD001 may hold promise for its effects on both metastatic CaP and the important syndrome of tumor cachexia.
The Prostate 07/2008; 68(8):861-71. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies indicate that C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice are mildly responsive to mechanical loading compared to C57BL/6J (C57) mice. Guided by data indicating high baseline periosteal osteoblast activity in 16 wk C3H mice, we speculated that simply allowing the C3H mice to age until basal periosteal bone formation was equivalent to that of 16 wk C57 mice would restore mechanoresponsiveness in C3H mice. We tested this hypothesis by subjecting the right tibiae of 32 wk old C3H mice and 16 wk old C57 mice to low magnitude rest-inserted loading (peak strain: 1235 mu epsilon) and then exposing the right tibiae of 32 wk C3H mice to low (1085 mu epsilon) or moderate (1875 mu epsilon) magnitude cyclic loading. The osteoblastic response to loading on the endocortical and periosteal surfaces was evaluated via dynamic histomorphometry. At 32 wk of age, C3H mice responded to low magnitude rest-inserted loading with significantly elevated periosteal mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate and bone formation compared to unloaded contralateral bones. Surprisingly, the periosteal bone formation induced by low magnitude rest-inserted loading in C3H mice exceeded that induced in 16 wk C57 mice. At 32 wk of age, C3H mice also demonstrated an elevated response to increased magnitudes of cyclic loading. We conclude that a high level of basal osteoblast function in 16 wk C3H mice appears to overwhelm the ability of the tissue to respond to an otherwise anabolic mechanical loading stimulus. However, when basal surface osteoblast activity is equivalent to that of 16 wk C57 mice, C3H mice demonstrate a clear ability to respond to either rest-inserted or cyclic loading.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that a 10-s rest interval (at zero load) inserted between each load cycle would increase the osteogenic effects of mechanical loading near previously identified thresholds for strain magnitude and cycle numbers. We tested our hypothesis by subjecting the right tibiae of female C57BL/6J mice (16 wk, n = 70) to exogenous mechanical loading within a peri-threshold physiological range of strain magnitudes and load cycle numbers using a noninvasive murine tibia loading device. Bone responses to mechanical loading were determined via dynamic histomorphometry. More specifically, we contrasted bone formation induced by cyclic vs. rest-inserted loading (10-s rest at zero load inserted between each load cycle) by first varying peak strains (1,000, 1,250, or 1,600 micro epsilon) at fixed cycle numbers (50 cycles/day, 3 days/wk for 3 wk) and then varying cycle numbers (10, 50, or 250 cycles/day) at a fixed strain magnitude (1,250 micro epsilon). Within the range of strain magnitudes tested, the slope of periosteal bone formation rate (p.BFR/BS) with increasing strain magnitudes was significantly increased by rest-inserted compared with cyclical loading. Within the range of load cycles tested, the slope of p.BFR/BS with increasing load cycles of rest-inserted loading was also significantly increased by rest-inserted compared with cyclical loading. In sum, the data of this study indicate that inserting a 10-s rest interval between each load cycle amplifies bone's response to mechanical loading, even within a peri-threshold range of strain magnitudes and cycle numbers.
Journal of Applied Physiology 06/2007; 102(5):1945-52. · 3.48 Impact Factor