R Nohara

Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Kitano Hospital, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (237)738.44 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence, intensity, safety, and efficacy of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in "real-world" patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not yet been fully evaluated. In the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto registry cohort-2, a total of 1,057 patients with AF (8.3%) were identified among 12,716 patients undergoing first PCI. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke was higher in patients with AF than in no-AF patients (12.8% vs 5.8%, p <0.0001). Although most patients with AF had CHADS2 score ≥2 (75.2%), only 506 patients (47.9%) received OAC with warfarin at hospital discharge. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in the OAC group was not different from that in the no-OAC group (13.8% vs 11.8%, p = 0.49). Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was only 52.6% with an international normalized ratio of 1.6 to 2.6, and only 154 of 409 patients (37.7%) with international normalized ratio data had TTR ≥65%. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in patients with TTR ≥65% was markedly lower than that in patients with TTR <65% (6.9% vs 15.1%, p = 0.01). In a 4-month landmark analysis in the OAC group, there was a trend for higher cumulative incidences of stroke and major bleeding in the on-DAPT (n = 286) than in the off-DAPT (n = 173) groups (15.1% vs 6.7%, p = 0.052 and 14.7% vs 8.7%, p = 0.10, respectively). In conclusion, OAC was underused and its intensity was mostly suboptimal in real-world patients with AF undergoing PCI, which lead to inadequate stroke prevention. Long-term DAPT in patients receiving OAC did not reduce stroke incidence.
    The American journal of cardiology. 07/2014; 114(1):70-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Late adverse events such as very late stent thrombosis (VLST) or late target-lesion revascularization (TLR) after first-generation sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) implantation have not been yet fully characterized at long term in comparison with those after bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Among 13 058 consecutive patients undergoing first percutaneous coronary intervention in the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome study-Kyoto registry Cohort-2, 5078 patients were treated with SES only, and 5392 patients were treated with BMS only. During 7-year follow-up, VLST and late TLR beyond 1 year after SES implantation occurred constantly and without attenuation at 0.24% per year and at 2.0% per year, respectively. Cumulative 7-year incidence of VLST was significantly higher in the SES group than that in the BMS group (1.43% versus 0.68%, P<0.0001). However, there was no excess of all-cause death beyond 1 year in the SES group as compared with that in the BMS group (20.8% versus 19.6%, P=0.91). Cumulative incidences of late TLR (both overall and clinically driven) were also significantly higher in the SES group than in the BMS group (12.0% versus 4.1%, P<0.0001 and 8.5% versus 2.6%, P<0.0001, respectively), leading to late catch-up of the SES group to the BMS group regarding TLR through the entire 7-year follow-up (18.8% versus 25.2%, and 10.6% versus 10.2%, respectively). Clinical presentation as acute coronary syndrome was more common at the time of late SES TLR compared with early SES TLR (21.2% and 10.0%). Late catch-up phenomenon regarding stent thrombosis and TLR was significantly more pronounced with SES than that with BMS. This limitation should remain the target for improvements of DES technology.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2014; · 6.54 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    Echocardiography 09/2013; 30(8):990-1. · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report 2 cases of reversible ventricular hypertrophy in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (stress-induced cardiomyopathy) during recovery of cardiac function. The first case involved a 72-year-old woman who presented with cerebral infarction. On admission, an elevated troponin I and decreased apical wall motion were observed with normal myocardial perfusion imaging. The second case involved a 79-year-old woman who presented with angina, anxiety resulting from emotional stress, slightly decreased apical wall motion, and normal epicardial arteries. In both cases, apical hypertrophy of the left ventricle was observed at approximately 3 weeks after onset, when the wall motion had improved. The ventricular wall gradually became thinner over time. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reversible ventricular hypertrophy in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We hypothesize the hypertrophic signaling in the myocardium was stimulated by catecholamines, which are the suggested etiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and the hypertrophied myocardium gradually returned to normal as the syndrome receded.
    Echocardiography 02/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Masahiro Kimura, Takao Kato, Ryuji Nohara
    Internal Medicine 01/2013; 52(1):155. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise training can improve endothelial function in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that the favorable effect of exercise training on endothelial function in patients with diabetes is counteracted by cigarette smoking. To assess whether there is a difference in the effect of exercise on endothelial function in smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes. We performed a 3-month controlled trial in 27 never-smoking and 17 smoking individuals with type 2 diabetes who participated in a home-based walking program. The percentage decrease in post-exercise ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI), which is an index of endothelial function, was assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Compared to the smoking group, the never-smoking group showed a more significant improvement in post exercise ABI during the 3 months of home-based training (interaction, P < 0.01). These results indicate that smoking may counteract the favorable effects of exercise training on endothelial function. Endothelial function plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes. Therefore, a Certified Diabetes Educator should strongly advise diabetic patients not to smoke.
    Japanese clinical medicine. 01/2013; 4:15-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging features of chronic periaortitis resemble those of infected aneurysms. Two illustrative cases of chronic periaortitis, in which the etiologies were caused by IgG4-related disease, are presented. The first case involved a 68-year-old man who presented with vague discomfort in his lower abdomen. The second case was a 42-year-old man who presented with a fever of 38°C and persistent, vague chest discomfort. Both cases demonstrated an increased amount of connective tissue around the aorta in computed tomography images and low intensity in the T2-weighed sequence and high intensity in the diffusion-weighed sequence, suggesting the presence of inflammation, in the magnetic resonance imaging. Negative blood cultures, elevated IgG4 levels, and pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis as chronic periaortitis due to IgG4-related disease. This is a newly recognized syndrome of unknown etiology, characterized by a fibroinflammatory condition, tumefactive lesions, and a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Both cases were successfully treated with corticosteroids. Infected aneurysms need to be carefully differentiated from this syndrome in view of the similar imaging features.
    Case reports in radiology. 01/2013; 2013:282067.
  • Internal Medicine 01/2013; 52(16):1845. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation has not been yet fully elucidated. We assessed the influence of prolonged thienopyridine therapy on clinical outcomes with landmark analysis at 4 and 13 months after DES implantation. Among 6802 patients with at least 1 DES implantation in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2, 6309 patients (on thienopyridine, 5438 patients; off thienopyridine, 871 patients) and 5901 patients (on thienopyridine, 4098 patients; off thienopyridine, 1803 patients) were eligible for the 4- and 13-month landmark analyses, respectively. The majority of patients had stable coronary artery disease (73%) and received sirolimus-eluting stents (93%), and approximately 90% of thienopyridine was ticlopidine. Patients taking thienopyridine had more complex comorbidities and more complex lesion and procedural characteristics as compared with patients not taking thienopyridine. After adjusting for confounders, thienopyridine use was not associated with decreased risk for death/myocardial infarction/stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.43, P=0.32 in the 4-month landmark analysis; HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.90-1.45, P=0.29 in the 13-month landmark analysis, respectively), whereas the risk for GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding tended to be higher in patients taking thienopyridine (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.00-2.23, P=0.049 in the 4-month landmark analysis; HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.99-2.09, P=0.057 in the 13-month landmark analysis, respectively). Prolonged thienopyridine therapy beyond 4 and 13 months appeared not to be associated with reduction in ischemic events but to be associated with a trend toward increased bleeding. Optimal duration of DAPT after DES implantation might be shorter than the currently recommended 1-year interval.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 05/2012; 5(3):381-91. · 6.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (Cilazapril) for early hypertensive patients in terms of coronary blood flow reserve evaluated by13NH3-positron emission tomography (PET). MethodsBefore and after 12 weeks of ACE inhibitor treatment,13NH3-PET with dipyridamole provocation test was performed, and definite myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. ResultsCompared to our normal subjects previously reported (2.61±0.74), average coronary flow reserve was decreased (1.70±0.64 in hypertensive patients), and improved after treatment (1.77±0.52), but not significantly. Of 12 patients, five (42%) showed improved coronary flow reserve from 1.34 to 1.99 without a significant change in the resting flow. Only one patient (8%) showed deterioration after the ACE inhibitor treatment. The coronary vascular resistance (CVR) after ACE inhibitor treatment of the patients with CFR<2.0 decreased significantly compared with those with CFR≧2.0 (p<0.03). ConclusionsThese results indicate that hypertensive patients at the early stage show decreased coronary flow reserve despite having normal resting flow. Treatment with an ACE inhibitor (Cilazapril) for 12 weeks improved coronary flow reserve in 42% of our patients. The CVR of the patients with CFR<2.0 showed improvement compared to those with CFR≧2.0. This result indicates that an ACE inhibitor (e.g., Cilazapril) should be one of the choices for improving CFR if hypertensive patients in early stage show signs of ischemia or diastolic dysfunction, which may be one of the sequels of reserve restriction.
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine 04/2012; 14(5):353-360. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There still remain safety concerns on surgical procedures after coronary drug-eluting stents (DES) implantation, and optimal management of perioperative antiplatelet therapy (APT) has not been yet established. During 3-year follow-up of 12 207 patients (DES=6802 patients and bare-metal stent [BMS] only=5405 patients) who underwent coronary stent implantation in the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2, surgical procedures were performed in 2398 patients (DES=1295 patients and BMS=1103 patients). Surgical procedures (early surgery in particular) were more frequently performed in the BMS group than in the DES group (4.4% versus 1.9% at 42-day and 23% versus 21% at 3-year, log-rank P=0.0007). Cumulative incidences of death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding at 30 days after surgery were low, without differences between BMS and DES (3.5% versus 2.9%, P=0.4 and 3.2% versus 2.1%, P=0.2, respectively). The adjusted risks of DES use relative to BMS use for death/MI/ST and bleeding were not significant (hazard ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 2.87, P=0.09 and hazard ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.34 to 1.06, P=0.08, respectively). The risks of perioperative single- and no-APT relative to dual-APT for both death/MI/ST and bleeding were not significant; single-APT as compared with dual-APT tended to be associated with lower risk for death/MI/ST (hazard ratio: 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.13 to 1.01, P=0.053). Surgical procedures were commonly performed after coronary stent implantation, and the risk of ischemic and bleeding complications in surgical procedures was low. In patients selected to receive DES or BMS, there were no differences in outcomes. Perioperative administration of dual-APT was not associated with lower risk for ischemic events.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 03/2012; 5(2):237-46. · 6.54 Impact Factor
  • Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 02/2012; 20(1):89-90.
  • Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(8):983. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Fas/Fas Ligand system is a major apoptosis signaling pathway that is up-regulated in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Serum soluble Fas (sFas) levels increase in proportion to the CHF severity and may have prognostic value, therefore, sFas is a promising biomarker of heart failure. In this study, we attempted to identify the determinants of sFas levels in patients with CHF. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and its soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 & sTNF-R2), interleukin (IL)-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), glycoprotein (gp)130, and sFas were measured in 106 patients with CHF and 39 controls. All subjects performed a symptom-limited cycle ergometer exercise test with expired gas analysis. CHF patients had higher levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, IL-6, and gp130. Serum levels of sFas (controls versus CHF; 2.60 ± 0.88 versus 3.38 ± 1.23 ng/mL, P = 0.0004) were higher in CHF. On univariate analysis, age (P = 0.0003), NYHA functional class (P = 0.0012), peak VO 2 (P < 0.0001), plasma norepinephrine (P = 0.0013), log IL-6 (P < 0.0001), log TNF-α (P = 0.0002), log sTNF-R1 (P < 0.0001), and log TNF-R2 (P < 0.0001) were significantly related to log sFas levels. Multivariate analysis showed that age and log IL-6 and log sTNF-R1 levels were independently associated with log sFas levels (overall R = 0.603, P < 0.0001). Serum levels of sFas were increased in patients with CHF, and age and serum IL-6 and sTNF-R1 levels were independent determinants of sFas levels. These data suggest that proinflammatory cytokine activation is linked to the Fas/Fas Ligand system in patients with CHF.
    International Heart Journal 01/2012; 53(3):182-6. · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Takao Kato, Sayako Hirose, Ryuji Nohara
    Case Reports 01/2012; 2012.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We prospectively investigated the efficacy of the screening methods for asymptomatic coronary heart disease (CHD) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes using the treadmill tolerance test (TTT) as a first-line test or the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. Methods The subjects included consecutive inpatients with type 2 diabetes (n=331) assessed with both electrocardiogram (ECG) at rest and TTT. Subjects with abnormal TTT findings were evaluated using stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Results A total of 60 out of 69 subjects with positive TTT findings underwent MPS, among whom a total of 22 subjects (6.6% of the total number of subjects) had positive MPS results. Among those with positive MPS results, a total of 14 subjects underwent coronary angiography, eight of whom were determined to have significant coronary artery stenosis. The prevalence rates of hypertension and micro/macroalbuminuria were significantly higher in the MPS-positive group (77.3% and 54.5%, respectively) than in the TTT-negative group (44.7% and 27.1%, respectively). Among the subjects with positive MPS results, 68.2% met the 1998 ADA criteria. Conclusion Neither the TTT as a first-line test nor the ADA guidelines are sufficiently adequate screening methods to detect asymptomatic CHD in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Conducting routine screening for asymptomatic CHD in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes may therefore not be very useful.
    Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(24):3337-42. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the effects of concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on cardiovascular outcomes. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of PPI-use in patients treated with thienopyridines after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a large Japanese observational database. Among 12446 patients discharged alive on thienopyridines (ticlopidine 90.4% and clopidogrel 9.6%), 3223 patients were treated with PPIs and 9223 patients without PPI at the time of hospital discharge. The PPI group included more patients with co-morbidities than the non-PPI group. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of PPI-use for a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke was 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.47, p = 0.002). The adjusted HR of PPI-use for bleeding was 1.26 (95% CI 1.05-1.52, p = 0.013). Cardiovascular and bleeding outcomes were not different among the three groups receiving three different types of PPI. The negative effect of PPI on cardiovascular outcome was consistently seen in both drug-eluting stent (DES) [HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.07-1.6, p = 0.0097)] and non-DES strata [HR 1.25 (95% CI: 0.99-1.57, p = 0.057)] (Interaction p = 0.79) despite the fact that the duration of thienopyridine administration was significantly longer in patients receiving DES. In conclusion, cardiovascular outcomes after PCI were significantly worse in patients with PPI than in patients without PPI in the Japanese real clinical practice. However, the observed poorer cardiovascular outcome in patients receiving PPI was most likely to be related to residual confounding and seemed not causally related to attenuation of antiplatelet effect of thienopyridine through interaction with PPI.
    Cardiovascular intervention and therapeutics. 09/2011; 26(3):222-233.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term safety and efficacy of drug-eluting stents remains controversial. The CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2 is a physician-initiated non-company sponsored multi-center registry enrolling consecutive patients undergoing first coronary revascularization in 26 centers in Japan. We compared 3-year outcome between patients treated with sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) only (5092 patients) and bare-metal stent (BMS) only (5405 patients). SES-use as compared with BMS-use was associated with significantly lower adjusted risk for all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.72 (0.59-0.87), P = 0.0007], which was mainly driven by the reduction in non-cardiac death [HR (95% CI) 0.64 (0.48-0.85), P = 0.002]. The risk of cardiac death [HR (95% CI) 0.82 (0.63-1.07), P = 0.15], myocardial infarction [HR (95% CI) 0.73 (0.51-1.03), P = 0.07] and definite stent thrombosis [HR (95% CI) 0.62 (0.35-1.09), P = 0.1] was not different between the two groups. Despite longer duration of thienopyridine administration, SES-use was associated with significantly lower risk for bleeding [HR (95% CI) 0.75 (0.6-0.95), P = 0.02] and similar risk for stroke [HR (95% CI) 1.0 (0.75-1.34), P = 1.0]. The risk for target-lesion revascularization (TLR) was markedly lower in the SES group [HR (95% CI) 0.42 (0.36-0.48), P < 0.0001]. The direction and magnitude of the effect of SES relative to BMS in patients presenting acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were similar to those in patients presenting otherwise. In conclusion, SES-use as compared with BMS-use was associated with marked reduction of TLR without any increases in death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke and bleeding in real world clinical practice regardless of clinical presentation including AMI.
    Cardiovascular intervention and therapeutics. 09/2011; 26(3):234-245.
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-body periodic acceleration (WBPA) has been developed as a passive exercise device capable of improving endothelial function by applying pulsatile shear stress to vascular endothelium. We hypothesized that treatment with WBPA improves exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and left ventricular (LV) function because of increased coronary and peripheral vasodilatory reserves in patients with angina. Twenty-six patients with angina who were not indicated for percutaneous coronary intervention and/or coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly assigned to remain sedentary (sedentary group) or undergo 20 sessions of WBPA with the motion platform for 4 weeks (WBPA group) in addition to conventional medical treatment. WBPA was applied at 2 to 3 Hz and approximately ±2.2 m/s² for 45 minutes. We repeated the symptom-limited treadmill exercise test and adenosine sestamibi myocardial scintigraphy. In the WBPA group, the exercise time until 0.1-mV ST-segment depression increased by 53% (p <0.01) and the double product at 0.1-mV ST-segment depression by 23% (p <0.001). Severity score of myocardial scintigraphy during adenosine infusion decreased from 20 ± 10 to 14 ± 8 (p <0.001) and severity score at rest also decreased from 13 ± 10 to 8 ± 10 (p <0.01). On scintigraphic images at rest, LV end-diastolic volume index decreased by 18% (p <0.01) with an augmentation of LV ejection fraction from 50 ± 16% to 55 ± 16% (p <0.01). In contrast, all studied parameters remained unchanged in the sedentary group. In conclusion, treatment with WBPA for patients with angina ameliorates exercise capacity, myocardial ischemia, and LV function.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2011; 107(2):168-74. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
738.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Kitano Hospital
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2011–2013
    • Osaka Sangyo University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1983–2012
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2010
    • National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2003
    • Tottori University
      • Third Department of Internal Medicine
      Tottori, Tottori-ken, Japan
    • Bunkyo University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1996
    • Hokkaido University Hospital
      • Division of Nuclear Medicine
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 1988–1993
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Division of Cardiovascular Division
      Saint Louis, MO, United States