D Hollinghurst

University of Oxford, Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (8)15.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Femoroacetabular Junction Impingement (FAI) describes abnormalities in the shape of the femoral head-neck junction, or abnormalities in the orientation of the acetabulum. In the short term, FAI can give rise to pain and disability, and in the long-term it significantly increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis. The Femoroacetabular Impingement Trial (FAIT) aims to determine whether operative or non-operative intervention is more effective at improving symptoms and preventing the development and progression of osteoarthritis. FAIT is a multicentre superiority parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial comparing physiotherapy and activity modification with arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of symptomatic FAI. Patients aged 18 to 60 with clinical and radiological evidence of FAI are eligible. Principal exclusion criteria include previous surgery to the index hip, established osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence ≥ 2), hip dysplasia (centre-edge angle < 20°), and completion of a physiotherapy programme targeting FAI within the previous 12 months. Recruitment will take place over 24 months and 120 patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio and followed up for three years. The two primary outcome measures are change in hip outcome score eight months post-randomisation (approximately six-months post-intervention initiation) and change in radiographic minimum joint space width 38 months post-randomisation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01893034. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:321-7. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
    Bone & joint research. 11/2014; 3(11):321-327.
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal in vivo Total Knee Replacement (TKR) kinetics is influenced by a range of factors, particularly by changes to the knee's geometric parameters such as the patellar tendon moment arm (PTMA). In this study, ground reaction force (GRF) measurements were combined with simultaneous fluoroscopic image measurements to investigate the relationship between abnormal TKR kinetics and geometric parameters. Nine Scorpio Cruciate Retaining (CR) TKR (Stryker, Newbury, UK), nine Scorpio Posterior Stabilized (PS) TKR and seven normal subjects performed a step-up activity on a forceplate in view of a fluoroscope. The TKR subjects were part of a larger ongoing randomised controlled trial. The maximum external knee flexion moment was 22.0% lower in the Scorpio PS group compared to the Scorpio CR group. No significant differences in PTMA were found between the groups. The Scorpio PS had a low-riding patella, with a 30.7% reduction in patellar height compared to the Scorpio CR. This was probably due to using a thick tibial insert after PCL release in the PS, and led to an 8° increase in patellar flexion angle which altered the patellar mechanism and reduced quadriceps' mechanical advantage. Consequently, PS subjects stepped-up more cautiously with a reduced knee flexion moment.
    The Knee 10/2011; 19(4):299-305. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single femoral radius TKRs have been reported to improve quadriceps' mechanical advantage, leading to enhanced patient function. An increased patellar tendon moment arm (PTMA) has been cited as the main feature leading to improved quadriceps' mechanical advantage. However, these designs often incorporate a recessed trochlea which alters the patellar mechanism and may contribute to improved quadriceps' mechanical advantage. This study simultaneously measured the PTMA using two and three dimensional methods, as well as quadriceps forces (QF), patellofemoral kinematics and tibiofemoral kinematics in a motion analysis laboratory during an open chain leg extension activity. Six cadaveric knees were tested in the normal state and after implantation of three different single femoral radius TKR designs: cruciate retaining, posterior stabilised and rotating platform posterior stabilised (Stryker, Newbury, UK). QFs in the TKRs were between 15% and 20% lower than normal between 60° and 70° flexion. The increase in PTMA was insufficient to explain the reduced QF in the TKRs. The patellar flexion angle (PFA) of the TKRs was lower than normal at knee flexion angles greater than 50°, probably as a result of the recessed trochlea. A simple patellar model demonstrated that the reduced PFA may explain a large proportion of the reduction in QF after single radius TKR.
    The Knee 10/2011; 19(5):564-70. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate preoperative assessment of the patellofemoral joint is especially important in compartment specific knee arthritis. This study aims to show the actual intraoperative grade of patellofemoral cartilage damage that may be reliably detected or excluded by preoperative standard radiographic views. 100 consecutive knees awaiting arthroplasty underwent preoperative lateral and skyline radiographs and were scored using the Ahlback score. Intraoperative cartilage damage was assessed using the Collins score. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each grade of cartilage damage. Preoperative anterior knee pain and function were assessed and correlated to the degree of cartilage damage. The lateral radiograph shows poor sensitivity for all grades of disease (0.05-0.23). The skyline shows good sensitivity for grade 4 (large full thickness) damage (0.90) but decreases substantially for grades 1-3 (0.19-0.46). Significantly more people with skyline radiograph joint space narrowing complained of anterior knee pain than those with a normal radiograph (p<0.001). There was only a poor correlation between preoperative anterior pain and intraoperative patellofemoral cartilage damage (r=0.24). The lateral radiograph cannot exclude even large areas of full thickness cartilage damage whereas a normal skyline radiograph can reliably exclude significant (grade 4) patellofemoral disease and should be used in addition to the lateral view.
    The Knee 11/2009; 18(1):21-3. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patellofemoral joint degeneration is often considered a contraindication to medial unicompartmental knee replacement. We examined the validity of this preconception using information gathered prospectively on the intra-operative status of the patellofemoral joint in 824 knees in 793 consecutive patients who underwent Oxford unicondylar knee replacement for anteromedial osteoarthritis. All operations were performed between January 1998 and September 2005. A five-point grading system classified degeneration of the patellofemoral joint from none to full-thickness cartilage loss. A subclassification of the presence or absence of any full-thickness cartilage loss was subsequently performed to test selected hypotheses. Outcome was evaluated independently by physiotherapists using the Oxford and the American Knee Society Scores with a minimum follow-up of one year. Full-thickness cartilage loss on the trochlear surface was observed in 100 of 785 knees (13%), on the medial facet of the patella in 69 of 782 knees (9%) and on the lateral facet in 29 of 784 knees (4%). Full-thickness cartilage loss at any location was seen in 128 knees (16%) and did not produce a significantly worse outcome than those with a normal or near-normal joint surface. The severity of the degeneration at any of the intra-articular locations also had no influence on outcome. We concluded that, provided there is not bone loss and grooving of the lateral facet, damage to the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint to the extent of full-thickness cartilage loss is not a contraindication to the Oxford mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee replacement.
    Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume 01/2008; 89(12):1597-601. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis can be treated with patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA). In contrast to total knee arthroplasty, the effect of PFA on knee joint kinematics is not known. A study was performed to identify the kinematic changes after PFA. The sagittal plane kinematics was examined in 12 patients who had undergone Avon PFA. An established fluoroscopic method was used to examine the patellar tendon angle (PTA)/knee flexion relationship during functional activities. No significant difference existed between the kinematics of PFA knees compared with normal, except for a uniform elevation in PTA throughout the range. This increase in PTA in the PFA joint represents a 1.6-mm anterior displacement of the patella. The kinematic profile after PFA is close to normal and suggests that the knee is exhibiting more normal loading characteristics than those of the total knee arthroplasty joint.
    The Journal of Arthroplasty 02/2007; 22(1):117-23. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of failure for unicompartmental arthroplasty are poorly understood. There is some suggestion that long term ligament degeneration, particularly of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), may affect long term survivorship. This study evaluated whether the cruciate mechanism remained functional in the long term (10 years) following UKA. Two separate cohorts of patients who had undergone St Georg Sled medial compartmental arthroplasty had knee kinematics assessed using an established fluoroscopic technique. One group (early) was assessed at a mean of 46 months (3.8 years) since surgery, whilst the other (late) was assessed at a mean of 125 months (10.4) following surgery. No significant difference was found in the sagittal plane kinematics between the two groups or in comparison to the control normal knee. The results suggest that after fixed bearing UKA the cruciate mechanism remains intact over time and the ligaments continue to function similarly to those of the normal knee.
    The Knee 01/2007; 13(6):440-4. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal sagittal kinematics after total knee replacement (TKR) can adversely affect functional outcome. Two important determinants of knee kinematics are component geometry and the presence or absence of a posterior-stabilising mechanism (cam-post). We investigated the influence of these variables by comparing the kinematics of a TKR with a polyradial femur with a single radius design, both with and without a cam-post mechanism. We assessed 55 patients, subdivided into four groups, who had undergone a TKR one year earlier by using an established fluoroscopy protocol in order to examine their kinematics in vivo. The kinematic profile was obtained by measuring the patellar tendon angle through the functional knee flexion range (0 degrees to 90 degrees ) and the results compared with 14 normal knees. All designs of TKR had abnormal sagittal kinematics compared with the normal knee. There was a significant (p < 0.05) difference between those of the two TKRs near to full extension. The presence of the cam-post mechanism did not influence the kinematics for either TKR design. These differences suggest that surface geometry is a stronger determinant of kinematics than the presence or absence of a cam-post mechanism for these two designs. This may be because the cam-post mechanism is ineffective.
    Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume 08/2005; 87(7):940-5. · 2.69 Impact Factor