Sinil Kim

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States

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Publications (25)329.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib, a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, showed antitumor activity as a single agent against several solid tumor types in Phase II and III trials. This study was conducted to evaluate axitinib pharmacokinetics across a variety of solid tumors.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 10/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous phase 2 trial, axitinib was active and well tolerated in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. In this second phase 2 trial, the efficacy and safety of axitinib were evaluated further in this population, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships and patient-reported outcomes were assessed.
    Cancer 05/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy and safety of axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3 in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin was evaluated in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall, 170 patients were randomly assigned to receive axitinib at a starting dose of 5-mg twice daily continuously plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 of up to six 21-day cycles (arm I); axitinib on days 2 through 19 of each cycle plus pemetrexed/cisplatin (arm II); or pemetrexed/cisplatin alone (arm III). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Median PFS was 8.0, 7.9, and 7.1 months in arms I, II, and III, respectively (hazard ratio: arms I vs. III, 0.89 [P = 0.36] and arms II vs. III, 1.02 [P = 0.54]). Median overall survival was 17.0 months (arm I), 14.7 months (arm II), and 15.9 months (arm III). Objective response rates (ORRs) for axitinib-containing arms were 45.5% (arm I) and 39.7% (arm II) compared with 26.3% for pemetrexed/cisplatin alone (arm III). Gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue were frequently reported across all treatment arms. The most common all-causality grade >=3 adverse events were hypertension in axitinib-containing arms (20% and 17%, arms I and II, respectively) and fatigue with pemetrexed/cisplatin alone (16%). Axitinib in combination with pemetrexed/cisplatin was generally well tolerated. Axitinib combinations resulted in non-significant differences in PFS and numerically higher ORR compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00768755 (October 7, 2008).
    BMC Cancer 04/2014; 14(1):290. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway frequently induce hypertension when used to treat patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This analysis characterizes hypertension and hypertension-related events in patients treated with the VEGF pathway inhibitors axitinib or sorafenib in the AXIS trial. AXIS was a randomized phase III study of axitinib versus sorafenib in patients with metastatic RCC following failure of one prior systemic regimen. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were excluded, but patients with hypertension controlled with antihypertensive medication were allowed to participate. Guidelines for hypertension management included adjustment or addition of antihypertensive medications and/or axitinib or sorafenib dose reductions, interruptions, or discontinuations. Treatment-emergent all-causality hypertension occurred in 145 (40.4 %) axitinib-treated patients (N = 359) and 103 (29.0 %) sorafenib-treated patients (N = 355), with grade 3 hypertension reported in 55 (15.3 %) and 38 (10.7 %) patients, respectively, and grade 4 hypertension reported in one (0.3 %) patient in each arm. Hypertension-related events led to axitinib dose interruptions (n = 46; 12.8 %), dose reductions (n = 16; 4.5 %), or discontinuations (n = 1; 0.3 %). Approximately 50 % of axitinib-treated patients with grade 3 or 4 hypertension continued treatment for ≥ 9 months. Hypertension-related sequelae occurred in <1 % of axitinib-treated patients. Hypertension was more frequently observed during treatment with axitinib than sorafenib in patients with RCC, but axitinib-induced hypertension rarely led to treatment discontinuation or cardiovascular sequelae. Recommendations for monitoring blood pressure and managing hypertension during axitinib therapy are presented.
    Targeted Oncology 03/2014; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, shows activity in multiple tumor types, including those refractory to previous antiangiogenic therapy. This randomized, multicenter, parallel-group, open-label phase II trial compared axitinib with bevacizumab each in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (FOLFIRI) for second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients were randomized 1:1 to axitinib 5 mg twice daily or bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus modified FOLFOX-6 (if previously treated with irinotecan) or FOLFIRI (if previously treated with oxaliplatin) and were stratified by performance status and prior bevacizumab therapy. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival. In 171 patients, progression-free survival was 7.6 months with axitinib/FOLFOX vs. 6.4 months with bevacizumab/FOLFOX (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.96; 1-sided P = .55) and 5.7 months with axitinib/FOLFIRI vs. 6.9 months with bevacizumab/FOLFIRI (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.77-2.11; 1-sided P = .83). Overall survival was 17.1 vs. 14.1 months with axitinib/FOLFOX and bevacizumab/FOLFOX (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.37-1.27; 1-sided P = .12) and 12.9 vs. 15.7 months with axitinib/FOLFIRI and bevacizumab/FOLFIRI (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.82-2.24; 1-sided P = .88). More grade ≥ 3 adverse events (eg, diarrhea, fatigue, decreased appetite) and treatment discontinuations due to adverse events occurred with axitinib. Compared with bevacizumab, axitinib did not improve outcomes when added to second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. With current dosing regimens, axitinib plus FOLFOX or FOLFIRI seems to be less well tolerated than bevacizumab-based regimens.
    Clinical Colorectal Cancer 12/2013; 12(4):239-47. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In previous clinical trials of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma, patients treated with axitinib as second-line therapy had longer median progression-free survival than those treated with sorafenib. We therefore undertook a phase 3 trial comparing axitinib with sorafenib in patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, patients with treatment-naive, measurable, clear-cell metastatic renal-cell carcinoma from 13 countries were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and then randomly assigned (2:1) by a centralised registration system to receive axitinib 5 mg twice daily, or sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed by masked independent review committee in the intention-to-treat population. This ongoing trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00920816. Between June 14, 2010, and April 21, 2011, we randomly assigned 192 patients to receive axitinib, and 96 patients to receive sorafenib. The cutoff date for this analysis was July 27, 2012, when 171 (59%) of 288 patients died or had disease progression, as assessed by the independent review committee. There was no significant difference in median progression-free survival between patients treated with axitinib or sorafenib (10·1 months [95% CI 7·2-12·1] vs 6·5 months [4·7-8·3], respectively; stratified hazard ratio 0·77, 95% CI 0·56-1·05). Any-grade adverse events that were more common (≥10% difference) with axitinib than with sorafenib were diarrhoea (94 [50%] of 189 patients vs 38 [40%] of 96 patients), hypertension (92 [49%] vs 28 [29%]), weight decrease (69 [37%] vs 23 [24%]), decreased appetite (54 [29%] vs 18 [19%]), dysphonia (44 [23%] vs ten [10%]), hypothyroidism (39 [21%] vs seven [7%]), and upper abdominal pain (31 [16%] vs six [6%]); those more common with sorafenib than with axitinib included palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (PPE; 37 [39%] of 96 patients vs 50 [26%] of 189), rash (19 [20%] vs 18 [10%]), alopecia (18 [19%] vs eight [4%]), and erythema (18 [19%] vs five [3%]). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in patients treated with axitinib included hypertension (26 [14%] of 189 patients), diarrhoea (17 [9%]), asthenia (16 [8%]), weight decrease (16 [8%]), and PPE (14 [7%]); common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in patients treated with sorafenib included PPE (15 [16%] of 96 patients), diarrhoea (five [5%]), and asthenia (five [5%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 64 (34%) of 189 patients receiving axitinib, and 24 (25%) of 96 patients receiving sorafenib. Axitinib did not significantly increase progression-free survival in patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma compared with those treated with sorafenib, but did demonstrate clinical activity and an acceptable safety profile. Pfizer Inc.
    The Lancet Oncology 10/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Population pharmacokinetic data suggest axitinib plasma exposure correlates with efficacy in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Axitinib dose titration might optimise exposure and improve outcomes. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of axitinib dose titration in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. In this randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 49 hospitals and outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Russia, Spain, and USA. Patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a 4 week lead-in period. Those patients with blood pressure 150/90 mm Hg or lower, no grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxic effects, no dose reductions, and no more than two antihypertensive drugs for 2 consecutive weeks were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1), and then randomly assigned (1:1) to either masked titration with axitinib to total twice daily doses of 7 mg, and then 10 mg, if tolerated, or placebo titration. Patients who did not meet these criteria continued without titration. The primary objective was comparison of the proportion of patients achieving an objective response between randomised groups. Safety analyses were based on all patients who received at least one dose of axitinib. This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00835978. Between Sept 2, 2009, and Feb 28, 2011, we enrolled 213 patients, of whom 112 were randomly assigned to either the axitinib titration group (56 patients) or the placebo titration group (56 patients). 91 were not eligible for titration, and ten withdrew during the lead-in period. 30 patients (54%, 95% CI 40-67) in the axitinib titration group had an objective response, as did 19 patients (34%, 22-48]) in the placebo titration group (one-sided p=0·019). 54 (59%, 95% CI 49-70) of non-randomised patients achieved an objective response. Common grade 3 or worse, all-causality adverse events in treated patients were hypertension (ten [18%] of 56 in the axitinib titration group vs five [9%] of 56 in the placebo titration group vs 45 [49%] of 91 in the non-randomised group), diarrhoea (seven [13%] vs two [4%] vs eight [9%]), and decreased weight (four [7%] vs three [5%] vs six [7%]). One or more all-causality serious adverse events were reported in 15 (27%) patients in the axitinib titration group, 13 (23%) patients in the placebo titration group, and 35 (38%) non-randomised patients. The most common serious adverse events in all 213 patients were disease progression and dehydration (eight each [4%]), and diarrhoea, vomiting, pneumonia, and decreased appetite (four each [2%]). The greater proportion of patients in the axitinib titration group achieving an objective response supports the concept of individual axitinib dose titration in selected patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Axitinib shows clinical activity with a manageable safety profile in treatment-naive patients with this disease. Pfizer Inc.
    The Lancet Oncology 10/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Axitinib is a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3. The efficacy and safety of axitinib in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma were evaluated. METHODS: A subgroup analysis was conducted in Japanese patients enrolled in the randomized Phase III trial of axitinib versus sorafenib after failure of one prior systemic therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. RESULTS: Twenty-five (of 361) and 29 (of 362) patients randomized to the axitinib and sorafenib arms, respectively, were Japanese and included in this analysis. Median progression-free survival in Japanese patients was 12.1 months (95% confidence interval 8.6 to not estimable) for axitinib and 4.9 months (95% confidence interval 2.8-6.6) for sorafenib (hazard ratio 0.390; 95% confidence interval 0.130-1.173; stratified one-sided P = 0.0401). The objective response rate was 52.0% for axitinib and 3.4% for sorafenib (P = 0.0001). The common all-causality adverse events (all grades) in Japanese patients were dysphonia (68%), hypertension (64%), hand-foot syndrome (64%) and diarrhea (56%) for axitinib, and hand-foot syndrome (86%), hypertension (62%) and diarrhea (52%) for sorafenib. The safety profiles of axitinib and sorafenib in Japanese patients were generally similar to those observed in the overall population, with the exceptions of higher incidences of hypertension, dysphonia, hand-foot syndrome, hypothyroidism and stomatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Axitinib is efficacious and well tolerated in Japanese patients with previously treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma, consistent with the results in the overall population, providing a new targeted therapy for these Japanese patients.
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 2 trial, the authors evaluated the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor axitinib, bevacizumab, or both in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: Patients with previously untreated mCRC were randomized 1:1:1 to receive continuous axitinib 5 mg twice daily, bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks, or axitinib 5 mg twice daily plus bevacizumab 2 mg/kg every 2 weeks, each in combination with modified 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-6). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: In all, 126 patients were enrolled from August 2007 to September 2008. The ORR was numerically inferior in the axitinib arm (n = 42) versus the bevacizumab arm (n = 43; 28.6% vs 48.8%; 1-sided P = .97). Progression-free survival (PFS) (11.0 months vs 15.9 months; 1-sided P = .57) and overall survival (OS) (18.1 months vs 21.6 months; 1-sided P = .69) also were numerically inferior in the axitinib arm. Similarly, efficacy endpoints for the axitinib/bevacizumab arm (n = 41) were numerically inferior (ORR, 39%; PFS, 12.5 months; OS, 19.7 months). The patients who received axitinib had fewer treatment cycles compared with other arms. Common all-grade adverse events across all 3 treatment arms were fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea (all ≥49%). Hypertension and headache were more frequent in the patients who received axitinib. Patients in the bevacizumab arm had the longest treatment exposures and the highest rates of peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the addition of continuous axitinib nor the axitinib/bevacizumab combination to FOLFOX-6 improved ORR, PFS, or OS compared with bevacizumab as first-line treatment of mCRC. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In a phase 3 trial comparing the efficacy and safety of axitinib versus sorafenib as second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, patients given axitinib had a longer progression-free survival (PFS). Here, we report overall survival and updated efficacy, quality of life, and safety results. METHODS: Eligible patients had clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma, progressive disease after one approved systemic treatment, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 0-1. 723 patients were stratified by ECOG PS and previous treatment and randomly allocated (1:1) to receive axitinib (5 mg twice daily; n=361) or sorafenib (400 mg twice daily; n=362). The primary endpoint was PFS assessed by a masked, independent radiology review committee. We assessed patient-reported outcomes using validated questionnaires. Baseline characteristics and development of hypertension on treatment were studied as prognostic factors. Efficacy was assessed in the intention-to-treat population, and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This ongoing trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00678392. FINDINGS: Median overall survival was 20·1 months (95% CI 16·7-23·4) with axitinib and 19·2 months (17·5-22·3) with sorafenib (hazard ratio [HR] 0·969, 95% CI 0·800-1·174; one-sided p=0·3744). Median investigator-assessed PFS was 8·3 months (95% CI 6·7-9·2) with axitinib and 5·7 months (4·7-6·5) with sorafenib (HR 0·656, 95% CI 0·552-0·779; one-sided p<0·0001). Patient-reported outcomes scores were similar in the treatment groups at baseline, were maintained during treatment, but decreased at end-of-treatment. Common grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (60 [17%]), diarrhoea (40 [11%]), and fatigue (37 [10%]) in 359 axitinib-treated patients and hand-foot syndrome (61 [17%]), hypertension (43 [12%]), and diarrhoea (27 [8%]) in 355 sorafenib-treated patients. In a post-hoc 12-week landmark analysis, median overall survival was longer in patients with a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or greater than in those with a diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg: 20·7 months (95% CI 18·4-24·6) versus 12·9 months (10·1-20·4) in the axitinib group (p=0·0116), and 20·2 months (17·1-32·0) versus 14·8 months (12·0-17·7) in the sorafenib group (one-sided p=0·0020). INTERPRETATION: Although overall survival, a secondary endpoint for the study, did not differ between the two groups, investigator-assessed PFS remained longer in the axitinib group compared with the sorafenib group. These results establish axitinib as a second-line treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. FUNDING: Pfizer Inc.
    The Lancet Oncology 04/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, approved for second-line therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Axitinib population pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships were evaluated. Using nonlinear mixed effects modeling with pooled data from 383 healthy volunteers, 181 patients with metastatic RCC, and 26 patients with other solid tumors in 17 trials, the disposition of axitinib was best described by a 2-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time, with estimated mean systemic clearance (CL) of 14.6 L/h and central volume of distribution (Vc ) of 47.3 L. Of 12 covariates tested, age over 60 years and Japanese ethnicity were associated with decreased CL, whereas Vc increased with body weight. However, the magnitude of predicted changes in exposure based on these covariates does not warrant dose adjustments. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression analyses showed that higher exposure and diastolic blood pressure were independently associated with longer progression-free and overall survivals and higher probability of partial response in metastatic RCC patients. These findings support axitinib dose titration to increase plasma exposure in patients who tolerate axitinib, and also demonstrate diastolic blood pressure as a potential marker of efficacy.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In a phase II study of axitinib for cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma, median overall survival (OS) was 29.9 months (95% CI, 20.3 to not estimable months). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Long-term survival data were collected retrospectively from 52 patients with cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received axitinib in a completed phase II study (protocol 1), 11 of whom enrolled in a continuing access protocol (protocol 2), for the current observational study (protocol 3). In a post hoc analysis, the patients were grouped into quartiles based on cycle 1 day 1, 1- to 2-hour post-dose axitinib plasma levels to explore the impact of drug exposure on efficacy. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate was 20.6% (95% CI, 10.9%-32.4%), with a median follow-up of 5.9 years. Frequent all-grade adverse events were fatigue (n = 38; 73.1%), diarrhea (n = 34; 65.4%), hypertension (n = 33; 63.5%), and nausea (n = 33; 63.5%). Quartile 3 patients (axitinib level, 45.2-56.4 ng/mL; n = 12) had the best clinical outcome: objective response rate 82%, median progression-free survival (PFS) 28.3 months, and median OS that was not reached after 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Axitinib was well tolerated and provided an estimated 5-year survival rate of 20.6% for cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Exploratory analyses showed numerically higher objective response rate and longer OS and PFS in patients who achieved post-first-dose axitinib plasma concentrations within a specific range.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 02/2013; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This multicenter, open-label, phase II study evaluated the safety and clinical activity of axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-1, 2, and 3, in patients with metastatic melanoma. Thirty-two patients with a maximum of one prior systemic therapy received axitinib at a starting dose of 5 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. Objective response rate was 18.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.2-36.4], comprising one complete and five partial responses with a median response duration of 5.9 months (95% CI, 5.0-17.0). Stable disease at 16 weeks was noted in six patients (18.8%), with an overall clinical benefit rate of 37.5%. Six-month progression-free survival rate was 33.9%, 1-year overall survival rate was 28.1%, and median overall survival was 6.6 months (95% CI, 5.2-9.0). The most frequently (>15%) reported nonhematologic, treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, hypertension, hoarseness, and diarrhea. Treatment-related fatal bowel perforation, a known class effect, occurred in one patient. Axitinib selectively decreased plasma concentrations of soluble VEGFR (sVEGFR)-2 and sVEGFR-3 compared with soluble stem cell factor receptor (sKIT). No significant association was noted between plasma levels of axitinib and response. However, post hoc analyses indicated potential relationships between efficacy endpoints and diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher as well as baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. Axitinib was well tolerated, showed a selective VEGFR-inhibitory profile, and showed single-agent activity in metastatic melanoma. Further evaluations of axitinib, alone and combined with chemotherapy, are ongoing.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2011; 17(23):7462-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma has been revolutionised by targeted therapy with drugs that block angiogenesis. So far, no phase 3 randomised trials comparing the effectiveness of one targeted agent against another have been reported. We did a randomised phase 3 study comparing axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, with sorafenib, an approved VEGF receptor inhibitor, as second-line therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. We included patients coming from 175 sites (hospitals and outpatient clinics) in 22 countries aged 18 years or older with confirmed renal clear-cell carcinoma who progressed despite first-line therapy containing sunitinib, bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa, temsirolimus, or cytokines. Patients were stratified according to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and type of previous treatment and then randomly assigned (1:1) to either axitinib (5 mg twice daily) or sorafenib (400 mg twice daily). Axitinib dose increases to 7 mg and then to 10 mg, twice daily, were allowed for those patients without hypertension or adverse reactions above grade 2. Participants were not masked to study treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) and was assessed by a masked, independent radiology review and analysed by intention to treat. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00678392. A total of 723 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive axitinib (n=361) or sorafenib (n=362). The median PFS was 6·7 months with axitinib compared to 4·7 months with sorafenib (hazard ratio 0·665; 95% CI 0·544-0·812; one-sided p<0·0001). Treatment was discontinued because of toxic effects in 14 (4%) of 359 patients treated with axitinib and 29 (8%) of 355 patients treated with sorafenib. The most common adverse events were diarrhoea, hypertension, and fatigue in the axitinib arm, and diarrhoea, palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia, and alopecia in the sorafenib arm. Axitinib resulted in significantly longer PFS compared with sorafenib. Axitinib is a treatment option for second-line therapy of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Pfizer Inc.
    The Lancet 11/2011; 378(9807):1931-9. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase II study assessed safety and efficacy of axitinib plus docetaxel in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Women with MBC were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive docetaxel 80 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks plus axitinib 5 mg twice per day (combination arm) or placebo (placebo arm), following a lead-in phase I trial. The primary end point was time to progression (TTP). In all, 168 patients were enrolled; 112 were randomly assigned to axitinib and 56 to placebo. Median TTP was numerically longer in the combination arm than in the placebo arm (8.1 v 7.1 months), but this difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.87; one-sided P = .156). The difference in median TTP was greatest among patients who had received prior adjuvant chemotherapy (9.2 v 7.0 months; P = .043, prespecified subgroup analysis). Objective response rate was higher in the combination arm (41.1% v 23.6%; P = .011). The most common grades 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events (combination/placebo) included diarrhea (10.8%/0%), fatigue (10.8%/5.4%), stomatitis (12.6%/1.8%), mucositis (9.0%/0%), asthenia (7.2%/0%), and hypertension (4.5%/0%). Three patients in the combination arm experienced serious thromboembolic events (one death). Febrile neutropenia was more frequent in the combination arm (15.3% v 7.1%); rates of other hematologic toxicities were comparable. Increased toxicity with axitinib was generally managed by dose reduction and/or growth factor support. The addition of axitinib to docetaxel did not improve TTP in first-line MBC treatment. Combination therapy may be more effective in patients previously exposed to adjuvant chemotherapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2011; 29(18):2459-65. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib (AG-013736), an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1, 2, and 3, is under investigation for treatment of various solid tumors. The safety and pharmacokinetics of axitinib in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer was evaluated in the phase I portion of this trial. The randomized phase II portion was reported separately. Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who had received no prior chemotherapy were eligible for this study. Pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were obtained on cycle (C) 1 day (D) 1 (gemcitabine alone 1,000 mg/m(2)), C1D14 (steady state, axitinib alone 5 mg twice daily [BID]), and C1D15 (gemcitabine plus steady-state axitinib). Adverse events were monitored weekly at the clinic. Eight patients participated in the phase IB portion of the trial. Patients received gemcitabine on D1, D8, and D15 and continuous axitinib in a 28 day-cycle beginning C1D3. There was no dose-limiting toxicity. Common treatment-related adverse events included fatigue, diarrhea, dysphonia, and hypertension. Myelosuppression was similar to gemcitabine monotherapy. No apparent major pharmacokinetic interactions between gemcitabine and axitinib were observed. Of six patients evaluable for efficacy, three had confirmed partial responses. Axitinib (5 mg BID) and gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)) were well tolerated when administered together, without any pharmacokinetic interactions, and showed encouraging antitumor activity.
    Investigational New Drugs 06/2011; 30(4):1531-9. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate if diastolic blood pressure (dBP) ≥90 mm Hg during axitinib treatment is a marker of efficacy. The relationship between dBP ≥90 mm Hg and efficacy was retrospectively explored across 5 phase II studies of single-agent axitinib for the treatment of 4 different tumor types. All patients had baseline BP ≤140/90 mm Hg and were stratified into 2 groups based on in-clinic BP measurements after initiating therapy: those with dBP <90 mm Hg throughout therapy and those with at least 1 dBP ≥90 mm Hg. Median overall survival (mOS), median progression-free survival (mPFS), objective response rate (ORR), and adverse events were evaluated by dBP group in individual and pooled analyses. Two-hundred thirty patients were evaluated. Patients with dBP ≥90 mm Hg had a significantly lower relative risk of death than those with dBP <90 mm Hg [adjusted HR (95% CI) = 0.55 (0.39, 0.77); P < 0.001]. The relative risk of progression was also lower in patients with dBP ≥90 mm Hg [HR (95% CI) = 0.76 (0.54, 1.06), P = 0.107], and ORR was significantly higher (43.9% vs. 12.0%; P < 0.001). In an 8-week landmark analysis, mOS (25.8 vs. 14.9 months) and mPFS (10.2 vs. 7.1 months) were greater for patients in the ≥90 mm Hg group. Adverse events were similar between groups. Axitinib efficacy correlated with dBP ≥90 mm Hg. Further investigation of dBP as a predictive biomarker of efficacy in patients receiving axitinib is warranted.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(11):3841-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the study was to determine the relationship of baseline Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Kidney Cancer Symptom Index (FKSI) scores with median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) after treatment with axitinib in patients with sorafenib-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma. As part of a multicenter, open-label, phase II study, patients (N = 62) reported symptoms at baseline using the FKSI, with higher scores indicating less severe symptoms. A Weibull (fully parametric) model was fit to time-to-event data to establish the relationship of baseline FKSI score with mPFS and mOS. Kaplan-Meier curves were obtained as sensitivity analyses. Longer progression-free and overall survivals were associated with higher (more favorable) baseline FKSI-15 and FKSI disease-related symptoms (FKSI-DRS) subscale specific to kidney cancer scores. For example, for FKSI-15 scores of 0 (most symptoms), 30, and 60 (no symptoms), the mPFS were 0.72, 3.83, and 20.43 months, respectively, and the mOS were 1.05, 6.27, and 37.53 months. Similar patterns and interpretations were observed for the FKSI-DRS scores. The results from the Kaplan-Meier analyses supported the parametric model. Baseline patient-reported kidney cancer symptoms are linked to mPFS and mOS in a clear and interpretable way. These results support the evaluation of patient-reported symptoms at baseline in clinical trials and in clinical practice to measure symptom severity and potentially predict progression-free and overall survival outcomes. The results provide a heightened opportunity to use patient data not only to assist in medical treatment planning but also to prepare patients, who have advanced disease and an already reduced expected lifespan, with an opportunity to deal with the psychosocial aspects of the dying process.
    Journal of Cancer Survivorship 04/2011; 5(3):255-62. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axitinib is a potent, selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1, 2, and 3. A randomised phase 2 trial of gemcitabine with or without axitinib in advanced pancreatic cancer suggested increased overall survival in axitinib-treated patients. On the basis of these results, we aimed to assess the effect of treatment with gemcitabine plus axitinib on overall survival in a phase 3 trial. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, eligible patients had metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, no uncontrolled hypertension or venous thrombosis, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1. Patients, stratified by disease extent (metastatic vs locally advanced), were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days plus either axitinib or placebo. Axitinib or placebo were administered orally with food at a starting dose of 5 mg twice a day, which could be dose-titrated up to 10 mg twice daily if well tolerated. A centralised randomisation procedure was used to assign patients to each treatment group, with randomised permuted blocks within strata. Patients, investigators, and the trial sponsor were masked to treatment assignments. The primary endpoint was overall survival. All efficacy analyses were done in all patients assigned to treatment groups for whom data were available; safety and treatment administration and compliance assessments were based on treatment received. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00471146. Between July 27, 2007, and Oct 31, 2008, 632 patients were enrolled and assigned to treatment groups (316 axitinib, 316 placebo). At an interim analysis in January, 2009, the independent data monitoring committee concluded that the futility boundary had been crossed. Median overall survival was 8·5 months (95% CI 6·9-9·5) for gemcitabine plus axitinib (n=314, data missing for two patients) and 8·3 months (6·9-10·3) for gemcitabine plus placebo (n=316; hazard ratio 1·014, 95% CI 0·786-1·309; one-sided p=0·5436). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events for gemcitabine plus axitinib and gemcitabine plus placebo were hypertension (20 [7%] and 5 [2%] events, respectively), abdominal pain (20 [7%] and 17 [6%]), fatigue (27 [9%] and 21 [7%]), and anorexia (19 [6%] and 11 [4%]). The addition of axitinib to gemcitabine does not improve overall survival in advanced pancreatic cancer. These results add to increasing evidence that targeting of VEGF signalling is an ineffective strategy in this disease. Pfizer.
    The Lancet Oncology 02/2011; 12(3):256-62. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This phase II study evaluated efficacy and safety of single-agent axitinib, an oral, potent, selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) -1, -2, and -3, in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This was an open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase II study with a Simon two-stage minimax design. Patients received a starting dose of axitinib 5 mg orally BID. The primary end point was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) -defined objective response rate. Secondary end points included safety and tolerability, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Thirty-two patients were enrolled, with a median age of 66.5 years. The majority of patients (75%) had adenocarcinoma. Nine patients (28%) had received no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, and 23 (72%) had received > or = one regimen. Three patients (9%) had a RECIST investigator-assessed, confirmed partial response (PR); disease control rate (PR + stable disease) was 41%. Median PFS was 4.9 months overall (95% CI, 3.6 to 7.0 months). Median OS was 14.8 months (95% CI, 10.7 months to not estimable) overall and 14.8 months (95% CI, 12.5 months to not estimable) in patients receiving first-line axitinib. One-year survival rates for patients with or without prior therapy for metastatic disease were 57% and 78%, respectively. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events in > or = 5% of patients comprised fatigue (22%), hypertension (9%), and hyponatremia (9%). Axitinib demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with advanced NSCLC. Therapy was well tolerated with manageable toxicities. Further investigation of this VEGFR inhibitor in NSCLC is of interest.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2009; 27(23):3836-41. · 18.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
329.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • University of California, Irvine
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Pfizer Inc.
      New York City, New York, United States