Marc Tischkowitz

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (85)728.59 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To analyse the effect of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on mortality in ovarian cancer patients up to ten years after diagnosis. Experimental Design:We used unpublished survival time data for 2,242 patients from two case-control studies and extended survival-time data for 4,314 patients from previously reported studies. All participants had been screened for deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Survival time was analysed for the combined data using Cox proportional hazard models with BRCA1 and BRCA2 as time-varying covariates. Competing risks were analysed using Fine and Gray model. Results: The combined 10-year overall survival was 30% (95% CI, 28%-31%) for non-carriers, 25% (95% CI, 22%-28%) for BRCA1 carriers, and 35% (95% CI, 30%-41%) for BRCA2 carriers. The hazard ratio for BRCA1 was 0.53 at time zero and increased over time becoming greater than one at 4.8 years. For BRCA2, the hazard ratio was 0.42 at time zero and increased over time (predicted to become greater than one at 10.5 years). The results were similar when restricted to 3,202 patients with high-grade serous tumors, and to ovarian cancer specific mortality. Conclusions: BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with better short-term survival, but this advantage decreases over time and, in BRCA1 carriers is eventually reversed. This may have important implications for therapy of both primary and relapsed disease and for analysis of long-term survival in clinical trials of new agents, particularly those that are effective in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 11/2014;
  • New England Journal of Medicine 10/2014; 371(17):1651-2. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • Paolo Peterlongo, Jenny Chang-Claude, Kirsten B Moysich, Anja Rudolph, Rita K Schmutzler, Jacques Simard, Penny Soucy, Rosalind A Eeles, Douglas F Easton, Ute Hamann, [......], Ake Borg, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Lesley McGuffog, Daniel Barrowdale, Sue Healey, Andrew Lee, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Antonis C Antoniou, Eitan Friedman
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    ABSTRACT: Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods: Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results: The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion: There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact: Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease with congenital and developmental abnormalities, cross-linker hypersensitivity and extreme cancer predisposition. With better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the disease, and improved clinical management, FA has been transformed from a life-limiting paediatric disease to an uncommon chronic condition that needs lifelong multidisciplinary management, and a paradigm condition for the understanding of the gene-environment interaction in the aetiology of congenital anomalies, haematopoiesis and cancer development. Here we review genetic, molecular and clinical aspects of FA, and discuss current controversies and future prospects.
    Clinical Genetics 10/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare, aggressive tumor that primarily affects young women. SCCOHT has recently been identified as a monogenic disorder caused by germline and/or somatic SMARCA4 mutations. We describe a 15-year-old Caucasian female with a SCCOHT harboring a previously unreported somatic mutation in the SMARCA4 gene (c.1757delA; p.K586.fs) with loss of heterozygosity. No germline mutation was identified. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining confirmed loss of SMARCA4 protein. These molecular findings will aid with SCCOHT diagnosis through immunohistochemical staining for SMARCA4 and in the future may have implications for the management of this disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline loss-of-function mutations in PALB2 are known to confer a predisposition to breast cancer. However, the lifetime risk of breast cancer that is conferred by such mutations remains unknown.
    New England Journal of Medicine 08/2014; 371(6):497-506. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16), p = 2.7×10-3) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8×10-3). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.
    PLoS Genetics 04/2014; 10(4):e1004256. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is the most common undifferentiated ovarian malignancy in women under 40 years of age. We sequenced the exomes of six individuals from three families with SCCOHT. After discovering segregating deleterious germline mutations in SMARCA4 in all three families, we tested DNA from a fourth affected family, which also carried a segregating SMARCA4 germline mutation. All the familial tumors sequenced harbored either a somatic mutation or loss of the wild-type allele. Immunohistochemical analysis of these cases and additional familial and non-familial cases showed loss of SMARCA4 (BRG1) protein in 38 of 40 tumors overall. Sequencing of cases with available DNA identified at least one germline or somatic deleterious SMARCA4 mutation in 30 of 32 cases. Additionally, the SCCOHT cell line BIN-67 had biallelic deleterious mutations in SMARCA4. Our findings identify alterations in SMARCA4 as the major cause of SCCOHT, which could lead to improvements in genetic counseling and new treatment approaches.
    Nature Genetics 03/2014; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Telomere length has been linked to risk of common diseases, including cancer, and has previously been proposed as a biomarker for cancer risk. Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations predispose to breast, ovarian and other cancer types. Methods:We investigated telomere length in BRCA mutation carriers and their non-carrier relatives and further examined whether telomere length is a modifier of cancer risk in mutation carriers. We measured mean telomere length in DNA extracted from whole blood using high-throughput Q-PCR. Participants were from the EMBRACE study in the UK and Eire (n=4,822) and comprised BRCA1 (n=1,628) and BRCA2 (n=1,506) mutation carriers and their non-carrier relatives (n=1,688). Results:We find no significant evidence that mean telomere length is associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. However, we find mutation carriers to have longer mean telomere length than their non-carrier relatives (all carriers vs. non-carriers, P-trend=0.0018), particularly in families with BRCA2 mutations (BRCA2 mutation carriers vs. all non-carriers, P-trend=0.0016). Conclusions:Our main and unexpected finding is that BRCA mutation carriers (regardless of cancer status) have longer telomeres than their non-mutation carrier, non-cancer-affected relatives. The longer telomere length in BRCA2 mutation carriers is consistent with its role in DNA damage response. Overall, it appears that increased telomere length may be a consequence of these mutations, but is not itself directly related to the increased cancer risk in carriers. Impact:Our findings lend little support to the hypothesis that short mean telomere length predisposes to cancer.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prophylactic total gastrectomy is performed in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) patients carrying the CDH1 mutation because endoscopic surveillance often fails to detect microscopic disease. The aim of this study was to determine the natural history and outcomes of patients with HDGC undergoing endoscopy. Prospective, cohort observational study. Tertiary referral center. Patients fulfilling criteria for HDGC who opted to undergo endoscopy. Research surveillance program using high-resolution white-light endoscopy with autofluorescence and narrow-band imaging combined with targeted and multiple random biopsies assessed by an expert histopathologist for the presence of signet ring cell carcinoma. The primary endpoint was the endoscopic yield of microscopic signet ring cell carcinoma according to patient mutation status and subsequent decision to undergo surgery. The secondary endpoint was the additional yield of targeted biopsies compared with random biopsies. Between September 2007 and March 2013, 29 patients from 17 families underwent 70 surveillance endoscopies. Signet ring cell carcinoma foci were identified in 14 of 22 (63.6%) patients with confirmed CDH1 germline mutations and 2 of 7 (28.6%) with no pathogenic mutation identified. Eleven of 16 (9 CDH1-positive) patients proceeded to gastrectomy in a median 5.7 months. Five patients delayed surgery. In 1 patient, advanced gastric cancer developed 40.2 months after the first endoscopic findings. No control group. Careful white-light examination with targeted and random biopsies combined with detailed histopathology can identify early lesions and help to inform decision making with regard to gastrectomy. Autofluorescence and narrow-band imaging are of limited utility. Delaying gastrectomy in individuals with signet ring cell carcinoma foci carries a high risk and has to be weighed carefully.
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy 01/2014; · 6.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. To report the first year's screening results for all men at enrolment in the study. We recruited men aged 40-69 yr with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and a control group of men who have tested negative for a pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation known to be present in their families. All men underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at enrolment, and those men with PSA >3 ng/ml were offered prostate biopsy. PSA levels, PCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the number of PCa cases among groups and the differences among disease types. We recruited 2481 men (791 BRCA1 carriers, 531 BRCA1 controls; 731 BRCA2 carriers, 428 BRCA2 controls). A total of 199 men (8%) presented with PSA >3.0 ng/ml, 162 biopsies were performed, and 59 PCas were diagnosed (18 BRCA1 carriers, 10 BRCA1 controls; 24 BRCA2 carriers, 7 BRCA2 controls); 66% of the tumours were classified as intermediate- or high-risk disease. The positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy using a PSA threshold of 3.0 ng/ml in BRCA2 mutation carriers was 48%-double the PPV reported in population screening studies. A significant difference in detecting intermediate- or high-risk disease was observed in BRCA2 carriers. Ninety-five percent of the men were white, thus the results cannot be generalised to all ethnic groups. The IMPACT screening network will be useful for targeted PCa screening studies in men with germline genetic risk variants as they are discovered. These preliminary results support the use of targeted PSA screening based on BRCA genotype and show that this screening yields a high proportion of aggressive disease. In this report, we demonstrate that germline genetic markers can be used to identify men at higher risk of prostate cancer. Targeting screening at these men resulted in the identification of tumours that were more likely to require treatment.
    European Urology 01/2014; · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PALB2 has emerged as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Mutations in PALB2 have been identified in almost all breast cancer populations studied to date, but the rarity of these mutations and lack of information regarding their penetrance makes genetic counseling for these families challenging. We studied BRCA1/2 -negative breast and/or ovarian cancer families to a) assess the contribution of PALB2 mutations in this series and b) identify clinical, pathological and family history characteristics that might make PALB2 screening more efficient.
    Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 01/2014; 12(1):19. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited condition characterised by congenital and developmental abnormalities and a strong cancer predisposition. In around 3-5% of cases FA is caused by biallelic mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Individuals heterozygous for BRCA2 mutations have an increased risk of inherited breast and ovarian cancer. We reviewed the mutation spectrum in BRCA2-associated FA, and the spectrum and frequency of BRCA2 mutations in distinct populations. The rarity of FA due to biallelic BRCA2 mutations supports a fundamental role of BRCA2 for prevention of malignant transformation during development. The spectrum of malignancies seen associated with FA support the concept of a tissue selectivity of BRCA2 mutations for development of FA-associated cancers. This specificity is illustrated by the distinct FA-associated BRCA2 mutations that appear to predispose to specific brain or haematological malignancies. For some populations, the number of FA-patients with biallelic BRCA2 disruption is smaller than that expected from the carrier frequency, and this implies that some pregnancies with biallelic BRCA2 mutations do not go to term. The apparent discrepancy between expected and observed incidence of BRCA2 mutation-associated FA in high-frequency carrier populations has important implications for the genetic counselling of couples with recurrent miscarriages from high-risk populations.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has revolutionised biomedical research and offers enormous capacity for clinical application. We previously reported Hi-Plex, a streamlined highly-multiplexed PCR-MPS approach, allowing a given library to be sequenced with both the Ion Torrent and TruSeq chemistries. Comparable sequencing efficiency was achieved using material derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour. Here, we report high-throughput application of Hi-Plex by performing blinded mutation screening of the coding regions of the breast cancer susceptibility gene PALB2 on a set of 95 blood-derived DNA samples that had previously been screened using Sanger sequencing and high-resolution melting curve analysis (n = 90), or genotyped by Taqman probe-based assays (n = 5). Hi-Plex libraries were prepared simultaneously using relatively inexpensive, readily available reagents in a simple half-day protocol followed by MPS on a single MiSeq run. We observed that 99.93% of amplicons were represented at >=10X coverage. All 56 previously identified variant calls were detected and no false positive calls were assigned. Four additional variant calls were made and confirmed upon re-analysis of previous data or subsequent Sanger sequencing. These results support Hi-Plex as a powerful approach for rapid, cost-effective and accurate high-throughput mutation screening. They further demonstrate that Hi-Plex methods are suitable for and can meet the demands of high-throughput genetic testing in research and clinical settings.
    BMC Medical Genomics 11/2013; 6(1):48. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we provide compelling evidence that Next Generation Sequencing will revolutionise diagnostics. We reappraised a case from 1991, published in 1993, describing the unique occurrence of an ovarian immature teratoma arising in a young woman and a clonally distinct intracerebral immature teratoma developing in her daughter. We conducted whole exome sequencing on constitutional DNA from the mother and her daughter and identified a previously unreported nonsense mutation (c.3533G>A; p.Trp1178*) in the chromatin remodelling gene, SMARCA4, that was present in both individuals and was subject to nonsense-mediated decay. Tumour analysis by Sanger sequencing revealed a somatic SMARCA4 mutation, both in the mother (c.2438+1G>T), and in her daughter (c.3229C>T; p.Arg1077*), which are predicted to be truncating. As immature teratomas are classified as germ cell tumours, we performed a comprehensive mutation survey of 106 apparently sporadic germ cell tumours but did not find any other clearly deleterious SMARCA4 mutations. Recently, inactivating mutations in SMARCA4 have been found in two cases of rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome type 2. In the light of these findings, renewed efforts to locate previously unobtainable tumour samples were successfully undertaken. Histopathological and immunohistochemical re-analysis of the daughter's tumour revealed that it was indeed a rhabdoid tumour (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour). In this context, the original pathology report of the mother's ovarian tumour was re-interpreted as describing a malignant rhabdoid tumour of the ovary. This report raises the question as to whether molecular genetic analysis should be included in tumour classification, alongside more traditional microscopy-based methods. The use of new sequencing technologies, particularly when applied to archived samples, will lead to many more "molecular re-diagnoses". This is the earliest known case of rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome type 2 and the only described case with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, only discovered through an exome sequencing project.
    The Journal of Pathology 06/2013; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1).ResultsPCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ≥ 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. CONCLUSION Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The RNase III enzyme DICER1 plays a central role in maturation of microRNAs. Identification of neoplasia-associated germ-line and somatic mutations in DICER1 indicates that mis-expression of miRNAs in cancer may result from defects in their processing. As part of a recent study of DICER1 RNase III domains in 96 testicular germ cell tumors, a single RNase IIIb domain mutation was identified in a seminoma. To further explore the importance of DICER1 mutations in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), we studied germ-line DNA samples from 43 probands diagnosed with familial TGCT. FINDINGS: We carried out High Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of DICER1 exons 2--12, 14--19, 21 and 24--27. All questionable melt curves were subjected to confirmatory Sanger sequencing.Sanger sequencing was used for exons 13, 20, 22 and 23. Intron-exon boundaries were included in all analyses. We identified 12 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms and two novel single nucleotide variants. No likely deleterious variants were identified; notably no mutations that were predicted to truncate the protein were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together with previous studies, the findings reported here suggest a very limited role for either germ-line or somatic DICER1 mutations in the etiology of TGCT.
    BMC Research Notes 04/2013; 6(1):127.
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    ABSTRACT: Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH) identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.90, P = 3.9×10(-8)). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for medical prevention of breast cancer.
    PLoS Genetics 03/2013; 9(3):e1003173. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7×10(-8), HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4×10(-8), HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4×10(-8), HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10(-4)). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.
    PLoS Genetics 03/2013; 9(3):e1003212. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PALB2/FANCN is a BRCA1- and BRCA2-interacting Fanconi Anemia (FA) protein crucial for key BRCA2 genome caretaker functions. Heterozygous germline mutations in PALB2 predispose to breast cancer and biallelic mutations cause FA. FA proteins play a critical role in the telomere maintenance pathway, with telomeric shortening observed in FA cells. Less is known about telomere maintenance in the heterozygous state. Here, we investigate the roles of PALB2 heterozygous mutations in genomic instability, an important carcinogenesis precursor. Patient-derived lymphoblastoid (LCL) and fibroblast (FCL) cell lines with monoallelic truncating PALB2 mutations were investigated using a combination of molecular imaging techniques including centromeric FISH, telomeric Q-FISH and spectral karyotyping (SKY). Mitomycin C and Cisplatin sensitivity was assayed via cellular metabolism of WST-1. The PALB2 c.229delT FCL showed increases in telomere counts associated with increased mean intensity compared with two wild-type FCLs generated from first-degree relatives (P =1.04E-10 and P =9.68E-15) and it showed evidence of chromosomal rearrangements. Significant differences in centromere distribution were observed in one of three PALB2 heterozygous FCLs analyzed when compared with PALB2 wild-type, BRCA1 and BRCA2 heterozygous FCLs. No significant consistently increased sensitivity to Mitomycin C or Cisplatin was observed in LCLs. Our results are suggestive of an altered centromere distribution profile and a telomere instability phenotype. Together, these may indicate critical nuclear organization defects associated with the predisposition to transformation and early stage development of PALB2-related cancers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 01/2013; · 3.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
728.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Medical Genetics
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2006–2014
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2011
    • Université de Montréal
      • Department of Radiology, Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
      • Département Médecine dentaire
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Jewish General Hospital
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004
    • Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP)
      North East, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • King's College London
      • Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics
      London, ENG, United Kingdom