Jiye Cai

Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao, Macau, Macao

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Publications (103)216.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A novel electrochemical cytosensor was developed for the fast and high-sensitivity recognition of drug-resistant leukemia K562/ADM cells based on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression level on a cell membrane. The nanocomposite interface of the gold nanoparticles/polyaniline nanofibers (AuNPs/PANI-NF) was chosen to design the biosensor for electrochemical detection. Au/PANI-NF-based cytosensors coated with anti-P-glycoprotein (anti-P-gp) molecules could provide a biomimetic interface for the immunosensing of cell surface P-glycoprotein, and thus could capture the over-expression P-gp cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the gold nanoparticles were uniformly anchored along the structure of the PANI-NF surface, displaying fibrillar morphology with a diameter of ∼70 nm, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) further presented the morphology of the nanocomposite film. Owing to the high affinity of anti-P-gp for leukemia K562/ADM cells of the propounded sensing platform, the proposed biosensor exhibited excellent analytical performance for leukemia K562/ADM cells, ranging from 1.6 × 10(2) to 1.6 × 10(6) cells per mL with a detection limit of 80 cells per mL. Recovery experiments indicated that the sensitivity reported here is suitable for practical application. The cell surface P-gp expression level was analysed by flow cytometric experiments, which confirmed the above recognized result. This strategy is also a cost-effective and convenient operation, implying great promise for the sensitive recognition of cancer cells and cell surface receptors; thus, it is helpful in cancer diagnosis.
    The Analyst. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome c (cyt c) and caspase-9 were critical biomarkers in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. A novel electrochemical immunosensor was developed for in situ analysis of cyt c and caspase-9 in the cytosol. Gold nanoparticle-polydopamine (AuNP/PDA) composites were used to fabricate the interface of the sensor. The anti-cyt c or anti-caspase-9 functionalized-immunosensor provided a biomimetic interface for immunosensing of cyt c or caspase-9 in Hela cells during apoptosis. The changes in the expression level of cyt c and caspase-9 in the cytosol upon curcumin-induced apoptosis were detected by using the proposed method, and also the influence of different concentrations and incubation times of curcumin-induced Hela cells was investigated. This method achieved a linear range (0.1-100 μM) for standard cyt c and caspase-9, with a detection limit of 0.03 ± 0.01 μM for standard cyt c and 0.08 ± 0.02 μM for standard caspase-9. Moreover, this method was used to detect cells which could detect as low as 100 cells which expressed cyt c and caspase-9, and also the results are in good agreement with standard flow cytometry analysis. The developed electrochemical immunosensor offered a simple and rapid approach for sensitive evaluation of apoptosis markers with considerable specificity and reproducibility, and also the developed strategy could be of great importance in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic research.
    The Analyst 03/2014; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the most important proangiogenic factor; in particular, VEGF165 plays a critical role in angiogenesis. Here, we evaluated whether gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could inhibit the VEGF165-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and tube formation. AuNPs and VEGF165 were coincubated overnight at 4°C, after which the effects on cell migration and tube formation were assessed. Cell migration was assessed using a modified wound-healing assay and a transwell chamber assay; tube formation was assessed using a capillary-like tube formation assay and a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. We additionally detected the cell surface morphology and ultrastructure using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, Akt phosphorylation downstream of VEGFR-2/PI3K in HUVECs was determined in a Western blot analysis. Our study demonstrated that AuNPs significantly inhibited VEGF165-induced HUVEC migration and tube formation by affecting the cell surface ultrastructure, cytoskeleton and might have inhibited angiogenesis via the Akt pathway.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:418624. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle aggregates induced by synergistic effect of electrostatic interaction and hydrogen-bonding recognition between melamine and 3-mercaptopriopionic acid (MA), which conjugated on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used for detection of melamine. MA molecules are conjugated on AuNP surfaces to form MA-modified AuNPs (MA-AuNPs), acting as nanoprobes in the detection of melamine. Since such nanoparticle aggregates-mediated signal amplification can be measured by absorption spectroscopy, the method enables sensitive and real-time detection of melamine at the detection limit as low as 0.4 μg/ml, and the linear detection ranging from 0.6 μg/ml to 42 μg/ml. The color change can be readily seen by the naked eye at 30 μg/ml melamine without the aid of any advanced instruments. This method has been successfully applied to detect melamine in infant formula with good reproducibility, and it has the potential of being used in food safety detection.
    Journal of Food Engineering. 01/2014; 142:163–169.
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    ABSTRACT: A label-free and aggregation-based gold nanorods (AuNRs) probe has been developed for the detection of Pb2+ in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Pb2+ ions induce assembly mediated signal enhancement of cysteine-functionalized AuNRs. Cysteine (Cys) molecules are conjugated on AuNR surfaces to form cysteine-modified AuNRs (Cys-AuNRs), acting as nanoprobes in the detection of Pb2+. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy data reveal the formation of controlled side-by-side assembly of the AuNRs in the presence of Pb2+. The formation of aggregation of AuNRs significantly enhances detection signals, leading to dramatic decrease in the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. The experiment conditions, including AuNRs aspect ratio, reaction time, pH value and salt concentration, are optimized. The Cys-AuNRs probe is highly sensitive (LOD = 0.1 nM) and selective toward Pb2+ ions, with a liner detection range from 0.1 nM to 1.0 nM. This system only becomes less sensitive when other metal ion is present at a very high concentration (i.e., >0.5 μM). The cost-effective nanoprobes allow rapid and simple determination of the concentration of Pb2+ ions in city tap water samples, with results showing its practicality for the detection of lead in real samples.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 01/2014; 196:252–259. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters through efflux of antineoplastic agents from cancer cells is a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy. The inhibition of these ABC transporters is thus a logical approach to circumvent MDR. There has been intensive research effort to design and develop novel inhibitors for the ABC transporters to achieve this goal. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of UMMS-4 to modulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1)-, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)- and multidrug resistance protein (MRP1/ABCC1)-mediated MDR in cancer cells. Our findings showed that UMMS-4, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, apparently circumvents resistance to ABCB1 substrate anticancer drugs in ABCB1-overexpressing cells. When used at a concentration of 20 μmol/L, UMMS-4 produced a 17.53-fold reversal of MDR, but showed no effect on the sensitivity of drug-sensitive parental cells. UMMS-4, however, did not significantly alter the sensitivity of non-ABCB1 substrates in all cells and was unable to reverse ABCG2- and ABCC1-mediated MDR. Additionally, UMMS-4 profoundly inhibited the transport of rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) and doxorubicin (Dox) by the ABCB1 transporter. Furthermore, UMMS-4 did not alter the expression of ABCB1 at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the results of ATPase assays showed that UMMS-4 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1. Taken together, we conclude that UMMS-4 antagonizes ABCB1-mediated MDR in cancer cells through direct inhibition of the drug efflux function of ABCB1. These findings may be useful for the development of safer and more effective MDR modulator.
    American Journal of Cancer Research 01/2014; 4(2):148-60. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, LPS activated RAW264.7 cells are widely used as an in vitro inflammatory model for the screen of effective anti-inflammation drugs and the investigation of exact anti-inflammation mechanism of these drugs. But up to now, there are few data about the effect of LPS on the morphology, especially on the membrane ultrastructure and bio-mechanical properties of RAW264.7 macrophages. In this work, the topographical and biophysical changes of RAW264.7 macrophages upon LPS stimulation are detected by high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM results suggested that LPS activated RAW264.7 macrophages changed to be much bigger than control cells with some holes emerged on cell surface. The size of membrane protein clusters and the roughness of membrane significantly increased after LPS exposure. In addition, the AFM force measurement results demonstrated that LPS stimulation increased the adhesion force of RAW264.7 macrophages, and also increased the stiffness of RAW264.7 macrophages, which were attributed to the re-distribution of intracellular F-actin structures induced by LPS. These findings suggested that LPS stimulation could also induce the pathophysiological changes of RAW264.7 macrophages, which would benefit our understanding of the inflammatory processes in macrophages upon pathogen stimulation at nano-scale.
    Micron 01/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and facile electrochemical biosensor has been developed for monitoring the protein nitration damage affected by the nitro free radicals(NO2). The NO2 radicals is generated from hemin-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite (NO(-)2) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this work, nanocomposite films of graphene-gold nanoparticles (EG-AuNPs) were modified on the glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then further assembled on EG-AuNPs film through Au-S bond. The damage of BSA molecule was caused by the NO2 radicals which was generated from the NaNO2/hemin/H2O2 nitration reagent. The differential pulse voltammetry was used to detect the damage of BSA molecule. Fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism spectrum further confirmed the nitration damage of BSA. Moreover, the lowest concentration at which the BSA damage was detected is 28.9µM NO(-)2 or H2O2, and the volume ratio of NO(-)2 and H2O2 was 1:1 in the hemin/NO(-)2/H2O2 nitration reagent. The results demonstrated that the proposed electrochemical method can be used to detect protein damage affected by nitration reagent. The developed electrochemical biosensor is envisioned to have promising applications in protein damage studies.
    Biosensors & bioelectronics 11/2013; 54C:628-633. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) have been served as promising materials for biomedical applications, especially for cancer treatment. The anti-cancer effects of Se NPs against cancer cells have been widely studied in recent years, but whether Se NPs can induce the changes of cell membrane bio-mechanical properties in cancer cells still remain unexplored. In this Letter, we prepared Se NPs for investigating the intracellular localization of Se NPs in MCF-7 cells and determined the effects of Se NPs on apoptosis and necrosis in MCF-7 cells. Especially, we reported for the first time about the effects of Se NPs on the bio-mechanical properties of cancer cells and found that Se NPs could remarkably decrease the adhesion force and Young's modulus of MCF-7 cells. To further understand the potential mechanisms about how Se NPs affect the bio-mechanical properties of MCF-7 cells, we also investigated the expression of CD44 molecules, the structure and the amounts of F-actin. The results indicated that the decreased adhesion force between AFM tip and cell membrane was partially due to the changes of membrane molecules induced by Se NPs, such as the down-regulation of trans-membrane CD44 molecules. Additionally, the decrease of Young's modulus of MCF-7 cells was due to the dis-organization and down-regulation of F-actin induced by Se NPs. These results collectively suggested that cell membrane was of vital importance in Se NPs induced toxicity in cancer cells, which could be served as a potential target for cancer treatment by Se NPs.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 10/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibition of the binding between VEGFs and their receptors reduces angiogenesis and retards tumor growth. Owing to the large amount of antibodies required, the antibody-based anti-angiogenic drug remains limited. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) displayed excellent biocompatibility, low toxicity and anti-angiogenic effect, but the mechanism of anti-angiogenesis was unknown. Here, the antitumor effects of a well-dispersed AuNPs, specifically regarding its influence on VEGF signaling, were examined mechanistically. The effects of AuNPs on the interaction of VEGF with its receptor, VEGFR2 were observed using near-field scanning optical microscopy/quantum dot (NSOM/QD) imaging. We found AuNPs can reduce VEGF165-induced VEGFR2 and AKT phosphorylation. Furthermore, the antitumor effects of AuNPs were determined using xenograft and ascites model. AuNPs inhibited VEGF165-VEGFR2 interaction and suppressed the formation of nanodomains of VEGFR2 on the HUVEC. As determined by CD34 immunhistochemistry, AuNPs reduced angiogenesis in a liver tumor nude mice model, as observed by a decreased microvascular density in liver tumor sections and reduced the tumor weight and volume. In addition, AuNPs inhibited ascites formation in mice. Taken together, this study provides new insights into nanomaterial-based antitumor drug development.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 10/2013; 9(10):1746-56. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simple and sensitive determination of chromium (III) ions (Cr(3+)) has potential applications for detecting trace contamination in environment. Here, the assay is based on the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) by Cr(3+)-induced aggregation of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy were employed to characterize the nanostructures and spectroscopic properties of the Cr(3+)-AuNP system. The experiment conditions, such as reaction time, pH value, salt concentration and interfering ions, were investigated. The combination of signal amplification of Cr(3+)-citrate chelation with high sensitivity of RRS technique allow a selective assay of Cr(3+) ions with a detection limit of up to 1.0pM. The overall assay can be carried out at room temperature within only twenty minutes, making it suitable for high-throughput routine applications in environment and food samples.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 09/2013; 118C:776-781. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organogermanium(IV) (Ge) is considered to play an important role in the anti-oxidative activities of some Chinese medicines. Here, a new chrysin-organogermanium (Chry-Ge) complex was synthesized and investigated for its potential biological activities. The radicals-sensitive Ge-O bond was introduced to Chry-Ge complex to enhance bioactivities of organic Ge or Chry. Results showed that Chry-Ge complex possessed great anti-oxidative activities, showing stronger hydroxyl scavenging effects than their corresponding ligands. We also demonstrated Chry-Ge complex inhibited ROS-dependent oxidative damage in cells. Moreover, the morphological and biophysical recoveries in oxidation-damaged cells induced by Chry-Ge complex were characterized by atomic force microscopy. All these results collectively suggested that Chry-Ge complex has synergetic effect for radicals scavenging and could be served as promising pharmacologically active agent against anti-oxidative treatment.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 08/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A versatile and facile strategy for detecting the inhibitory action of curcumin on cancer cells has been developed by using specific recognition between folic acid conjugated-gold nanorods (F-AuNRs) and folate receptor on cell surface based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of gold nanorods(AuNRs). F-AuNRs probe was used to detect cancer cells with a detection limit down to 10 cells/mL, and could replace traditional organic dyes better. Combined MTT, flow cytometry, fluorescence images and high-resolution AFM images further confirmed the feasibility of spectroscopy methods. This approach can be used as a simple, rapid and sensitive tool to study the inhibitory action of drugs on cancer cells.
    Analytical methods 06/2013; · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid, easy assay for monitoring dynamics of T-cell activation should help to guide potential medical evaluation of immune responses or immunopathogenesis. Here, we report development of novel electrochemical cytosensors for dynamic analyses of T-cell activation markers on living cells. Gold nanoparticles-doped polyaniline nanofiber (Au/PANI-NFs) composite was greenly prepared by in situ one-step chemical inertness of PANI-NFs with gold nanoparticles to fabricate impedance-based electrochemical biosensors. Transmission electron micrographs indicated that the gold nanoparticles were uniformly anchored along with the structure of PANI-NF surface, displaying fibrillar morphology with a ∼60nm diameter. Au/PANI-NFs-based cytosensors coated with anti-CD Ab molecules could provide biomimetic interface for multiple immunosensing of T-cell surface activation markers (CD69, CD25, and CD71). The dual signal amplification of Au nanoparticle and PANI-NFs-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements enabled the cytosensors considerably sensitive, with a detection limit of 1×10(4) cells/ml of activated T-cells. The activation-targeted cytosensors detected early, middle and late stages for expression of activation markers CD69, CD25, and CD71 at 8h, 24h, and 36h, respectively, after concanvalin A stimulation of T cells. The quantitative results consisted with those derived from flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, activation-targeted cytosensor allowed for dynamic analysis of the immune inhibition of T-cell activation by immune regulatory drug icariin (ICA). Thus, Au/PANI-NFs-based cytosensors offer simple and fast approach for non-destructive, quantitative evaluation of T-cell activation markers, with considerable specificity, reproducibility, and low background noise.
    Biosensors & bioelectronics 05/2013; 50C:167-173. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wnt/β-catenin signaling (WNT) has widespread roles during stem cell differentiation. Whether WNT suppresses or promotes insulin-producing cell (IPC) differentiation and function is still not known. In this study, we investigated the role of WNT signaling during human adipose-derived stem cell (hADSC) differentiation into IPCs. Western blot analysis revealed that several key components of WNT were dynamically regulated in a 12-day IPC differentiation assay. Specifically, protein levels of Wnt1, β-catenin, and GSK3β steadily increased from day 0 to day 9 and rapidly decreased by day 12 of differentiation. Similarly, endonuclear β-catenin levels peaked at day 9 and then, fell to pre-differentiation levels. The expression of two WNT pathway targets, TCF-1 and cyclin D1, closely followed the same pattern of regulation, confirming that WNT signaling was transiently activated during IPC differentiation. Interestingly, the inhibition of WNT signaling did not block IPC differentiation; instead, it resulted in the upregulation of IPC-specific markers, including PDX-1, insulin, IRS-1, and IRS-2. Notably, another IPC marker, glucokinase, remained downregulated since it is a direct target of WNT signaling. Next, we examined the effect of maintaining active WNT signaling from day 9 to day 12 of IPC differentiation. Differentiating cells were treated with Wnt1 on day 9, when WNT signaling is typically turned off, and subjected to gene expression analysis on day 12. Remarkably, Wnt1 treatment resulted in reduced expression of IPC-specific markers. Taken together, these data indicate that WNT may not be necessary for IPC differentiation but may be involved in IPC maturation.
    Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie 04/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transplantation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) provides a novel mode for insulin replacement, but is often accompanied by many undesirable side effects. Our previous studies suggested that IPCs could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells. To obtain a better method through which to acquire more similar IPCs, we compared the difference between IPCs of the GLP-1 group and IPCs of the non-GLP-1 group in the morphological features in cellular level and physiological function. The levels of insulin secretion were measured by ELISA. The insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mRNA gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The morphological features were detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM)and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM). Intracellular Ca(2+) levels and Glucagon-like peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) levels were determined by flow cytometer (FCM).We found that IPCs of the GLP-1group had bigger membrane particle size and average roughness (Ra) than IPCs of the non-GLP-1 group but still smaller than normal human pancreatic beta cells. The physiology function of IPCs of the GLP-1 group were much closer to normal human pancreatic beta cells than IPCs of the non-GLP-1 group. GLP-1 could improve the similarity of insulin-producing cells from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and pancreatic beta cells in cellular ultrastructure and function. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to probe the intrinsic mechanism of chondroid cell dedifferentiation in order to provide a feasible solution for this in cell culture. METHODS: Morphological and biomechanical properties of cells undergoing chondrogenic differentiation from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were measured at the nanometer scale using atomic force microscopy and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The expression of COL II, SOX9, and Aggrecan mRNA began to increase gradually at the beginning of differentiation and reach a peak similar to that of normal chondrocytes on the 12th day, then dropped to the level of the 6th day at 18th day. Cell topography and mechanics trended resembled those of the genes' expression. Integrin beta1 was expressed in ADSCs and rapidly upregulated during differentiation but downregulated after reaching maturity. CONCLUSIONS: The amount and distribution of integrin beta1 may play a critical role in mediating both chondroid cell maturity and dedifferentiation. Integrin beta1 is a possible new marker and target for phenotypic maintenance in chondroid cells.
    Nanoscale Research Letters 03/2013; 8(1):136. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of lymphatic cells is associated with changes in morphology, ultrastructure and adhesion force. We have investigated the activation efficiency of Staphylococcus aureus (SAC) on B-cell chronic lymphatic leukaemia (B-CLL) cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and found changes in the above properties. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AFM clearly showed that the volume and nuclear-cytoplasm ratio of cells increased significantly with activated time. It also showed that pseudopodia and immunological synapses began to appear at 24 h. In the activation process, nano-structures of the cell surface became aggregated, and adhesion increased. In conclusion, the results indicate a close relationship between membrane reconstruction and multiplication process of B-CLL cells.
    Cell Biology International 01/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antitumor immunotherapies, as a prospective approach for local cancer treatment, are attracting increasing interests. To detect the reacting course of immune and tumor cells, we have observed the process of K562 cells (a human erythroleukemic cell line) coculturing with peripheral lymphocytes, and the morphological and ultrastructural alterations of K562 cells and lymphocytes were investigated as well using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM morphological imaging revealed that after coculture the apoptosis-like structures such as blebbing, pores, and apoptotic bodies were observed on the K562 cells. Also, the cell-surface roughness decreased significantly, which implied the changes in chemical composition of cell membranes. Moreover, the lymphocytes were damaged to some extent induced by the coculture. The data demonstrated that K562 cells could be attacked and induced apoptosis by lymphocytes, and they would make damages to lymphocytes to escape the surveillance of immune system. SCANNING 35:7-11, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Scanning 01/2013; 35(1):7-11. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the difference between insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and normal human pancreatic beta cells both in physiological function and morphological features in cellular level. The levels of insulin secretion were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The insulin gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The morphological features were detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy. IPCs and normal human pancreatic beta cells were similar to each other under the observation in AFM with the porous structure features in the cytoplasm. Both number of membrane particle size and average roughness of normal human beta cells were higher than those of IPCs. Our results firstly revealed that the cellular ultrastructure of IPCs was closer to that of normal human pancreatic beta cells, but they still could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells.
    Nanoscale Research Letters 01/2013; 8(1):90. · 2.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

410 Citations
216.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Macau University of Science and Technology
      Macao, Macau, Macao
  • 2004–2014
    • Jinan University (Guangzhou, China)
      • College of Science and Engineering
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2013
    • Guangdong Medical College
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2005–2013
    • University of Jinan (Jinan, China)
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2012
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Guangzhou, Guangdong Sheng, China
  • 2011–2012
    • Nanchang University
      Nan-ch’ang-shih, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 2005–2008
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology (Chicago)
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2007
    • South China Normal University
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
    • Guangzhou University
      Peping, Beijing, China