[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory and protein mediators (cytokine, chemokine, acute phase proteins) play an important, but still not completely understood, role in the morbidity and mortality of intra-abdominal sepsis/injury. We therefore systematically reviewed preclinical and clinical studies of mediators in intra-abdominal sepsis/injury in order to evaluate their ability to: (1) function as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; (2) serve as therapeutic targets; and (3) illuminate the pathogenesis mechanisms of sepsis or injury-related organ dysfunction.
We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Two investigators independently reviewed all identified abstracts and selected articles for full-text review. We included original studies assessing mediators in intra-abdominal sepsis/injury.
Among 2437 citations, we selected 182 studies in the scoping review, including 79 preclinical and 103 clinical studies. Serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein appear to be useful to rule out infection or monitor therapy; however, the diagnostic and prognostic value of mediators for complications/outcomes of sepsis or injury remains to be established. Peritoneal mediator levels are substantially higher than systemic levels after intra-abdominal infection/trauma. Common limitations of current studies included small sample sizes and lack of uniformity in study design and outcome measures. To date, targeted therapies against mediators remain experimental.
Whereas preclinical data suggests mediators play a critical role in intra-abdominal sepsis or injury, there is no consensus on the clinical use of mediators in diagnosing or managing intra-abdominal sepsis or injury. Measurement of peritoneal mediators should be further investigated as a more sensitive determinant of intra-abdominal inflammatory response. High-quality clinical trials are needed to better understand the role of inflammatory mediators.
Critical Care 12/2015; 19(1). DOI:10.1186/s13054-015-1093-4 · 4.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreaticoduodenectomy remains the exclusive technique for surgical resection of cancers located within both the pancreatic head and periampullary region. Amongst peri-procedural complications, hemorrhage is particularly problematic given that allogenic blood transfusions are known to increase the risk of infection, acute lung injury, cancer recurrence and overall 30-day morbidity and mortality rates. Because blood loss can be considered a modifiable factor that reflects surgical technique, rates of perioperative blood loss and transfusion have been advocated as robust quality indicators. We present a correspondence manuscript that outlines peri-procedural concepts detailing a successful pancreaticoduodenectomy with minimal hemorrhage. These tips were collated from master pancreatic surgeons throughout the globe who have performed over 10,000 cumulative pancreaticoduodenectomies. At risk scenarios for hemorrhage include dissections of the superior mesenteric - portal vein, gastroduodenal artery, and retroperitoneal soft tissue margin. General principles in limiting slow continuous hemorrhage that may accumulate into larger total case losses are also discussed. While many of the techniques and tips proposed by master pancreas surgeons are intuitive and straight forward, when taken as a collective they represent a significant contribution to improved outcomes associated with the pancreaticoduodenectomy over the past 100 years.
BMC Surgery 11/2015; 15(1):122. DOI:10.1186/s12893-015-0109-y · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Abdominal Compartment Society (www.wsacs.org) previously created highly cited Consensus Definitions/Management Guidelines related to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Implicit in this previous work, was a commitment to regularly reassess and update in relation to evolving research. Two years preceding the Fifth World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, an International Guidelines committee began preparation. An oversight/steering committee formulated key clinical questions regarding IAH/ /ACS based on polling of the Executive to redundancy, structured according to the Patient, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) format. Scientific consultations were obtained from Methodological GRADE experts and a series of educational teleconferences were conducted to educate scientific review teams from among the wscacs. org membership. Each team conducted systematic or structured reviews to identify relevant studies and prepared evidence summaries and draft Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) recommendations. The evidence and draft recommendations were presented and debated in person over four days. Updated consensus definitions and management statements were derived using a modified Delphi method. A writingcommittee subsequently compiled the results utilizing frequent Internet discussion and Delphi voting methods to compile a robust online Master Report and a concise peer-reviewed summarizing publication. A dedicated Paediatric Guidelines Subcommittee reviewed all recommendations and either accepted or revised them for appropriateness in children. Of the original 12 IAH/ACS definitions proposed in 2006, three (25%) were accepted unanimously, with four (33%) accepted by > 80%, and four (33%) accepted by > 50%, but required discussion to produce revised definitions. One (8%) was rejected by > 50%. In addition to previous 2006 definitions, the panel also defined the open abdomen, lateralization of the abdominal musculature, polycompartment syndrome, abdominal compliance, and suggested a refined open abdomen classification system. Recommendations were possible regarding intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement, approach to sustained IAH, philosophy of protocolized IAP management and same-hospital-stay fascial closure, use of decompressive laparotomy, and negative pressure wound therapy. Consensus suggestions included use of non-invasive therapies for treating IAH/ACS, considering body position and IAP, damage control resuscitation, prophylactic open abdomen usage, and prudence in early biological mesh usage. No recommendations were made for the use of diuretics, albumin, renal replacement therapies, and utilizing abdominal perfusion pressure as a resuscitation-endpoint. Collaborating Methodological Guideline Development and Clinical Experts produced Consensus Definitions/Clinical Management statements encompassing the most contemporary evidence. Data summaries now exist for clinically relevant IAH/ACS questions, which will facilitate future scientific reanalysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefit of a laparoscopic approach to appendectomy continues to be debated. We compared laparoscopic (LA) with open appendectomy (OA) for appendicitis in Canada using the Canadian Institute for Health Information database (2004-2008). The odds of female patients undergoing LA were 1.26 times higher than the odds of male patients, and the odds of patients with nonperforated pathology undergoing LA were 1.38 times higher than the odds of those with perforated pathology. Increasing comorbidities were associated with OA. While LA is becoming more frequent, the associated length of stay, postoperative complication rate and mortality are clearly lower than for OA. As a result, we support the continued increase in use of LA with regard to both safety and outcomes.
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 11/2015; 58(6):431-432. DOI:10.1503/cjs.012715 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To characterize and evaluate indications for use of damage control (DC) surgery in civilian trauma patients.
Although DC surgery may improve survival in select, severely injured patients, the procedure is associated with significant morbidity, suggesting that it should be used only when appropriately indicated.
Two investigators used an abbreviated grounded theory method to synthesize indications for DC surgery reported in peer-reviewed articles between 1983 and 2014 into a reduced number of named, content-characteristic codes representing unique indications. An international panel of trauma surgery experts (n = 9) then rated the appropriateness (expected benefit-to-harm ratio) of the coded indications for use in surgical practice.
The 1107 indications identified in the literature were synthesized into 123 unique pre- (n = 36) and intraoperative (n = 87) indications. The panel assessed 101 (82.1%) of these indications to be appropriate. The indications most commonly reported and assessed to be appropriate included pre- and intraoperative hypothermia (median temperature <34°C), acidosis (median pH <7.2), and/or coagulopathy. Others included 5 different injury patterns, inability to control bleeding by conventional methods, administration of a large volume of packed red blood cells (median >10 units), inability to close the abdominal wall without tension, development of abdominal compartment syndrome during attempted abdominal wall closure, and need to reassess extent of bowel viability.
This study identified a comprehensive list of candidate indications for use of DC surgery. These indications provide a practical foundation to guide surgical practice while studies are conducted to evaluate their impact on patient care and outcomes.
Annals of surgery 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001347 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous clinical and basic science-related innovations have been presented at the Canadian Surgery Forum (CSF). We sought to define changes in both the content and methodology of the CSF scientific program over the past decade. While the total volume of CSF abstract presentations has increased dramatically, the methodological quality has remained static, with few randomized trials and minimal prospective work. Although the majority of the scientific content is associated with urban university centres, the program also encourages content from community practices. Surgical education, hepatopancreatobiliary and bariatric content have increased substantially, but remain secondary to colorectal diseases.
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 10/2015; 58(5):015314-15314. DOI:10.1503/cjs.015314 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings.
An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the "Cut Suit") was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon.
There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004).
Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the concept by allowing them to undertake psychologically daunting procedures.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share thework provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The use of abbreviated or damage control (DC) interventions may improve outcomes in severely injured patients when appropriately indicated. We sought to determine which indications for DC interventions have been most commonly reported in the peer-reviewed literature to date and evaluate the opinions of experts regarding the appropriateness (expected benefit-to-harm ratio) of the reported indications for use in practice.
Two investigators used an abbreviated grounded theory method to synthesize indications for 16 different DC interventions reported in peer-reviewed articles between 1983 and 2014 into a reduced number of named, content-characteristic codes representing unique indications. For each indication code, an international panel of trauma surgery experts (n = 9) then rated the appropriateness of conducting the DC intervention of interest in an adult civilian trauma patient.
The 424 indications identified in the literature were synthesized into 101 unique indications. The panel assessed 12 (70.6%) of the coded indications for the 7 different thoracic, 47 (78.3%) for the 7 different abdominal/pelvic, and 18 (75.0%) for the 2 different vascular interventions to be appropriate for use in practice. These included indications for rapid lung-sparing surgery (pneumonorrhaphy, pulmonary tractotomy, and pulmonary wedge resection) (n = 1); pulmonary tractotomy (n = 3); rapid, simultaneously stapled pneumonectomy (n = 1); therapeutic mediastinal and/or pleural space packing (n = 4); temporary thoracic closure (n = 3); therapeutic perihepatic packing (n = 28); staged pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 2); temporary abdominal closure (n = 12); extraperitoneal pelvic packing (n = 5); balloon catheter tamponade (n = 6); and temporary intravascular shunting (n = 11).
This study identified a list of candidate appropriate indications for use of 12 different DC interventions that were suggested by authors of peer-reviewed articles and assessed by a panel of independent experts to be appropriate. These indications may be used to focus future research and (in the interim) guide surgical practice while studies are conducted to evaluate their impact on patient outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Falls are an increasingly common source of severe traumatic injury. They now account for approximately 40% of both overall trauma volumes and injury-related deaths within Canada. In northern climates, the risk of all types of falls may increase during the fall/winter months when conditions become increasingly dangerous. The purpose of this study was to define the injury and patient demographics of severe trauma that occurs during falls associated with the installation of Christmas lights.
Patients and methods:
All patients who were admitted to a referral level 1 trauma center (2002-2012) with severe injuries (ISS≥12) caused during Christmas light installation were retrospectively reviewed. Standard statistical methodology was utilised (p<0.05=significant).
A total of 40 patients were severely injured (95% male; mean age=55 years; mean ISS=25.7 (range: 12-75)) while installing Christmas lights. Injuries included: neurologic (68%), thoracic (68%), spinal (43%), extremity (40%), and multiple other sites. Fall mechanisms were: ladder (65%), roof (30%), ground (3%) and railing (3%). Interventions included intubation and critical care (20%), as well as orthopaedic and neurosurgical operative repairs (30%). The median length of hospital stay was 15.6 days (range: 2-165). The fall-related morbidity (28%) and mortality (5%) were significant with a total of 12.5% patients requiring transfer to a long-term care or rehabilitation facility.
Falls while installing Christmas lights during the fall/winter seasons can result in severe life-altering injuries with considerable morbidity and mortality. Caution should be employed when installing lights at any height.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) and incisional hernia (IH) represent the most common long-term complications of laparotomy. They may also be more common among injured patients than for elective/nontrauma emergency scenarios. Unfortunately, the population-based incidence of SBO and IH following trauma laparotomy is unknown. The aim of this study was to define the long-term, population-based incidence of SBO and IH following both trauma laparotomy as well as the nonoperative therapy of solid organ injuries.
All injured patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center (2002-2013) who underwent (1) a laparotomy or nonoperative care of (2) splenic and/or (3) hepatic injuries were linked with the Alberta Health Services Discharge Database to identify all readmissions for subsequent SBO and/or IH within the province. Standard statistical methodology was used (p < 0.05).
Of 484 patients who underwent a trauma laparotomy, 29 (6%) and 42 (9%) required readmission for SBO and IH, respectively (0.13 SBO and 0.10 IH admissions per patient year). Patients who underwent nonoperative management of their liver and/or spleen injuries displayed long-term SBO rates of 1% (6 of 619) and 0.7% (4 of 606), respectively. The rate of SBO and IH in patients with unnecessary laparotomies was equivalent to therapeutic procedures (p = 0.183). Topical hemostatic agents, repeat laparotomies, and injury pattern did not alter SBO or IH rates (p > 0.05).
The population-based, long-term rate of clinically relevant SBO and IH following trauma laparotomies is 15%. This increases to 19% on a per-admission basis. Nontherapeutic scenarios, injury pattern, topical hemostatics, and open abdomens did not alter complication rates.
Therapeutic study, level IV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To evaluate the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the thoracic surgery literature according to Consolidated Standard for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) and to determine predictors of quality.
All RCTs published in four principal journals between 1998 and 2013 were identified in PubMed. Two independent reviewers assessed each trial using the CONSORT checklist (1996) with discrepancies resolved by a third reviewer. Mean checklist scores were compared between trials published from 1998 to 2005 and 2006 to 2013. The κ statistic for inter-rater agreement was calculated. Stepwise multivariable linear regression was then performed to identify independent predictors of quality.
After 2 rounds of review, 203 of the 2838 identified articles met inclusion criteria. The overall κ coefficient was 0.95 indicating very good agreement between reviewers. The mean CONSORT score was significantly higher in 2006-13 [mean 10.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 10.3-11.2] than in 1998-2005 (mean 9.3; 95% CI: 8.7-9.6). On multivariable analysis, there was strong evidence of an increased mean CONSORT score in studies comparing non-surgical interventions, multicentre trials, publications after 2006, studies with increased number of authors and studies funded by industries.
Our study suggests that the quality of reporting in the thoracic surgery literature is improving with time and is predicted by factors including number of authors, multicentre trials, type of comparison, time period of publication and industry sponsorship. Ongoing efforts should be made to improve the quality of reporting in thoracic surgery.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 08/2015; DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivv204.56 · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) grade C postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF) are the greatest contributor to major morbidity and mortality following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD); however, their infrequent occurrence has hindered deeper analysis. This study sought to develop a predictive algorithm, which could facilitate effective management of this challenging complication.
Data were accrued from 4301 PDs worldwide. Demographics, postoperative management, and microbiological characteristics of grade C POPFs were evaluated. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) preoperative and intraoperative variables were compared between grade C POPFs and a 639-case sample of non-grade C POPFs. Risk factors for grade C POPF formation were identified using regression analysis.
Grade C POPFs developed in 79 patients (1.8 %). Deaths (90 days) occurred in 2.0 % (N = 88) of the overall series, with 35 % (N = 25) occurring in the presence of a grade C POPF. Reoperations occurred 72.2 % of the time. The rates of single- and multi-system organ failure were 28.2 and 39.7 %, respectively. Mortality rates escalated with pulmonary, renal, and neurologic organ failure, but they were unaffected by reoperation(s). The median number of complications incurred was four (IQR: 2-5), and the median duration of hospital stay was 32 (IQR: 21-54) days. Warning signs for impending grade C POPFs most often presented on postoperative day (POD) 6. Adjuvant chemotherapy might have benefited 55.7 % of grade C POPF patients, yet it was delayed in 25.6 % and never delivered in 67.4 % of these patients. Predictive models for grade C POPF occurrence based on preoperative factors alone and preoperative and intraoperative factors yielded areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.84 (both P < 0.000001), respectively.
This global study represents the largest analysis of grade C POPFs following PD. It describes the severe burden that grade C POPFs incur on patients, with high rates of reoperation and infection, while also potentially worsening overall survival by causing death and delay/omission of adjuvant therapy. Additionally, aggressive clinical management for these POPFs did not improve or worsen 90-day mortality. Predictive tools developed through these data may provide value in managing this difficult complication.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11605-015-2884-2 · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma examination is an invaluable tool in the initial assessment of any injured patient. Although highly sensitive and accurate for identifying hemoperitoneum, occasional false negative results do occur in select scenarios. We present a previously unreported case of survival following blunt cardiac rupture with associated negative pericardial window due to a concurrent pericardial wall laceration.
A healthy 46-year-old white woman presented to our level 1 trauma center with hemodynamic instability following a motor vehicle collision. Although her abdominal Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma windows were positive for fluid, her pericardial window was negative. After immediate transfer to the operating room in the setting of persistent instability, a subsequent thoracotomy identified a blunt cardiac rupture that was draining into the ipsilateral pleural space via an adjacent tear in the pericardium. The cardiac injury was controlled with digital pressure, resuscitation completed, and then repaired using standard cardiorrhaphy techniques. Following repair of her injuries (left ventricle, left atrial appendage, and liver), her postoperative course was uneventful.
Evaluation of the pericardial space using Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma is an important component in the initial assessment of the severely injured patient. Even in cases of blunt mechanisms however, clinicians must be wary of occasional false negative pericardial ultrasound evaluations secondary to a concomitant pericardial laceration and subsequent decompression of hemorrhage from the cardiac rupture into the ipsilateral pleural space.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 07/2015; 9(2015):155. DOI:10.1186/s13256-015-0640-6
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether the reported clinical presentation of tension pneumothorax differs between patients who are breathing unassisted versus receiving assisted ventilation. Background: Animal studies suggest that the pathophysiology and physical signs of tension pneumothorax differ by subject ventilatory status. Methods: We searched electronic databases through to October 15, 2013 for observational studies and case reports/series reporting clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax. Two physicians independently extracted clinical manifestations reported at diagnosis. Results: We identified 5 cohort studies (n = 310 patients) and 156 case series/reports of 183 cases of tension pneumothorax (n = 86 breathing unassisted, n = 97 receiving assisted ventilation). Hypoxia was reported among 43 (50.0%) cases of tension pneumothorax who were breathing unassisted versus 89 (91.8%) receiving assisted ventilation (P < 0.001). Pulmonary dysfunction progressed to respiratory arrest in 9.3% of cases breathing unassisted. As compared to cases who were breathing unassisted, the adjusted odds of hypotension and cardiac arrest were 12.6 (95% confidence interval, 5.8–27.5) and 17.7 (95% confidence interval, 4.0–78.4) times higher among cases receiving assisted ventilation. One cohort study reported that none of the patients with tension pneumothorax who were breathing unassisted versus 39.6% of those receiving assisted ventilation presented without an arterial pulse. In contrast to cases breathing unassisted, the majority (70.4%) of those receiving assisted ventilation who experienced hypotension or cardiac arrest developed these signs within minutes of clinical presentation. Discussion: The reported clinical presentation of tension pneumothorax depends on the ventilatory status of the patient. This may have implications for improving the diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening disorder.
Annals of Surgery 07/2015; 261(6):1068–1078. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001073 · 8.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute penetrating injuries to the head and neck cause considerable anxiety for most clin icians owing to concern for airway control and neurologic injury and to limited clin ician experience in most centres. This article discusses an organized approach to the evaluation and initial treatment of penetrating injuries to the head and neck based on regional anatomy and clinical examination. The approach is particularly helpful in the context of ongoing hemorrhage and/or airway compromise.
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 06/2015; 58(3):012814-12814. DOI:10.1503/cjs.012814 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bleeding to death is the most preventable cause of posttraumatic death worldwide. Despite the fact that many of these deaths are anatomically salvageable with relatively basic surgical interventions, they remain lethal in actuality in prehospital environments when no facilities and skills exist to contemplate undertaking basic damage control surgery (DCS). With better attention to prehospital control of extremity hemorrhage, intracavitary bleeding (especially intraperitoneal) remains beyond the scope of prehospital providers. However, recent revolutions in the informatics and techniques of telementoring (TMT), DCS and highly realistic accelerated training of motivated first responders suggests that basic lifesaving DCS may have applicability to save bleeding patients in austere environments previously considered unsalvageable. Especially with informatic advances, any provider with Internet connectivity can potentially be supported by highly proficient specialists with content expertise in the index problem. This unprecedented TMT support may allow highly motivated but inexperienced personnel to provide advanced surgical interventions in extreme environments in many austere locations both on and above the planet.
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 06/2015; 58(3):S88-90. DOI:10.1503/cjs.014214 · 1.51 Impact Factor