Chad G Ball

The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (193)345.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to delineate the role of computed tomography (CT) in patients undergoing NOM for AGSW.
    Annals of surgery. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background The standard use of an intra-operative perihepatic drain (IPD) in liver surgery is controversial and mainly supported by retrospective data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IPD in liver surgery.Methods All patients included in a previous, randomized trial were analysed to determine the association between IPD placement, post-operative complications (PC) and treatment. A multivariate analysis identified predictive factors of PC.ResultsOne hundred and ninety-nine patients were included in the final analysis of which 114 (57%) had colorectal liver metastases. IPD (n = 87, 44%) was associated with pre-operative biliary instrumentation (P = 0.023), intra-operative bleeding (P < 0.011), Pringle's manoeuver(P < 0.001) and extent of resection (P = 0.001). Seventy-seven (39%) patients had a PC, which was associated with pre-operative biliary instrumentation (P = 0.048), extent of resection (P = 0.002) and a blood transfusion (P = 0.001). Patients with IPD had a higher rate of high-grade PC (25% versus 12%, P = 0.008). Nineteen patients (9.5%) developed a post-operative collection [IPD (n = 10, 11.5%) vs. no drains (n = 9, 8%), P = 0.470]. Seven (8%) patients treated with and 9(8%) without a IPD needed a second drain after surgery, P = 1. Resection of ≥3 segments was the only independent factor associated with PC [odds ratio (OR) = 2, P = 0.025, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–3.7].DiscussionIn spite of preferential IPD use in patients with more complex tumours/resections, IPD did not decrease the rate of PC, collections and the need for a percutaneous post-operative drain. IPD should be reserved for exceptional circumstances in liver surgery.
    HPB 08/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Chad G Ball
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 08/2014; 57(4):E146.
  • The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 07/2014; 77(1):184-185. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to predict variation in the thoracic surgery workforce requirements with the introduction of a national chest computed tomographic (CT) screening program for individuals at high risk of lung cancer.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the implementation of an all-inclusive philosophy of trauma care in a large Canadian province.
    Annals of surgery. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The natural evolution of an acute care surgery (ACS) service is to develop disease-specific care pathways aimed at quality improvement. Our primary goal was to evaluate the implementation of an ACS pathway dedicated to suspected appendicitis on patient flow and the use of computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department (ED).
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 06/2014; 57(3):194-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The "weekend warrior" engages in demanding recreational sporting activities on weekends despite minimal physical activity during the week. We sought to identify the incidence and injury patterns of major trauma from recreational sporting activities on weekends versus weekdays.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 06/2014; 57(3):E62-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Management and palliation of pancreatic head adenocarcinoma is challenging. End-of-life decision-making is a variable process involving multiple factors.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 06/2014; 57(3):E69-74.
  • Chad G Ball
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    ABSTRACT: A highly organized approach to the evaluation and treatment of penetrating torso injuries based on regional anatomy provides rapid diagnostic and therapeutic consistency. It also minimizes delays in diagnosis, missed injuries and nontherapeutic laparotomies. This review discusses an optimal sequence of structured rapid assessments that allow the clinician to rapidly proceed to gold standard therapies with a minimal risk of associated morbidity.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):E36-E43. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a microsimulation model of thoracic surgery workforce supply and demand to forecast future labor requirements. The Canadian Community Health Survey and Canadian Census data were used to develop a microsimulation model. The demand component simulated the incidence of lung cancer; the supply component simulated the number of practicing thoracic surgeons. The full model predicted the rate of operable lung cancers per surgeon according to varying numbers of graduates per year. From 2011 to 2030, the Canadian national population will increase by 10 million. The lung cancer incidence rates will increase until 2030, then plateau and decline. The rate will vary by region (12.5% in Western Canada, 37.2% in Eastern Canada) and will be less pronounced in major cities (10.3%). Minor fluctuations in the yearly thoracic surgery graduation rates (range, 4-8) will dramatically affect the future number of practicing surgeons (range, 116-215). The rate of operable lung cancer varies from 35.0 to 64.9 cases per surgeon annually. Training 8 surgeons annually would maintain the current rate of operable lung cancer cases per surgeon per year (range, 32-36). However, this increased rate of training will outpace the lung cancer incidence after 2030. At the current rate of training, the incidence of operable lung cancer will increase until 2030 and then plateau and decline. The increase will outstrip the supply of thoracic surgeons, but the decline after 2030 will translate into an excess future supply. Minor increases in the rate of training in response to short-term needs could be problematic in the longer term. Unregulated workforce changes should, therefore, be approached with care.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2014; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Air ambulance transport for injured patients is vitally important given increasing patient volumes, the limited number of trauma centres and inadequate subspecialty coverage in nontrauma hospitals. Air ambulance services have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared with ground transport in select circumstances. Our primary goal was to compare injuries, interventions and outcomes in patients transported by helicopter versus nonhelicopter transport. We performed a retrospective 10-year review of 14 440 patients transported to an urban Level 1 trauma centre by helicopter or by other means. We compared injury severity, interventions and mortality between the groups. Patients transported by helicopter had higher median injury severity scores (ISS), regardless of penetrating or blunt injury, and were more likely to have Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 8, require airway control, receive blood transfusions and require admission to the intensive care unit or operating room than patients transported by other means. Helicopter transport was associated with reduced overall mortality (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.39). Patients transported by other methods were more likely to die in the emergency department. The mean ISS, regardless of transport method, rose from 12.3 to 15.1 (p = 0.011) during our study period. Patients transported by helicopter to an urban trauma centre were more severely injured, required more interventions and had improved survival than those arriving by other means of transport.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 02/2014; 57(1):49-54. · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Chad G Ball
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    ABSTRACT: Damage control resuscitation (DCR) represents the natural evolution of the initial concept of damage control surgery. It currently includes early blood product transfusion, immediate arrest and/or temporization of ongoing hemorrhage (i.e., temporary intravascular shunts and/or balloon tamponade) as well as restoration of blood volume and physiologic/hematologic stability. As a result, DCR addresses the early coagulopathy of trauma, avoids massive crystalloid resuscitation and leaves the peritoneal cavity open when a patient approaches physiologic exhaustion without improvement. This concept also applies to severe injuries within anatomical transition zones as well as extremities. This review will discuss each of these concepts in detail.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 02/2014; 57(1):55-60. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic injury is the leading cause of potentially preventable lost years of life in the Western world and exsanguination is the most potentially preventable cause of post-traumatic death. With mature trauma systems and experienced trauma centres, extra-abdominal sites, such as the pelvis, constitute the most frequent anatomic site of exsanguination. Haemorrhage control for such bleeding often requires surgical adjuncts most notably interventional radiology (IR). With the usual paradigm of surgery conducted within an operating room and IR procedures within distant angiography suites, responsible clinicians are faced with making difficult decisions regarding where to transport the most physiologically unstable patients for haemorrhage control. If such a critical patient is transported to the wrong suite, they may die unnecessarily despite having potentially salvageable injuries. Thus, it seems only logical that the resuscitative operating room of the future would have IR capabilities making it the obvious geographic destination for critically unstable patients, especially those who are exsanguinating. Our trauma programme recently had the opportunity to conceive, design, build, and operationalise a purpose-designed hybrid trauma operating room, designated as the resuscitation with angiographic percutaneous techniques and operative resuscitation (RAPTOR) suite, which we believe to be the first such resource designed primarily to serve the exsanguinating trauma patient. The project was initiated after consultations between the trauma programme and private philanthropists regarding the greatest potential impacts on regional trauma care. The initial capital construction costs were thus privately generated but coincided with a new hospital wing construction allowing the RAPTOR to be purpose-designed for the exsanguinating patient. Many trauma programmes around the world are now starting to navigate the complex process of building new facilities, or else retrofitting existing ones, to address the need for single-site flexible haemorrhage control. This manuscript therefore describes the many considerations in the design and refinement of the physical build, equipment selection, human factors evaluation of new combined treatment paradigms, and the final introduction of a RAPTOR protocol in order that others may learn from our initial efforts.
    Injury 01/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although health care providers utilize classically described signs and symptoms to diagnose tension pneumothorax, available literature sources differ in their descriptions of its clinical manifestations. Moreover, while the clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax have been suggested to differ among subjects of varying respiratory status, it remains unknown if these differences are supported by clinical evidence. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to systematically describe and contrast the clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax among patients receiving positive pressure ventilation versus those who are breathing unassisted. We will search electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) and clinical trial registries from their first available date as well as personal files, identified review articles, and included article bibliographies. Two investigators will independently screen identified article titles and abstracts and select observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) studies and case reports and series that report original data on clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax. These investigators will also independently assess risk of bias and extract data. Identified data on the clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax will be stratified according to whether adult or pediatric study patients were receiving positive pressure ventilation or were breathing unassisted, as well as whether the two investigators independently agreed that the clinical condition of the study patient(s) aligned with a previously published tension pneumothorax working definition. These data will then be summarized using a formal narrative synthesis alongside a meta-analysis of observational studies and then case reports and series where possible. Pooled or combined estimates of the occurrence rate of clinical manifestations will be calculated using random effects models (for observational studies) and generalized estimating equations adjusted for reported potential confounding factors (for case reports and series). This study will compile the world literature on tension pneumothorax and provide the first systematic description of the clinical manifestations of the disorder according to presenting patient respiratory status. It will also demonstrate a series of methods that may be used to address difficulties likely to be encountered during the conduct of a meta-analysis of data contained in published case reports and series. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005826.
    Systematic reviews. 01/2014; 3(1):3.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To identify core thoracic surgery procedures that require increased emphasis during thoracic surgery residency for residents to achieve operative independence and to compare the perspectives of residents and program directors in this regard. Methods A modified Delphi process was used to create a survey that was distributed electronically to all Canadian thoracic surgery residents (12) and program directors (8) addressing the residents’ ability to perform 19 core thoracic surgery procedures independently after the completion of residency. Residents were also questioned about the adequacy of their operative exposure to these 19 procedures during their residency training. A descriptive summary including calculations of frequencies and proportions was conducted. The perceptions of the 2 groups were then compared using the Fisher exact test employing a Bonferroni correction. The relationship between residents’ operative exposure and their perceived operative ability was explored in the same fashion. Results The response rate was 100% for residents and program directors. No statistical differences were found between residents’ and program directors’ perceptions of residents’ ability to perform the 19 core procedures independently. Both groups identified lung transplantation, first rib resection, and extrapleural pneumonectomy as procedures for which residents were not adequately prepared to perform independently. Residents’ subjective ratings of operative exposure were in good agreement with their reported operative ability for 13 of 19 procedures. Conclusion This study provides new insight into the perceptions of thoracic surgery residents and their program directors regarding operative ability. This study points to good agreement between residents and program directors regarding residents’ surgical capabilities. This study provides information regarding potential weaknesses in thoracic surgery training, which may warrant an examination of the curricula of existing programs as well as a reconsideration of what the scope of practice of a general thoracic surgeon should entail.
    Journal of Surgical Education 01/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014; 76(1):217-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Severe burns are devastating injuries that result in considerable systemic inflammation and often require resuscitation with large volumes of fluid. The result of massive resuscitation is often raised intra-abdominal pressures leading to Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. The objective of this study is to conduct (1) a 10 year retrospective study to investigate epidemiological factors contributing to burn injuries in Alberta, (2) to characterize fluid management and incidence of IAH and ACS and (3) to review fluid resuscitation with a goal to identify optimal strategies for fluid resuscitation.
    Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes 01/2014; 8:12.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Haemorrhage in peripheral vascular injuries may cause life-threatening exsanguination. Tourniquets are used extensively by the military, with increased interest in the civilian setting to prevent deaths. This is a retrospective study of trauma patients at two large Canadian trauma centres with arterial injury after isolated extremity trauma. We hypothesized that tourniquet use may decrease mortality rate and transfusion requirements if applied early. Methods The study group was all adult patients at two Level 1 Trauma Centres in two Canadian cities in Canada, who had arterial injuries from extremity trauma. The study period was from January 2001 to December 2010. We excluded patients with significant associated injuries. The intervention in this study was prehospital tourniquet use. The main outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, compartment syndrome, amputation, and blood product transfusion. Results 190 patients were included in the study, and only 4 patients had a prehospital tourniquet applied. They arrived directly from the scene of injury, had improvised tourniquets by police or bystanders, and showed a trend to be more hypotensive and acidotic. Four other patients had tourniquets applied in the trauma bay within 1 h of injury. There were no differences in age, sex, injury severity or physiologic presentation between patients who had an early tourniquet applied and those who died without a tourniquet. However, six patients died without a tourniquet, and all bled to death. Of the eight patients who had early tourniquets applied, none died. Conclusions Tourniquets may prevent exsanguination in the civilian setting for patients suffering either blunt or penetrating trauma to the extremity. Future studies will help determine the utility of deploying tourniquets in the civilian setting, given the rarity of exsanguinating haemorrhage from isolated extremity trauma in this setting.
    Injury 01/2014; 45(3):573–577. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This focused summary is a multi-institutional, multi-national, and multi-generational project designed to briefly summarize current academic trauma societies for both trainees and faculty alike. The co-authorship is composed of former and/or current presidents from most major trauma organizations. It has particular relevance to trainees and/or recent graduates attempting to navigate the multitude of available trauma organizations.
    Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes 01/2014; 8:6.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
345.54 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • The University of Calgary
      • • Division of General Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2013
    • Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
    • The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      • Division of Surgical Oncology
      Memphis, TN, United States
    • University of Miami
      • Miller School of Medicine
      Coral Gables, FL, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • Emory University
      • Department of Surgery
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2012
    • Chinook Regional Hospital
      Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
  • 2010–2011
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Surgery
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
    • Alberta Health Services
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      • Surgery
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Emory Hospitals
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Centre hospitalier affilié universitaire de Québec (CHA)
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
    • Northside Hospital
      St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
  • 2008
    • Maastricht University
      • Department of Social Medicine
      Maastricht, Provincie Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • Tom Baker Cancer Centre
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Surgery
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada