Bhanu Gupta

University of Missouri - Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, United States

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Publications (6)12.6 Total impact

  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A315. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)60315-1 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise testing provides valuable information but is rarely integrated to derive a risk prediction model in a referral population. In this study, we assessed the predictive value of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and exercise test parameters in 6,546 consecutive adults referred for exercise testing, who were followed for a period of 8.1 ± 3.7 years for incident myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular death. A risk prediction model was developed, and cross-validation of model was performed by splitting the data set into 10 equal random subsets, with model fitting based on 9 of the 10 subsets and testing in of the remaining subset, repeated in all 10 possible ways. The best performing model was chosen based on measurements of model discrimination and stability. A risk score was constructed from the final model, with points assigned for the presence of each predictor based on the regression coefficients. Using both conventional risk factors and exercise test parameters, a total of 9 variables were identified as independent and robust predictors and were included in a risk score. The prognostic ability of this model was compared with that of the Adult Treatment Panel III model using the net reclassification and integrated discrimination index. From the cross-validation results, the c statistic of 0.77 for the final model indicated strong predictive power. In conclusion, we developed, tested, and internally validated a novel risk prediction model using exercise treadmill testing parameters.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 06/2014; 114(5). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.05.061 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine if non-HDL cholesterol (N-HDL) and directly measured LDL cholesterol (D-LDL) are clinically equivalent measurements. Patients and Methods. Eighty-one subjects recruited for 2 cholesterol treatment studies had at least 1 complete fasting lipid panel and D-LDL performed simultaneously; 64 had a second assessment after 4 to 6 weeks, resulting in 145 triads of C-LDL, D-LDL, and N-HDL. To directly compare N-HDL to D-LDL and C-LDL, we normalized the N-HDL by subtracting 30 from the N-HDL (N-HDLA). Results. There was significant correlation between N-HDLA, D-LDL, and C-LDL. Correlation was significantly greater between N-HDLA and C-LDL than between N-HDLA and D-LDL. A greater than 20 mg/dL difference between measures was observed more commonly between N-HDLA and D-LDL, 29%, than between C-LDL and N-HDLA, 11% (P < 0.001), and C-LDL and D-LDL, 17% (P = 0.028). Clinical discordance was most common, and concordance was least common between N-HDL and D-LDL. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that N-HDL cholesterol and D-LDL cholesterol are not clinically equivalent and frequently discordant. As N-HDL may be superior to even C-LDL for predicting events in statin-treated patients, utilizing N-HDL to guide therapy would appear to be preferable to D-LDL when C-LDL is inaccurate.
    Cholesterol 05/2013; 2013:502948. DOI:10.1155/2013/502948
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patterns of clinical symptoms and outcomes of perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in elderly patients after hip fracture repair surgery are not well defined. METHODS: A retrospective 1:2 case-control study in a cohort of 1212 elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery from 1988 to 2002 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. RESULTS: The mean age was 85.3 ± 7.4 years; 76% female. PMI occurred in 167 (13.8%) patients within 7 days, of which 153 (92%) occurred in first 48 hours; 75% of patients were asymptomatic. Among patients with PMI, in-hospital mortality was 14.4%, 30-day mortality was 29 (17.4%), and 1-year mortality was 66 (39.5%). PMI was associated with a higher inpatient mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 15.1; confidence interval [CI], 4.6-48.8), 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 4.3; CI, 2.1-8.9), and 1-year mortality (HR, 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.7). CONCLUSION: Elderly patients, after hip fracture surgery, have a higher incidence of PMI and mortality than what guidelines indicate. The majority of elderly patients with PMI did not experience ischemic symptoms and required cardiac biomarkers for diagnosis. The results of our study support the measurement of troponin in postoperative elderly patients for the diagnosis of PMI, in order to implement in-hospital preventive strategies to reduce PMI-associated mortality. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012; © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 11/2012; 7(9). DOI:10.1002/jhm.1967 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2012; 59(13). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(12)61876-2 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erectile dysfunction (ED) shares similar modifiable risks factors with coronary artery disease (CAD). Lifestyle modification that targets CAD risk factors may also lead to improvement in ED. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy for cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on the severity of ED. A comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases through August 2010 was conducted using predefined criteria. We included randomized controlled clinical trials with follow-up of at least 6 weeks of lifestyle modification intervention or pharmacotherapy for CV risk factor reduction. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. The main outcome measure of the study is the weighted mean differences in the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-5) score with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model. A total of 740 participants from 6 clinical trials in 4 countries were identified. Lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy for CV risk factors were associated with statistically significant improvement in sexual function (IIEF-5 score): weighted mean difference, 2.66 (95% CI, 1.86-3.47). If the trials with statin intervention (n = 143) are excluded, the remaining 4 trials of lifestyle modification interventions (n = 597) demonstrate statistically significant improvement in sexual function: weighted mean difference, 2.40 (95% CI, 1.19-3.61). The results of our study further strengthen the evidence that lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy for CV risk factors are effective in improving sexual function in men with ED.
    Archives of internal medicine 09/2011; 171(20):1797-803. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.440 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2011; 57(14). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(11)61038-3 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of statins on peripheral and coronary endothelial function in patients with and without established cardiovascular disease. Early atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, a known prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease. The search included MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EMBASE to identify studies up to 1 December 2009. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials on the effects of statins compared with placebo on endothelial function. Two reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Forty-six eligible trials enrolled a total of 2706 patients: 866 (32%) were women and 432 (16%) had established cardiovascular disease. Meta-analysis using random-effects models showed treatment with statins significantly improved endothelial function [standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.85, p < 0.001]. Subgroup analyses demonstrated statistically significant improvement in endothelial function assessed both peripherally by flow-mediated dilatation (SMD 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.90, p < 0.001) and venous occlusion plethysmography (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.06-1.13, p = 0.03) and centrally in the coronary circulation by infusion of acetylcholine (SMD 1.58, 95% CI 0.31-2.84, p = 0.01). Significant heterogeneity observed across studies was explained in part by the type of endothelial function measurement, statin type and dose, and study population differences. Exclusion of outlier studies did not significantly alter the results. Statin therapy is associated with significant improvement in both peripheral and coronary endothelial function. The current study supports a role for statin therapy in patients with endothelial dysfunction.
    European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation: official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology 03/2011; 18(5):704-16. DOI:10.1177/1741826711398430 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Pharmacy Benefits 12/2010; 2(4):261-266.
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    ABSTRACT: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) can either be calculated or measured directly. Clinical guidelines recommend the use of calculated LDL-C (C-LDL-C) to guide therapy because the evidence base for cholesterol management is derived almost exclusively from trials that use C-LDL-C, with direct measurement of LDL-C (D-LDL-C) being reserved for those patients who are nonfasting or with significant hypertriglyceridemia. Our aim was to determine the clinical equivalence of directly measured-LDL-C, using a Siemens Advia Chemistry System, and fasting C-LDL-C. Eighty-one subjects recruited for two cholesterol treatment studies had at least one C-LDL-C and D-LDL-C performed simultaneously; 64 had a repeat lipid assessment after 4 to 6 weeks of therapy, resulting in 145 pairs of C-LDL-C and D-LDL-C. There was significant correlation between D-LDL-C and C-LDL-C (r² = 0.86). Correlation was significantly better in those with lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein. In 60% of subjects, the difference between D-LDL-C and C-LDL-C was more than 5 mg/dL and greater than 6%. Clinical concordance between D-LDL-C and C-LDL-C was present in 40% of patients, whereas clinical discordance was noted in 25%. One-third had greater than a 15 mg/dL difference between D-LDL-C and C-LDL-C, whereas 25% had a greater than 20 mg/dL difference. In 47% of subjects, the difference between D-LDL-C and C-LDL-C at baseline and follow-up changed by a minimum of 10% or 10 mg/dL. Our findings suggest that D-LDL-C is not clinically equivalent to C-LDL-C. This puts into question the current recommendation of using D-LDL-C in situations in which C-LDL-C would be inaccurate.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 07/2010; 4(4):259-64. DOI:10.1016/j.jacl.2010.05.003 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a systematic review of the literature to summarize the best available evidence regarding the mortality and morbidity associated with differing dosing regimens of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for patients with acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit setting. We searched for randomized controlled trials in electronic databases from January 1990 through November 2009. Eligible trials compared two or more dosing regimens of CRRT in patients with ARF. Two reviewers working independently determined trial eligibility and extracted descriptive, methodological, and outcome data. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to assess relative risks (RR) and weighted mean difference. The I(2)-statistic was used to assess heterogeneity of treatment effect across trials. Seven trials were eligible for meta-analysis. We found no reduction in mortality in patients who received higher doses of CRRT (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.75-1.03, I(2) = 74%). There was no difference in the requirement of renal replacement therapy at the conclusion of the study period (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.46, I(2) = 3%). The overall quality of evidence was downgraded because of imprecision and heterogeneity. Increased dosing of CRRT is not associated with a decrease in mortality of patients with ARF in an intensive care unit setting.
    Renal Failure 06/2010; 32(5):555-61. DOI:10.3109/08860221003728739 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although during its initial development, lower doses of ezetimibe reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) significantly, ezetimibe is available only in 10-mg form. Compliant patients receiving ezetimibe 10 mg were randomized in a blinded fashion to continue therapy with ezetimibe 10 mg or to convert to a split-tablet 5-mg dose. Lipid panels were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks of therapy. The impact of the 2 ezetimibe dosing strategies on LDL and the achievement of the Adult Treatment Panel III LDL goal was evaluated. One hundred thirty patients receiving ezetimibe 10 mg were screened for eligibility. Thirty-nine of the 130 patients were randomized; 36 patients successfully completed the study. All patients who had achieved their Adult Treatment Panel III LDL goals at baseline remained at their LDL goals after conversion to 5 mg. In conclusion, conversion to the lower dose of ezetimibe did not result in any clinically meaningful or statistically significant changes in any lipid parameter.
    The American journal of cardiology 07/2009; 103(11):1568-71. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.01.365 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical efficacy of ezetimibe 5 mg (prescribed as a 10-mg tablet split in half) with a whole 10-mg tablet. From January 2003 through July 2005, all Bronx Veterans Administration ezetimibe prescriptions were for 10 mg. In August 2005, it was mandated that all new ezetimibe prescriptions be 5 mg, prescribed as a 10-mg tablet split in half. The impact of the 2 ezetimibe dosing strategies on percent lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and achievement of National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) goals was assessed in all patients prescribed ezetimibe 5 or 10 mg. A total of 272 patients were prescribed ezetimibe; 86 received 5 mg and 186 received 10 mg. Of those 272 patients, 197 had evaluable baseline and posttreatment LDL-C (55 taking the 5-mg dose and 142 taking the 10-mg dose). The effects of ezetimibe 5 and 10 mg on all lipid parameters were similar. Ezetimibe 10 mg reduced LDL-C by 26.1%, whereas 5 mg reduced LDL-C by 25.8%. The percentages of patients achieving goal LDL-C were similar: 61.8% (5 mg) and 60.5% (10 mg). These data strongly suggest that ezetimibe 5 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg are clinically equivalent with respect to LDL-C reduction and achievement of ATP III LDL-C goals. Widespread adoption of this low-dose strategy could result in a potential cost savings of more than a billion dollars annually, with a potential reduction in hepatotoxicity.
    The American journal of managed care 11/2008; 14(10):637-41. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Borderline increase of troponin I (cTnI) is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular events compared with normal levels in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but the significance of borderline cTnI levels in patients without chest pain may differ. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic implications of intermediate serum cTnI levels in patients without ACS in the intensive care unit (ICU). This was a 12-month retrospective study of 240 patients without ACS in the ICU with normal (<0.1 ng/ml) or intermediate (0.1 to 1.49 ng/ml) cTnI levels. End points included in-hospital mortality, lengths of ICU and hospital stays, and rates of postdischarge readmission and mortality. Overall in-hospital mortality was 13%, with 5% in the normal cTnI group and 28% in the intermediate cTnI group. By multivariate analysis, intermediate cTnI was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.004) and length of ICU stay (p = 0.028). The only other independent risk factor for inpatient mortality was a standardized ICU prognostic measurement (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score). Intermediate cTnI had no prognostic implications regarding length of hospital stay, readmission rate, or postdischarge mortality at 6 months. In conclusion, an intermediate level of cTnI in patients without ACS in the ICU is an independent prognostic marker predicting in-hospital mortality and length of ICU stay. Patients with intermediate cTnI levels who survive to discharge have equivalent out-of-hospital courses for up to 6 months compared with patients with normal cTnI levels.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 10/2008; 102(5):509-12. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.04.026 · 3.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

32 Citations
12.60 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2010
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • James J. Peters VA Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States