Susan M Frayne

VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (63)229.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Importance: Many Vietnam-era women veterans served in or near war zones and may have experienced stressful or traumatic events during their service. Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well studied among men who served in Vietnam, no major epidemiologic investigation of PTSD among women has been performed. Objectives: To assess (1) the onset and prevalence of lifetime and current PTSD for women who served during the Vietnam era, stratified by wartime location (Vietnam, near Vietnam, or the United States), and (2) the extent to which wartime location was associated with PTSD, with adjustment for demographics, service characteristics, and wartime exposures. Design, setting, and participants: Survey of 8742 women who were active-duty military personnel in the US Armed Forces at any time from July 4, 1965, through March 28, 1973, and alive as of survey receipt as part of Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 579, HealthVIEWS. Data were obtained from mailed and telephone surveys from May 16, 2011, through August 5, 2012, and analyzed from June 26, 2013, through July 30, 2015. Main outcomes and measures: Lifetime and current PTSD as measured by the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0; onset of PTSD; and wartime experiences as measured by the Women's Wartime Exposure Scale-Revised. Results: Among the 4219 women (48.3%) who completed the survey and a telephone interview, the weighted prevalence (95% CI) of lifetime PTSD was 20.1% (18.3%-21.8%), 11.5% (9.1%-13.9%), and 14.1% (12.4%-15.8%) for the Vietnam, near-Vietnam, and US cohorts, respectively. The weighted prevalence (95% CI) of current PTSD was 15.9% (14.3%-17.5%), 8.1% (6.0%-10.2%), and 9.1% (7.7%-10.5%) for the 3 cohorts, respectively. Few cases of PTSD among the Vietnam or near-Vietnam cohorts were attributable to premilitary onset (weighted prevalence, 2.9% [95% CI, 2.2%-3.7%] and 2.9% [95% CI, 1.7%-4.2%], respectively). Unadjusted models for lifetime and current PTSD indicated that women who served in Vietnam were more likely to meet PTSD criteria than women who mainly served in the United States (odds ratio [OR] for lifetime PTSD, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.28-1.83]; OR for current PTSD, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.53-2.33]). When we adjusted for wartime exposures, serving in Vietnam or near Vietnam did not increase the odds of having current PTSD (adjusted ORs, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.75-1.46] and 0.77 [95% CI, 0.52-1.14], respectively). Conclusions and relevance: The prevalence of PTSD for the Vietnam cohort was higher than previously documented. Vietnam service significantly increased the odds of PTSD relative to US service; this effect appears to be associated with wartime exposures, especially sexual discrimination or harassment and job performance pressures. Results suggest long-lasting mental health effects of Vietnam-era service among women veterans.
    JAMA Psychiatry 10/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1786 · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Veterans Health Administration (VA) Women's Health Practice-Based Research Network (WH-PBRN) was created to foster innovations for the health care of women veterans. The inaugural study by the WH-PBRN was designed to identify women veterans' own priorities and preferences for mental health services and to inform refinements to WH-PBRN operational procedures. Addressing the latter, this article reports lessons learned from the inaugural study. Methods: WH-PBRN site coordinators at the 4 participating sites convened weekly with the study coordinator and the WH-PBRN program manager to address logistical issues and identify lessons learned. Findings were categorized into a matrix of challenges and facilitators related to key study elements. Results: Challenges to the conduct of PBRN-based research included tracking of regulatory documents; cross-site variability in some regulatory processes; and troubleshooting logistics of clinic-based recruitment. Facilitators included a central institutional review board, strong relationships between WH-PBRN research teams and women's health clinic teams, and the perception that women want to help other women veterans. Conclusion: Our experience with the inaugural WH-PBRN study demonstrated the feasibility of establishing productive relationships between local clinicians and researchers, and of recruiting a special population (women veterans) in diverse sites within an integrated health care system. This identified strengths of a PBRN approach.
    The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 09/2015; 28(5):649-57. DOI:10.3122/jabfm.2015.05.150029 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One in five women veterans screens positive for alcohol misuse. Women may be less likely than men to disclose alcohol use to a primary care provider (PCP), resulting in women being less likely to receive effective interventions. We sought to qualitatively examine factors that may affect women veterans' willingness to disclose alcohol use to a PCP. Between October 2012 and May 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women veterans at two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical facilities. Qualitative data analyses identified common themes representing factors that influence women's decision to disclose alcohol use to a PCP. Nine themes were endorsed by women veterans as influencing their willingness to disclose alcohol use to their PCP. Themes included provider behaviors perceived as encouraging or discouraging disclosure of alcohol misuse, perceived positive relationship with provider, negative emotions such as concerns about being judged or labeled an "alcoholic," health concerns about drinking, non-health-related concerns about drinking, self-appraisal of drinking behavior, social support, and clinic factors. Our findings demonstrate the importance of social relationships, comfort with one's provider, and education on the potential harms (especially health related) associated with alcohol in encouraging disclosure of alcohol use in women veterans. Our results also support VA national health care efforts, including the provision of brief alcohol counseling and the use of primary care clinics specializing in the care of women veterans. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Women s Health Issues 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2015.07.010 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Illicit drug use is prevalent, and primary care provides an ideal setting in which to screen for drug use disorders (DUDs) and negative consequences of drug use (NCDU). Comprehensive reviews have concluded that existing drug use screening instruments are not appropriate for routine use in primary care. To develop and validate a screening instrument for drug use. We revised items drawn from existing screening instruments and conducted signal detection analyses to develop the new instrument. We approached 3173 patients at 2 primary care clinics in a US Department of Veterans Affairs health care system from February 1, 2012, through April 30, 2014. A total of 1300 (41.0%) patients consented to the study, of whom 1283 adults were eligible (mean [SD] age, 62.2 [12.6] years). In the last 12 months, 241 (18.8%) participants reported using illicit drugs or prescription medication for a nonmedical purpose, and 189 (14.7%) reported 1 or more NCDU. A total of 133 (10.4%) patients met DSM-IV criteria for a DUD. The sample was randomly divided first to develop the measure and then to validate it. The Mini-International Diagnostic Interview was used as the criterion for DUDs, and the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences was used as the criterion for NCDU. The screening instrument has 2 questions. The first is, "How many days in the past 12 months have you used drugs other than alcohol?" Patients meet that criterion with a response of 7 or more days. The second question asks, "How many days in the past 12 months have you used drugs more than you meant to?" A response of 2 or more days meets that criterion. The screening instrument was 100% sensitive and 93.73% specific for DUDs (643 patients); when replicated in the second half of the sample (640 patients), it was 92.31% sensitive and 92.87% specific. The screening instrument was 93.18% sensitive and 96.03% specific for NCDU (643 patients); when replicated in the second half of the sample (640 patients), it was 83.17% sensitive and 96.85% specific. The 2-item screen of drug use has excellent statistical properties and is a brief screening instrument for DUDs and problems suitable for busy US Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 06/2015; 175(8). DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.2438 · 13.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known regarding the reproductive health needs of women Veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care. To describe the reproductive health diagnoses of women Veterans using VA health care, how these diagnoses differ across age groups, and variations in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics by presence of reproductive health diagnoses. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of VA administrative and clinical data. The study included women Veterans using VA health care in FY10. Reproductive health diagnoses were identified through presence of International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes in VA clinical and administrative records. The prevalence of specific diagnosis categories were examined by age group (18-44, 45-64, ≥65 y) and the most frequent diagnoses for each age group were identified. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared by presence of at least 1 reproductive health diagnosis. The most frequent reproductive health diagnoses were menstrual disorders and endometriosis among those aged 18-44 years (n=16,658, 13%), menopausal disorders among those aged 45-64 years (n=20,707, 15%), and osteoporosis among those aged ≥65 years (n=8365, 22%). Compared with women without reproductive health diagnoses, those with such diagnoses were more likely to have concomitant mental health (46% vs. 37%, P<0.001) and medical conditions (75% vs. 63%, P<0.001). Women Veterans using VA health care have diverse reproductive health diagnoses. The high prevalence of comorbid medical and mental health conditions among women Veterans with reproductive health diagnoses highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health expertise into all areas of VA health care, including primary, mental health, and specialty care.
    Medical Care 04/2015; 53 Suppl 4 Suppl 1(4 Suppl 1):S63-S67. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000295 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Travel time, an access barrier, may contribute to attrition of women veterans from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. We examined whether travel time influences attrition: (a) among women veterans overall, (b) among new versus established patients, and (c) among rural versus urban patients. This retrospective cohort study used logistic regression to estimate the association between drive time and attrition, overall and for new/established and rural/urban patients. In total, 266,301 women veteran VHA outpatients in the Fiscal year 2009. An "attriter" did not return for VHA care during the second through third years after her first 2009 visit (T0). Drive time (log minutes) was between the patient's residence and her regular source of VHA care. "New" patients had no VHA visits within 3 years before T0. Models included age, service-connected disability, health status, and utilization as covariates. Overall, longer drive times were associated with higher odds of attrition: drive time adjusted odds ratio=1.11 (99% confidence interval, 1.09-1.14). The relationship between drive time and attrition was stronger among new patients but was not modified by rurality. Attrition among women veterans is sensitive to longer drive time. Linking new patients to VHA services designed to reduce distance barriers (telemedicine, community-based clinics, mobile clinics) may reduce attrition among women new to VHA.
    Medical Care 04/2015; 53 Suppl 4 Suppl 1(4 Suppl 1):S15-S22. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000296 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over half of veterans in the criminal justice system have mental health or substance use disorders. However, there is a critical lack of information about female veterans in the criminal justice system and how diagnosis prevalence and treatment entry differ by sex. To document prevalence of mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses and treatment entry rates among female veterans compared with male veterans in the justice system. Retrospective cohort study using national Veterans Health Administration clinical/administrative data from veterans seen by Veterans Justice Outreach Specialists in fiscal years 2010-2012. A total of 1535 females and 30,478 male veterans were included. Demographic characteristics (eg, sex, age, residence, homeless status), mental health disorders (eg, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), substance use disorders (eg, alcohol and opioid use disorders), and treatment entry (eg, outpatient, residential, pharmacotherapy). Among female veterans, prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders was 88% and 58%, respectively, compared with 76% and 72% among male veterans. Women had higher odds of being diagnosed with a mental health disorder [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.34] and lower odds of being diagnosed with a substance use disorder (AOR=0.50; 95% CI, 0.45-0.56) compared with men. Women had lower odds of entering mental health residential treatment (AOR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.83). Female veterans involved in the justice system have a high burden of mental health disorders (88%) and more than half have substance use disorders (58%). Entry to mental health residential treatment for women is an important quality improvement target.
    Medical Care 04/2015; 53 Suppl 4 Suppl 1(4 Suppl 1):S105-S111. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000271 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) primary care providers (PCPs) often see few women, making it challenging to maintain proficiency in women's health (WH). Therefore, VHA in 2010 established Designated WH Providers, who would maintain proficiency in comprehensive WH care and be preferentially assigned women patients. To evaluate early implementation of this national policy. At each VHA health care system (N=140), the Women Veterans Program Manager completed a Fiscal Year 2012 workforce capacity assessment (response rate, 100%), representing the first time the national Designated WH Provider workforce had been identified. Assessment data were linked to administrative data. Of all VHA PCPs, 23% were Designated WH Providers; 100% of health care systems and 83% of community clinics had at least 1 Designated WH Provider. On average, women veterans comprised 19% (SD=27%) of the patients Designated WH Providers saw in primary care, versus 5% (SD=7%) for Other PCPs (P<0.001). For women veterans using primary care (N=313,033), new patients were less likely to see a Designated WH Provider than established women veteran patients (52% vs. 64%; P<0.001). VHA has achieved its goal of a Designated WH Provider in every health care system, and is approaching its goal of a Designated WH Provider at every hospital/community clinic. Designated WH Providers see more women than do Other PCPs. However, as the volume of women patients remains low for many providers, attention to alternative approaches to maintaining proficiency may prove necessary, and barriers to assigning new women patients to Designated WH Providers merit attention.
    Medical Care 04/2015; 53 Suppl 4 Suppl 1(4 Suppl 1):S39-S46. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000298 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women's needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women's mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women's key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women's mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women's services. Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women's mental health care in the VHA.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 02/2015; 66(2):155-62. DOI:10.1176/ · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between antenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and spontaneous preterm delivery. We identified antenatal PTSD status and spontaneous preterm delivery in a retrospective cohort of 16,334 deliveries covered by the Veterans Health Administration from 2000 to 2012. We divided mothers with PTSD into those with diagnoses present the year before delivery (active PTSD) and those only with earlier diagnoses (historical PTSD). We identified spontaneous preterm birth and potential confounders including age, race, military deployment, twins, hypertension, substance use, depression, and results of military sexual trauma screening and then performed multivariate regression to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm delivery as a function of PTSD status. Of 16,334 births, 3,049 (19%) were to mothers with PTSD diagnoses, of whom 1,921 (12%) had active PTSD. Spontaneous preterm delivery was higher in those with active PTSD (9.2%, n=176) than those with historical (8.0%, n=90) or no PTSD (7.4%, n=982) before adjustment (P=.02). The association between PTSD and preterm birth persisted, when adjusting for covariates, only in those with active PTSD (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.61). Analyses adjusting for comorbid psychiatric and medical diagnoses revealed the association with active PTSD to be robust. In this cohort, containing an unprecedented number of PTSD-affected pregnancies, mothers with active PTSD were significantly more likely to suffer spontaneous preterm birth with an attributable two excess preterm births per 100 deliveries (95% CI 1-4). Posttraumatic stress disorder's health effects may extend, through birth outcomes, into the next generation. : II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/2014; 124(6):1111-9. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000542 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health condition (MHC) comorbidity is associated with lower intensity care in multiple clinical scenarios. However, little is known about the effect of MHC upon clinicians’ decisions about intensifying antiglycemic medications in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. We examined whether delay in intensification of antiglycemic medications in response to an elevated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value is longer for patients with MHC than for those without MHC, and whether any such effect varies by specific MHC type. In this observational study of diabetic Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients on oral antiglycemics with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥8) (N =52,526) identified from national VA databases, we applied Cox regression analysis to examine time to intensification of antiglycemics after an elevated HbA1c value in 2003–2004, by MHC status. Those with MHC were no less likely to receive intensification: adjusted Hazard Ratio [95% CI] 0.99 [0.96-1.03], 1.13 [1.04-1.23], and 1.12 [1.07-1.18] at 0–14, 15–30 and 31–180 days, respectively. However, patients with substance use disorders were less likely than those without substance use disorders to receive intensification in the first two weeks following a high HbA1c, adjusted Hazard Ratio 0.89 [0.81-0.97], controlling for sex, age, medical comorbidity, other specific MHCs, and index HbA1c value. For most MHCs, diabetic patients with MHC in the VA health care system do not appear to receive less aggressive antiglycemic management. However, the subgroup with substance use disorders does appear to have excess likelihood of non-intensification; interventions targeting this high risk subgroup merit attention.
    BMC Health Services Research 10/2014; 14(1):458. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-458 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Ac Del Re · Susan M Frayne · Alex Hs Harris
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Pharmacotherapy is an effective adjunct to behavioral interventions to treat obesity; although it is unclear how often medications are integrated into obesity treatment plans and for which patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted that examined variation in and predictors of antiobesity medication receipt (orlistat) among > 2 million obese Veterans within 140 facilities nationwide. Results: One-percent of all obese patients using VHA services filled a prescription for orlistat. Veterans were more likely to be treated with orlistat if they had a higher BMI, were female, unmarried, younger, a minority, had home instability, prescribed obesogenic psychiatric medications, had a psychiatric or obesity-related comorbidity, and used MOVE! weight management services. Among those who likely met the criteria for use, 2.5% had at least one orlistat prescription. Facility-level prescription rates varied from 0 to 1% of all obese patients in a VA facility receiving a prescription and 0 to 21% among those who met the criteria for use. Conclusions: Consistent with guidelines recommending that obesity pharmacotherapy be prescribed in conjunction with behavioral therapy, the strongest predictor of receiving orlistat was being enrolled in the MOVE! weight-loss management program.
    Obesity 09/2014; 22(9). DOI:10.1002/oby.20810 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite endorsement of digoxin in clinical practice guidelines, there exist limited data on its safety in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF). Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of digoxin with mortality in AF. Methods Using complete data of the TREAT-AF (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) study from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we identified patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF seen within 90 days in an outpatient setting between VA fiscal years 2004 and 2008. We used multivariate and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards to evaluate the association of digoxin use with death. Residual confounding was assessed by sensitivity analysis. Results Of 122,465 patients with 353,168 person-years of follow-up (age 72.1 ± 10.3 years, 98.4% male), 28,679 (23.4%) patients received digoxin. Cumulative mortality rates were higher for digoxin-treated patients than for untreated patients (95 vs. 67 per 1,000 person-years; p < 0.001). Digoxin use was independently associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 1.29, p < 0.001) and propensity matching (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.25, p < 0.001), even after adjustment for drug adherence. The risk of death was not modified by age, sex, heart failure, kidney function, or concomitant use of beta-blockers, amiodarone, or warfarin. Conclusions Digoxin was associated with increased risk of death in patients with newly diagnosed AF, independent of drug adherence, kidney function, cardiovascular comorbidities, and concomitant therapies. These findings challenge current cardiovascular society recommendations on use of digoxin in AF.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2014; 64(7):660–668. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.060 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module is widely used in epidemiological studies of PTSD, yet relatively few data attest to the instrument's diagnostic utility. The current study evaluated the diagnostic utility of the CIDI 3.0 PTSD module with U. S. women Vietnam-era veterans. The CIDI and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) were independently administered to a stratified sample of 160 women, oversampled for current PTSD. Both lifetime PTSD and recent (past year) PTSD were assessed within a 3-week interval. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of lifetime PTSD, and 21.9% of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of past-year PTSD. Using CAPS as the diagnostic criterion, the CIDI correctly classified 78.8% of cases for lifetime PTSD (κ = .56) and 82.0% of past year PTSD cases (κ = .51). Estimates of diagnostic performance for the CIDI were sensitivity of .61 and specificity of .91 for lifetime PTSD and sensitivity of .71 and specificity of .85 for past-year PTSD. Results suggest that the CIDI has good utility for identifying PTSD, though it is a somewhat conservative indicator of lifetime PTSD as compared to the CAPS. 標題:女越南戰事退役軍中綜合國際診斷會見(CIDI 3.0) 的診斷準確性 撮要:世界衛生組織(WHO)綜合國際診斷會見(CIDI)創傷後壓力症(PTSD)單元被廣泛應用於PTSD流行學研究,但只有少數研究其相關診斷效用。本研究在女性越南戰事退役軍中評定CIDI 3.0 PTSD單元的診斷效能。這是160名女士的分層和過度採樣現有PTSD的樣本,然後獨立地施行CIDI 和醫生施行PTSD量表(CAPS)。在三週內使用評估其終生PTSD和現有(過去一年)PTSD。總數45.0%符合CAPS終生PTSD診斷準則,和21.9%為CAPS過去一年PTSD診斷準則。以CAPS為診斷標準,CIDI 正確判別78.8% 終生PTSD個案(K= .56)和82.0% 過去一年PTSD 個案(K= .51) 。利用CAPS為標準估計CIDI的診斷表現,終生PTSD的靈敏度為.61和特異性為.091,而過往一年PTSD的靈敏度是.71 和特異性是.85。結果確認CIDI對辨識PTSD有高效用,但對比CAPS在終生PTSD方面卻是較保守的指標。 标题:女越南战事退役军中综合国际诊断会见(CIDI 3.0) 的诊断准确性 撮要:世界卫生组织(WHO)综合国际诊断会见(CIDI)创伤后压力症(PTSD)单元被广泛应用于PTSD流行学研究,但只有少数研究其相关诊断效用。本研究在女性越南战事退役军中评定CIDI 3.0 PTSD单元的诊断效能。这是160名女士的分层和过度采样现有PTSD的样本,然后独立地施行CIDI 和医生施行PTSD量表(CAPS)。在三周内使用评估其终生PTSD和现有(过去一年)PTSD。总数45.0%符合CAPS终生PTSD诊断准则,和21.9%为CAPS过去一年PTSD诊断准则。以CAPS为诊断标准,CIDI 正确判别78.8% 终生PTSD个案(K= .56)和82.0% 过去一年PTSD 个案(K= .51) 。利用CAPS为标准估计CIDI的诊断表现,终生PTSD的灵敏度为.61和特异性为.091,而过往一年PTSD的灵敏度是.71 和特异性是.85。结果确认CIDI对辨识PTSD有高效用,但比对CAPS在终生PTSD方面却是较保守的指标。
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 04/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.1002/jts.21905 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a retrospective study among 4,734 women who served in the US military in Vietnam (Vietnam cohort), 2,062 women who served in countries near Vietnam (near-Vietnam cohort), and 5,313 nondeployed US military women (US cohort) to evaluate the associations of mortality outcomes with Vietnam War service. Veterans were identified from military records and followed for 40 years through December 31, 2010. Information on underlying causes of death was obtained from death certificates and the National Death Index. Based on 2,743 deaths, all 3 veteran cohorts had lower mortality risk from all causes combined and from several major causes, such as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and nervous system disease relative to comparable US women. However, excess deaths from motor vehicle accidents were observed in the Vietnam cohort (standardized mortality ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30, 5.56) and in the US cohort (standardized mortality ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.27). More than two-thirds of women in the study were military nurses. Nurses in the Vietnam cohort had a 2-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer death (adjusted relative risk = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 4.25) and an almost 5-fold higher risk of brain cancer death compared with nurses in the US cohort (adjusted relative risk = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.27, 16.83). Findings of all-cause and motor vehicle accident deaths among female Vietnam veterans were consistent with patterns of postwar mortality risk among other war veterans.
    American journal of epidemiology 01/2014; 179(6). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt319 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of young women veterans are returning from war and military service and are seeking reproductive health care from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Many of these women seek maternity benefits from the VHA, and yet little is known regarding the number of women veterans utilizing VHA maternity benefits nor the characteristics of pregnant veterans using these benefits. In May 2010, VHA maternity benefits were expanded to include 7 days of infant care, which may serve to entice more women to use VHA maternity benefits. Understanding the changing trends in women veterans seeking maternity benefits will help the VHA to improve the quality of reproductive care over time. The goal of this study was to examine the trends in delivery claims among women veterans receiving VHA maternity benefits over a 5-year period and the characteristics of pregnant veterans utilizing VHA benefits. We undertook a retrospective, national cohort study of pregnant veterans enrolled in VHA care with inpatient deliveries between fiscal years (FY) 2008 and 2012. We included pregnant veterans using VHA maternity benefits for delivery. Measures included annualized numbers and rates of inpatient deliveries and delivery-related costs, as well as cesarean section rates as a quality indicator. During the 5-year study period, there was a significant increase in the number of deliveries to women veterans using VHA maternity benefits. The overall delivery rate increased by 44% over the study period from 12.4 to 17.8 deliveries per 1,000 women veterans. A majority of women using VHA maternity benefits were age 30 or older and had a service-connected disability. From FY 2008 to 2012, the VHA paid more than $46 million in delivery claims to community providers for deliveries to women veterans ($4,993/veteran). Over a 5-year period, the volume of women veterans using VHA maternity benefits increased by 44%. Given this sizeable increase, the VHA must increase its capacity to care for pregnant veterans and ensure care coordination systems are in place to address the needs of pregnant veterans with service-connected disabilities.
    Women s Health Issues 01/2014; 24(1):e37-e42. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2013.10.002 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    Journal of General Internal Medicine 07/2013; 28 Suppl 2(S2):504-9. DOI:10.1007/s11606-013-2476-3 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While prior research characterizes women Veterans' barriers to accessing and using Veterans Health Administration (VA) care, there has been little attention to women who access VA and use services, but then discontinue use. Recent data suggest that among women Veterans, there is a 30 % attrition rate within 3 years of initial VA use. To compare individual characteristics and perceptions about VA care between women Veteran VA attriters (those who discontinue use) and non-attriters (those who continue use), and to compare recent versus remote attriters. Cross-sectional, population-based 2008-2009 national telephone survey. Six hundred twenty-six attriters and 2,065 non-attriters who responded to the National Survey of Women Veterans. Population weighted demographic, military and health characteristics; perceptions about VA healthcare; length of time since last VA use; among attriters, reasons for no longer using VA care. Fifty-four percent of the weighted VA ever user population reported that they no longer use VA. Forty-five percent of attrition was within the past ten years. Attriters had better overall health (p = 0.007), higher income (p < 0.001), and were more likely to have health insurance (p < 0.001) compared with non-attriters. Attriters had less positive perceptions of VA than non-attriters, with attriters having lower ratings of VA quality and of gender-specific features of VA care (p < 0.001). Women Veterans who discontinued VA use since 2001 did not differ from those with more remote VA use on most measures of VA perceptions. Overall, among attriters, distance to VA sites of care and having alternate insurance coverage were the most common reasons for discontinuing VA use. We found high VA attrition despite recent advances in VA care for women Veterans. Women's attrition from VA could reduce the critical mass of women Veterans in VA and affect current system-wide efforts to provide high-quality care for women Veterans. An understanding of reasons for attrition can inform organizational efforts to re-engage women who have attrited, to retain current users, and potentially to attract new VA patients.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 07/2013; 28 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):510-6. DOI:10.1007/s11606-013-2347-y · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated receipt of cervical cancer screening in a national sample of 34,213 women veterans using Veteran Health Administration facilities between 2003 and 2007 and diagnosed with 1) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or 2) depression, or 3) no psychiatric illness. Our study featured a cross-sectional design in which logistic regression analyses compared receipt of recommended cervical cancer screening for all three diagnostic groups. Cervical cancer screening rates varied minimally by diagnostic group: 77% of women with PTSD versus 75% with depression versus 75% without psychiatric illness were screened during the study observation period (p < .001). However, primary care use was associated with differential odds of screening in women with versus without psychiatric illness (PTSD or depression), even after adjustment for age, income and physical comorbidities (Wald Chi-square (2): 126.59; p < .0001). Specifically, among low users of primary care services, women with PTSD or depression were more likely than those with no psychiatric diagnoses to receive screening. Among high users of primary care services, they were less likely to receive screening. Psychiatric illness (PTSD or depression) had little to no effect on receipt of cervical cancer screening. Our finding that high use of primary care services was not associated with comparable odds of screening in women with versus without psychiatric illness suggests that providers caring for women with PTSD or depression and high use of primary care services should be especially attentive to their preventive healthcare needs.
    Women s Health Issues 05/2013; 23(3):e153-9. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2013.03.002 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study sought to examine whether a web-delivered brief alcohol intervention (BAI) is effective for reducing alcohol misuse in U.S. military veterans presenting to primary care. Method: Veterans (N = 167) screening positive for alcohol misuse during a routine primary care visit were randomized to receive a BAI plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. An assessment of alcohol-related outcomes was conducted at baseline and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Results: Veterans in both study conditions showed a significant reduction in alcohol quantity and frequency and alcohol-related problems at 6-month follow-up. No differential treatment effects on outcomes were observed between the two treatment groups. Conclusions: This study is the first to explore whether a web-delivered BAI using normative feedback is effective for veterans with alcohol misuse. Our findings suggest that BAIs using normative feedback may not have any additional benefit beyond TAU for older veterans with high rates of comorbid mental health concerns.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 05/2013; 74(3):428-436. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2013.74.428 · 2.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
229.72 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2015
    • VA Palo Alto Health Care System
      • Center for Innovation to Implementation (Ci2i)
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2004–2014
    • Stanford University
      • • Division of General Medical Disciplines
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2005
    • Rogers Memorial Hospital
      Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States