[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mauritania is a highly endemic region for hepatitis B (HBV) and delta (HDV) viruses. No data are available on HDV's impact on the severity of liver disease in consecutive HBV-infected patients in Africa. This study evaluated the degree of liver fibrosis in a cohort of chronic HBV carriers.
Three-hundred consecutive HBV-infected Mauritanian patients were checked for HDV infection via the detection of anti-HDV antibodies (Ab) and viral RNA. HBV- vs. HBV/HDV-infected patients were compared by physical examination, biological analyses, and the APRI (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index) and FibroMeter tests for determination of liver fibrosis.
More than 30% of the patients had anti-HDVAb. Among these, 62.2% were HDV-RNA positive. Co-infected patients were older (>8-years) than HBV-mono-infected patients. They had more liver tests abnormalities and clinical or ultrasound signs of liver fibrosis. APRI and FibroMeter scores were also significantly increased in these patients. In multivariate analysis, beyond HDVAb, male gender and HBV-VL >3.7 logIU/mL were the only markers linked to significant liver fibrosis.
In Mauritania, HDV co-infection worsens liver disease, both clinically and biologically, as confirmed by the APRI and FibroMeter tests. These tests may be useful for the management of delta hepatitis, which is a major health problem in Mauritania.
The Journal of infection 06/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor resistance-associated substitutions are selected during triple therapy breakthrough. This multicenter quality control study evaluated the expertise in HCV protease inhibitor resistance genotyping of 23 French laboratories. A panel of 12 well-defined blinded samples comprising two wild-type HCV strains, nine transcripts from synthetic NS3 mutant samples or from clinical strains, and one HCV RNA-negative sample was provided to the participating laboratories. The results showed that any laboratory with expertise in sequencing techniques should be able to provide reliable HCV protease inhibitor resistance genotyping. Only 0.7% erroneous results were reported over the amino acid sites studied. The accuracy of substitution identification ranged from 75% to 100%, depending on the laboratory. Incorrect results were mainly related to the methodology used. The results could be improved by changing the primers and modifying the process in order to avoid cross-contaminations. This study underlines the value of quality control programs for viral resistance genotyping, required prior to launching observational collaborative multicenter studies on HCV resistance to direct-acting antiviral agents.
Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A program, supported by the GEMHEP (Groupe d'étude Moléculaire des Hépatites), was established in 2007 in the sanitary district of Tokombéré, to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). It comprises screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in all pregnant women and vaccinating the newborn if tests are positive.
1276 women were enrolled in the study after providing informed consent. Demographic data and blood samples were available for 1267 of the enrolled patients. HBsAg was determined locally using a rapid test (Vikia HBsAg, Biomerieux). Tests for HBV and HDV virological markers (HBeAg, anti-HDV antibodies (Ab), HBV-DNA, HDV-RNA, HBV and HDV genotypes) were performed on the confirmed HBsAg-positive samples in the virology unit of the Angers University Hospital (France). HBsAg was found in 259 of the 1267 pregnant women (20.4%) between January 2009 and April 2010, of whom 59 were HBeAg-positive (22.7%) with high levels of HBV-DNA. Anti-HDV Ab were found in 19 (7.3%) of the HBsAg-positive women. The prevalence rates of HBsAg and HDV were not age-dependent whereas HBeAg carriers were statistically younger than non carriers. Basal core promoter (BCP) and precore (PC) mutations and genotypes were determined by sequencing. Of 120 amplified sequences, 119 belonged to HBV genotype E (HBV/E) and the 9 HDV strains belonged to HDV clade 1. In the PC region, 83/228 patients (36.4%) harbored a G1896A mutant or mixed phenotype virus. In the BCP region, the double mutation A1762T/G1764A and the G1757A substitution were detected respectively in 26/228 patients (11.4%) and 189/228 patients (82.8%).
Our results confirm the high prevalence and low molecular diversity of HBV in Far Northern Cameroon; more than 20% of the infected women were highly viremic, suggesting a high rate of HBV perinatal transmission and supporting the WHO recommendation to vaccinate at birth against hepatitis B.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80346. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L’antigène de surface du virus de l’hépatite B (AgHBs) est le marqueur qualitatif sérologique utilisé pour le diagnostic d’une infection par le virus de l’hépatite B (VHB) et sa persistance pendant plus de six mois définit l’hépatite chronique. La quantification de cet AgHBs a été évoquée il y a plusieurs années, la disponibilité récente de techniques de dosage quantitatif de l’AgHBs a permis de suggérer l’intérêt de ce marqueur dans le suivi des patients infectés par le VHB. En effet, le titre sérique de l’AgHBs serait le reflet de la quantité d’ADNccc présent dans l’hépatocyte. Plusieurs études ont montré une variation du titre de l’AgHBs au cours des différentes phases de l’histoire naturelle du VHB. La cinétique de sa décroissance semble avoir un rôle prédictif dans la clairance de l’AgHBs au cours de l’histoire naturelle de l’hépatite B ou d’une réactivation virale, dans la non-réponse au traitement. Cependant, l’interprétation doit se faire en fonction de la phase de l’hépatite B, du génotype viral, du statut AgHBe et de la charge virale VHB.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No recent data are available on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) prevalence in Mauritania. One thousand twenty pregnant women and 946 patients visiting for routine checkups were screened for HBV and HDV infection. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnic, clinical, and biological data were recorded. HBV and HDV genotypes were determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. In the pregnant women and patients cohorts, respectively, the prevalence of HBsAg (10.7% and 18.3%) and anti-HBcAb (66.3% and 76.5%) indicated high HBV endemicity. In pregnant women, exposure to HBV was significantly associated in multivariate analysis with education level, ethnicity, blood transfusion, and occupation. HDV antibodies (HDVAb) were found in 14.7% of pregnant women. In patients, HBsAg was found less frequently in females than in males. Again in multivariate analysis, exposure to HBV was significantly correlated with gender (males), and HDVAb positivity with age and gender. The HBV DNA viral load was >3 log IU/ml in only 10.1% of pregnant women and in 17.3% of patients. HDV-RNA was detectable in 21 (67.7%) of the 31 patients positive for HDVAb, and in 11 of the 16 pregnant women positive for HDVAb (68.8%). The most frequent HBV genotypes were: HBV/D, 53%; HBV/E, 35%; and HBV/A, 12%. Sub-genotyping revealed HBV/D1,/D7, and the recently described/D8. HDV genotypes were: HDV-1, 90.3% and HDV-5, 9.7%. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV and HDV infections in Mauritania and demonstrates the high genetic diversity of HBV in this country.
Journal of Medical Virology 08/2012; 84(8):1186-98. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To screen hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and associated basal core promoter (BCP; T1762A/A1764) and precore (PC; A1896) mutations among the 100 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive voluntary blood donors in France.
HBV genotypes were determined by using direct sequence analysis. Three methods were used to detect G1896A mutation: non-commercial real-time PCR (PCRTR°, line probe assay (InnoLiPA HBV PreCore, INNOGENETICS(®)) and direct sequencing of precore gene. HBV viral load was quantified with two commercial real-time PCR (COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV Test/Roche and Real Time HBV/M2000/Abbott).
The mean age of donors was 30 (18-64). Patients were from Africa (42%), Europa (50%), and Asia (8%). HBV/D was the most predominant (37%) genotype followed by HBV/A (31%) and HBV/E (22%). PC and BCP mutants were found in 57% with Inno-LIPA HBV test and 59% with both PCRTR and sequencing methods. A significant difference in the viral load of blood donors with wild and PC mutants was observed with the Taqman Cobas real time PCR (3,19 Log(10) UI/ml versus 4,93 Log(10) UI/ml, p < 0.05). Precore phenotype determination was in agreement with the three PC mutation detection methods in 56% of cases.
Non-Caucasian genotype E was present in the French blood donors. PC mutation was more common than BCP mutations in this study. As HBV infected blood donors were more often asymptomatic carriers, we could speculate that the G1896A mutation may favour the asymptomatic state, supporting previous observations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared three hyaluronic acid (HA) assays and analyzed the impact of their variations on FibroMeter scores.
In a test group of 165 patients, HA levels were assessed with the commonly used ELISA assay from Corgenix, a new ELISA assay from Teco and an immunoturbidimetry assay from Wako, this latter tested across three different instruments. Five different FibroMeter scores were calculated.
Correlation across the three assays (r(s) between 0.969 and 0.995) was very good. Means of differences (d) were lower when the immunoturbidimetry assay was compared on different instruments: d between -3.4 and 2.0 μg/L. However, a higher value for HA measurement was observed with Corgenix assay, compared to the other two assays (Teco and Wako): d between 27.1 and 36.4 μg/L. The assessment also demonstrated that HA variations had very little impact on FibroMeter scores: 0.0117 for virus and 0.0416 for alcoholic fibrosis scores, and between 0.58 and 1.71 for the area of fibrosis (expressed in percentage).
The two new assays found lower values of HA, as compared to the Corgenix assay. However, these differences had very little impact on FibroMeter scores and had no impact on clinical evaluation of liver fibrosis.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 11/2010; 412(3-4):347-52. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) is an important aid in the diagnosis of patients infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). A multi-center study was conducted to characterize the performance of the HBsAg assay on the family of Access immunoassay systems from Beckman Coulter.
The Access HBsAg assay was characterized in a multi-center study and compared to the Abbott AxSYM* and PRISM* HBsAg assays. The bioMérieux VIDAS* assay was used to resolve discrepant results. Reproducibility studies (intra-assay, inter-assay and inter-lot) were performed with pooled serum samples (negative sample, close to cut off, low, medium and high positive samples). Analytical sensitivity, subtype and genotype detection were studied with various commercial panels (SFTS panel, WHO 80/549, WHO 00/588, Teragenix HBV Genotype panel). A panel of recombinant HBsAg mutant proteins was tested to investigate reactivity towards genetic mutations. Clinical sensitivity was verified with seroconversion panels and samples from subjects with known HBV infection. Analytical specificity was studied with samples from patients with potential cross-reactive infections. Clinical specificity was validated among blood donors and a hospitalized population.
The imprecision was < 10%. Analytical sensitivity was < or = 0.1 ng/mL (SFTS panel), 0.020 PEI Units/mL (ad panel), 0.024 PEI Units/mL (ay panel), 0.092 IU/mL with WHO 80/549 and 0.056 IU/mL with WHO 00/588. All genotype samples and HBsAg mutants were reactive with the Access HBsAg assay. Seroconversion panels tested showed no significant difference with the reference method. Sensitivity for subjects with known HBV infection was 100%. No interference with potentially cross-reactive infections was observed after confirmatory testing. Specificity was 99.96% (100% after confirmatory testing) in a blood donor population and 99.5% (100% after confirmatory testing) in a hospitalized population. Excellent separation of positive and negative populations was observed.
The Access HBsAg and HBsAg Confirmatory assays meet all clinical and analytical performance requirements of assays for the detection of HBsAg.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus genotype is considered to be the most important baseline predictor of a sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The influence of the subtype on the sustained virological response was investigated in patients infected with genotypes 1, 4, 5, or 6. This study was done on 597 patients with chronic hepatitis C who were given pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks. The overall rate of sustained virological response in the 597 patients was 37.8%. Univariate analysis indicated that the sustained virological response of patients infected with subtype 1b (39%) tended to be higher than that of patients infected with subtype 1a (30.6%; P = 0.06) and it was similar to those patients infected with subtypes 4a (51.3%; P = 0.12) or 4d (51.7%; P = 0.16). Multivariate analysis indicated that five factors were independently associated with sustained virological response: the age (OR 0.97; 95% CI = 0.95-0.99), absence of cirrhosis (OR: 2.92; 95% CI = 1.7-5.0; P < 0.01), absence of HIV co-infection (OR: 2.08; 95% CI = 1.2-3.5; P < 0.01), low baseline plasma HCV RNA concentration (OR: 1.74; 95% CI = 1.2-2.6; P < 0.01), and the subtype 1b (OR: 1.61; 95% CI = 1.0-2.5; P = 0.04) or subtypes 4a and 4d (OR: 2.03; 95% CI = 1.1-3.8; P = 0.03). In conclusion, among difficult-to-treat genotypes, the subtype 1a is associated with a lower response to anti-HCV therapy than subtypes 1b, 4a, and 4d.
Journal of Medical Virology 12/2009; 81(12):2029-35. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment schedule (combination of compounds, doses, and duration) and the virological follow-up for management of antiviral treatment in patients chronically infected by HCV is now well standardized, but to ensure good monitoring of the treated patients, physicians need rapid, reproducible, and sensitive molecular virological tools with a wide range of detection and quantification of HCV RNA in blood samples. Several assays for detection and/or quantification of HCV RNA are currently commercially available. Here, all these assays are detailed, and a brief description of each step of the assay is provided. They are divided into two categories by method: those based on signal amplification and those based on target amplification. These two categories are then divided into qualitative, quantitative, and quantitative detection assays. The real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assays are the most promising strategy in the HCV virological area.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2009; 510:3-14.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NS5B, is essential for virus RNA replication. It is thus an attractive therapeutic target. Several compound nucleoside analogues, non-nucleoside inhibitors and cyclosporine analogues are being developed to inhibit NS5B activity. However, nucleotide changes in the NS5B gene can confer resistance to them.
We investigated the prevalence of known substitutions conferring resistance in HCV polymerase in 124 treatment-naive French patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 by sequencing the NS5B gene.
None of the 124 HCV NS5B sequences analysed contained substitutions conferring resistance to nucleoside analogues; however, NS5B polymerases containing substitutions conferring resistance to non-nucleoside inhibitors were frequent within genotype 1 strains (17%) and very common in non-genotype 1 strains. Similarly, substitutions conferring resistance to cyclosporine analogues were more prevalent within the various genotypes.
Naturally occurring substitutions conferring resistance to NS5B inhibitors are common in treatment-naive patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. Their influence on treatment outcome should be assessed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that, in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, co-infections with other viruses may affect the response to HCV therapy. We aimed to assess the prevalence of GBV-C, SEN-V and occult HBV infections, their impact on HCV and HIV infections and on the response to HCV therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients.
Three-hundred and sixty eight patients were tested before starting interferon-ribavirin for the presence of occult hepatitis B DNA, GBV-C RNA and SEN-V DNA by using real time PCR. Clinical, immunological, virological, histological characteristics and response to HCV therapy were compared according to the presence or not of each viral co-infection.
HBV DNA, GBV-C RNA and SEN-V DNA were found in 5 (1.4%, CI95%: 0.2-2.4%), 104 (29.9%, CI95%: 25.1-34.7%) and 209 patients (57.9%, CI95%: 52.8-63.0%), respectively. GBV-C positive patients had significantly higher CD4 count at baseline, during and after HCV therapy, even after stratification on antiretroviral treatment. No other significant difference was observed according to the presence or not of GBV-C or SEN-V co-infection, in particular regarding virological responses to HCV combination therapy.
There is no reason to withhold HCV therapy in HIV infected patients who have access to HAART, because of occult HBV, GBV-C or SEN-V co-infections.
Journal of Hepatology 08/2008; 49(6):892-8. · 9.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the link between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and virologic response in 383 HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. A low alpha-fetoprotein level (<5.0 ng/ml) was an independent predictor of sustained virologic response (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.20). Serum alpha-fetoprotein measurement should be integrated in the pretreatment assessment of prognostic factors of a virologic response.
AIDS (London, England) 07/2008; 22(12):1513-5. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the inter-laboratory reproducibility of blood test for liver fibrosis: FibroMeter, Fibrotest, APRI and their composites variables.
Four studies, including 147 patients, were performed: study #1 included 2 metachronous blood samples and 2 laboratories; studies #2, #3 and #4 included synchronous samples with assays delayed at day 1 in 12 laboratories, at day 0 in 10 laboratories and at day 0 or 1 in 2 laboratories, respectively. Agreement was evaluated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (r(ic)).
In studies #1, #2 and #4, r(ic) for FibroMeter was 0.893, 0.942 and 0.991, respectively. In study #3, the r(ic) were: FibroMeter: 0.963, Fibrotest: 0.984, APRI: 0.949. Large simulated variations in composite variables had a weak impact on FibroMeter.
When blood marker limits are controlled, inter-laboratory agreement of blood tests is excellent in clinical practice conditions. Blood tests are robust against the variability of composite blood variables.